An unusual method of growing carrots in the garden through seedlings
He first lit a cigarette in 1942, as a 16-year-old boy, and 45 years later, serious lung problems appeared. In 1987, while undergoing treatment, with the help of a magician, he quit smoking for good. On his advice, I began to eat a tablespoon of raw fine grated daily carrotsseasoned with vegetable oil. The lung problems have dissipated.
Many years later, I learned that in Kyoto (Japan), information about 3.8 million people (their habits, what they drink and eat) were entered into a computer, and after 17 years the results were summed up. 60% more people who smoked died than nonsmokers, and those who ate carrots and yellow-green vegetables survived by 30% more than those who did not eat them. I decided to provide my family with my carrots.
How many carrots do you need? My family now consists of two people and consumes about 150 g of carrots a day for medical and prophylactic purposes and for cooking. It turns out that the annual consumption of this root crop is about 55 kilograms. Scientists in various calculations take the average yield of carrots equal to 3 kg / m². To get the amount of carrots I need with the traditional cultivation technology, it is necessary to sow them on an area of 18.25 m². Where can I get so much free land if I have a whole garden with aisles between the ridges equal to 117.5 m²?
I thought about it and developed my own, still experimental technology. Allocated for this experiment 0.8 m² on a garden of 2.5 m², next to parsley and coriander. In the fall, I dug 9.7 kg of bright orange root crops from this area. I was satisfied with the result, but not with myself. I noticed the shortcomings. This season I will continue the experience.
Features of the new technology
Journalist Vladimir Mashenkov during a radio walk around Neskuchny Sad to the host's question: "Why do the Chinese have high yields?" answered like this: "They tailor technology to the plants, not the other way around."... This is what I have been doing since I got 6 acres in gardening. The basis of my technology for growing potatoes and vegetables, including carrots, is: crop rotation, manual labor and the seedling method with planting plants at equal distances from each other in all directions, over the entire area of the garden.
Such a landing with enviable accuracy is ensured by marking the holes with a marker made according to the scheme: two similar equilateral triangles with a common apex. A "tooth" is fixed at each vertex. Planting carrot seedlings according to the equilateral triangle scheme provides the most efficient use of the entire area of the garden, reduces the competition between carrot plants for feeding area, eliminates such laborious operations as repeated thinning, pulling, loosening and weeding. At the same time, uniform illumination of the plants is achieved, and when the tops are closed, the soil surface is shaded, weeds do not grow, a soil crust does not form, moisture is saved.
Choosing a variety of carrots
Variety selection is the most important link in the successful cultivation of vegetables, including carrots. Using catalogs, various agricultural literature, I studied the seed assortment and opted for the Vitamin-6 carrot variety. The variety is resistant to flowering. The period from germination to harvesting is 80-100 days. The root crop has a regular cylindrical shape with a steep slope to the tail, bright orange color (a sign of high carotene content), length 15-17 cm, weight 100-160 grams. The variety is intended for fresh consumption and winter storage.
When buying seeds, I pay special attention to the package. It should be branded and meaningful - have a description of the properties of the variety and a brief agricultural technique. Due to the fact that I use precise, spot seeding, I buy only pelleted seeds.
In the store I bought a package with just such seeds. He had a color photograph of a root crop, all the necessary information and 500 dragees in a rigid transparent shell. Such a shell protects the dragee from technical damage. By the season of this year, I bought other varieties: Nantes without a core, Losinoostrovskaya-13 and the Queen of Autumn. In all dragee sachets in a gel shell. The special composition of the dragee creates ideal conditions for seed germination.
Carrots in a crop rotation
For carrots, my predecessor crop rotation schedule is potatoes. After harvesting it, the soil in the beds remains loose to a depth of 25-30 cm, which ensures excellent formation of root crops even of large varieties of carrots, and this gives a yield.
Potatoes and carrots do not have common diseases and pests, perhaps, except for the wireworm, but in my crop rotation its number is so insignificant that even on potatoes I do not find traces of this pest. Of the seven ridges allotted in the crop rotation for green crops and root crops, I single out one for carrots in the coming season, but located in the sunniest place. The carrots themselves will serve as the precursor for the beans.
Growing carrot seedlings
I sow seeds in late April - early May, immediately after arriving at the site. In a box, in a loose moist soil mixture, I spread the dragee seeds with tweezers to a depth of 2 cm according to a 3x3 cm scheme. I water it depending on the type of dragee, taking into account the recommendations on the package.
As soon as the first shoots appeared, I reduce the intensity of watering and transfer the box with seedlings to a sunny place in the garden. I hide him from "uninvited guests". When the third leaf appears, I do the first liquid top dressing. The fourth leaf has formed - I am preparing the seedlings for picking. Before that, I spill the soil mixture in the box abundantly so that the root ball does not crumble during excavation and picking.
Garden bed preparation
I start to cook it immediately after sowing the pills in the box, or even earlier. The soil in the beds ripens quickly. I loosen with a pitchfork to a depth of 25-30 cm, without wrapping the layer. Given the high planting density (300 plants per 2.5 m²), I apply an increased rate of fertilizers: I pour three buckets of last year's compost mixed with rotted manure onto the garden bed. I level the piles with a rake.
I measure out 12 tablespoons of the mineral fertilizer Kemir-universal 2 into a convenient container and evenly scatter it over the entire surface of the garden with a teaspoon. With regular watering, this complex fertilizer dissolves evenly throughout the growing season. Carrots love soil with a neutral reaction, pH 6.5-7.0. For deoxidation, I sprinkle 2 liters of sifted ash evenly over the entire bed. With fine loosening and a rake, I embed all the fertilizers into the soil to a depth of 5-15 cm.
It begins immediately, as soon as the preparation of the beds is finished. I do everything to provoke the rapid germination of weed seeds, up to watering with warm water, pink from potassium permanganate, and covering the ridge with spunbond. After a week, the bed will begin to actively turn green. I'm not in a hurry with weeding. But on the day when the fourth leaf is formed in the box near the carrot seedlings, early in the morning, when the sun does not bake, I take a garden fork and a bucket and proceed to manual weeding. After 35-45 minutes, not a single blade of grass remains in the garden along with the roots. To whom manual weeding is difficult, use a device such as "Swift", flat cutter, hand rotary cultivator, etc. Towards evening, when the heat subsides, I start marking holes and planting seedlings.
Acting in this way in my crop rotation annually, I reduce the stock of weed seeds in the beds to a minimum, and labor costs are more than repaid compared to the thinning, pulling, loosening and weeding characteristic of traditional technologies.
It is preceded by the choice of the marker caliber. Repeatedly measured the diameters of rosettes of leaves of mature carrot plants. Results: 9-10 cm. Last season I took it equal to 10 cm. Accordingly, the caliber of the marker (the size of the sides of the triangles) chose 10 cm. Then, according to the principle of "trail in trail" I mark holes throughout the area of the garden.
I will continue my experiments this season. I will plant half of the beds according to the 10 cm scheme, the other according to the 9 cm scheme. The planting density will accordingly be 106.4 plants / m2 and 134.4 plants / m2. A total of 301 plants will be planted on a 2.5 m2 garden. The best planting scheme will be determined in the fall by the yield and the average weight of the root crop.
Picking carrot seedlings
I observe the following rules: I start work when the sun decreases. I check the soil moisture of the bed by pressing the planting peg in two or three places. If the walls of the formed hole do not collapse, then the soil is sufficiently moist. If necessary, I expand and deepen the marked hole with a peg so that the root with a lump will fit in it. The planting depth is such as not to cover the foliage growth point with soil. I loosen the soil around the seedlings in a box with a peg. I take one plant out of the box with my fingers by the leaves. For the stem you can’t! Planting it in the hole, I point the spine vertically down with a peg. I firmly fix the plant in the hole, pressing the soil around the stem with a peg.
Sowing carrots with seeds
If you purchased a packet of carrot seeds with gel pills, I believe that you can sow seeds in the garden. You just need to make the prongs of the marker without sharpening and no more than 1.5-2 cm long. The hole will be shallow, and its bottom will be dense. Before sowing, two-time weeding of the beds is needed.
Protecting carrots from pests
To protect against leaf flies, carrot flies and any other pests, the technology provides for covering plants with a spunbond, draped over U-shaped low (20-25 cm) arcs. The wind resistance of the shelter is ensured as follows: I tuck the edges of the film around the entire perimeter of the garden under the boards from the vegetable boxes and press them between the soil and the formwork. The size of the spanbond panel for a garden bed is 2.5 m2, taking into account the height of the arches and the growth of plants, I cut 3.5x2m. Covering with spunbond provides not only 100% protection from insects, but also significantly improves the microclimate in the garden, and this accelerates the ripening of carrots and increases the yield! You can, of course, do without installing arcs. Plants are able to lift light spanbond to their height.
Carrot planting care
It consists in liquid fertilizing and irrigation, taking into account the rainfall and the actual moisture content of the soil. In the first half of the growing season (the period from germination to the beginning of the formation of root crops), feeding is done more often, and the concentration of fertilizer solutions is lower. In the second half of the growing season, I do feeding less often, but I double the concentration of the solution. I use Kemira Lux water-soluble fertilizer for top dressing.
I do the first, as already noted above, when the third leaf appears in the seedling box of the plants. Dissolve 20 g of powder in 20 liters of water. I water from a teapot in a thin stream in the aisle, this requires about 2 liters of top dressing. The second time I do it on the day of planting seedlings in the garden. The third feeding is in 7-10 days. In the next 1-2 dressings, the concentration of the solution is 20 g of powder per 10 liters of water per garden bed with the addition of 1 liter of filtered ash extract to this liquid.
Let me explain why I am doing this: Finnish agrochemists have established that a double excess of potassium over nitrogen in fertilizer has a positive effect on the safety of root crops in winter. We have developed a new water-soluble fertilizer Kemira Plus. But I could not find it in our stores. I had to use a folk remedy. Furnace ash contains a high percentage of highly soluble potassium.
I prepare an ash extract as follows: I pour two glasses of sifted ash into a small container per liter of boiling water. After 24 hours, through the filter, I add the resulting extract to a bucket with Kemir Lux solution. I pour the ash into the compost. For fertilizing watering, I fold back the spunbond. Conventional watering is by sprinkling on a bed covered with spunbond.
Harvesting and storing carrots
On September 4, loosening the soil, he carefully took out the root crops, removed the stuck soil from them with his hands and rags, cut off the tops and placed them in a plastic trellis container. Then he washed the roots with running water. Weighed it. The average weight of root crops was equal to 112 g. Obvious shortage. The reason for this is early cleaning. Before leaving for the city, I laid everything for cooling under the house. After the bulkhead, dry clean root crops were divided into two parts. I put one small one in a pot of sand, then into a buried barrel. The rest of the harvest went to the city. My wife preserved some of the carrots, and we put the rest of the root crops in perforated plastic bags in an old refrigerator in a zone with a temperature of + 2-3 ° С. This season, I hope to significantly increase the yield of this vitamin vegetable.
G. Sherman, experienced vegetable grower
Growing onions through seedlings
In the conditions of Belarus, it is possible to grow onion-turnip from seeds (nigella) in one year using the seedling method. On a good agricultural background, this method allows you to get a high-quality marketable bulb weighing 200 g or more by the beginning of August. Growing onions through seedlings rather laborious, however, it allows about 1.5-2 months to accelerate the development of plants, in comparison with direct sowing in the ground, and to facilitate their care due to the use of a limited area for growing seedlings.
The optimal time for sowing onion seeds for seedlings is mid-March, and the age of seedlings for planting in the ground is 50-60 days after sowing.
Onion seedlings are grown in heated greenhouses or, alternatively, on a window in an apartment. The soil for the nursery is used purchased or prepared from turf and humus in a 1: 1 ratio. Do not use soil for growing seedlings that is infected with root rot, or was previously used for growing onions.
Seeds are laid out in a box by hand or sown with a manual seeder to a depth of 1 cm. The approximate seeding rate of seeds is 15-20 g per 1 m2 of area. The seeds are sown in rows, the row spacing is 4-5 cm, the distance in the row is 0.2-0.3 cm. The seeds are sprinkled with slightly compacted soil with humus. Onion seedlings are light-requiring, so in order not to shade the plants, you should not use too deep boxes for growing it (boxes 7-8 cm deep will be optimal).
In order not to blur the rows, a watering can with a fine strainer is used to water the crops. Before the emergence of shoots, the boxes are covered with foil so that the soil in them does not dry out. The temperature regime should be observed: before the emergence of shoots, the temperature is maintained at 18-20 ° C, and after the emergence of shoots, it is reduced to 14-15 ° C during the day and 10-12 ° C at night. Too high a temperature leads to overgrowth of plants, they stretch out strongly, as a result, the seedlings do not tolerate transplanting well and get sick for a long time. Therefore, the greenhouse must be ventilated, and in warm weather, remove the frames. From this period, onion seedlings need good lighting.
Onion seedlings can not be fed if the seeds were sown in fat, fertile soil. If, nevertheless, the state of the plant indicates a lack of nutrients in the substrate, then liquid fertilizing is carried out with complex mineral fertilizers (crystal blue, fertika lux, etc.) at the rate of 10-20 g per 10 liters of water. After feeding, it is good to loosen the row spacings. In order not to damage the surface roots, loosening the soil is carried out carefully and not very deeply (by 2-3 cm). It is required to constantly monitor the moisture content of the soil, avoiding waterlogging or drying out.
A good result is obtained by growing seedlings not in boxes, but in cassettes with cells, small pots or special cubes measuring 4 x 4 cm.In this case, the roots are not damaged during transplantation, the plants take root better, the seedlings develop well and give a better yield.
Hardening of seedlings begins 7-10 before planting - the plants are gradually accustomed to open ground conditions. Planting seedlings in a permanent place is usually carried out in the first decade of May.This is best done in cloudy weather or in the afternoon. Seedlings ready for planting have 3-4 true leaves and a neck thickness of 3-4 mm, it should be strong and stocky. In order for the seedlings to be better extracted, they are watered abundantly a day before planting; watering can be repeated a couple of hours before planting.
The plants are taken out of the box and the leaves are trimmed by one third. If the plants have long bare roots (this is usually the case when the seedlings are grown without pots), they should be trimmed to a third of their length. To improve the survival rate of plants, to prevent the death and drying of the roots, the roots of the seedlings are dipped in a mash made from soil and a small amount of mullein.
When planting onion seedlings in open ground, in no case should the growing point (the top of the false stem) be covered with earth, as this impedes the growth and development of new leaves, and the plant may die.
By the time the plants are planted in the ground, the soil should be moist, loose and have a fine crumbly structure. Seedlings are planted in pre-prepared moist grooves with a depth of 10-12 cm, and when growing seedlings in cubes, grooves are made 15-18 cm deep. It should be borne in mind that after planting, the soil settles slightly.
Seedlings are planted in rows, the distance between the rows is 20-45 cm, between plants 6-10 cm and depends on the size of the bulb of each particular variety. Tape landing is also allowed. After planting, the seedlings must be watered, and to prevent the formation of a soil crust, it is imperative to mulch the soil.
The subsequent care of the plants is the same as when growing onions from a set.
Garden and vegetable garden secrets and tips for growing in joint beds
In our section "garden and vegetable garden secrets and tips" to increase the yield of fruits and vegetables in summer cottages, we will tell you about the compatibility of plants grown in the open field in the beds.
Consider how you can most efficiently use the area, combining planting vegetables with different ripening periods.
Our summer cottage is small, but we want to place on it not only a garden and a vegetable garden, but also leave a place for rest, garden paths with beautiful flower beds, put benches, and make a gazebo by the pond. To make it all fit in a small area, I am constantly looking for ways to make the most efficient use of the area of the site. An excellent heading for summer residents "garden and vegetable garden secrets and advice" helps me with this. Here, competently, they give advice on how to increase yields of fruits and vegetables, but also give good advice for more economical use of space.
So recently I was able to find out about the correct compatibility of plants in the garden in order to grow some of them together in the same garden.
Joint planting of vegetables consists in their different ripening rates, and play an important role in achieving high yields. A garden and a vegetable garden is such an ecosystem where both good neighbors in the beds and enemies completely incompatible with each other can grow nearby. This happens because all plants not only consume moisture and nutrients from the soil, but also release special enzymes into it, which affect neighbors in the garden either favorably or negatively.
Here I will tell you what are the positive aspects and advantages of joint cultivation of compatible types of vegetables in the garden. First of all, this makes it possible to most efficiently use plots of small size, and place plants in common plantings that have different fruit ripening times and requirements for the nutritious area. Thanks to such joint plantings, I now get vegetables from the beds throughout the summer season, and the plants always remain strong and healthy due to the fact that they support and help each other in growth and development.
The secrets of a garden and a vegetable garden for growing on joint plantings make it possible to densely plant each bed with different types of plants, not maintaining the traditional interval between them, the main thing is that they are compatible and not at enmity with each other.
So these sensible secrets and tips allow me to grow carrots and cabbage in the same garden. In this case, I sow carrots in the center of the garden, and plant cabbage seedlings around the edges. By the time the cabbage ripens, the carrots have already been removed from the garden, and while the cabbage ripens, the carrots are freely poured with juice and strength, supported by enzymes secreted by the cabbage into the soil.
Following other tips for the joint cultivation of vegetables in the same garden, I plant a row of cabbage in the center, and plant the edges with beets, which also has a beneficial effect on the yield and maturation of both types of vegetables.
Thus, by planting compatible plants on the same bed, which during the growing season support themselves and their neighbors, I have the opportunity to get high yields of good quality from a small area.
Co-location of cultures
Watercress ripens first, followed by dill and spinach. After collecting these crops, other plants begin to develop very quickly. Savory can be used both fresh and dried. Therefore, it should be removed only as needed. Leftover greens can be easily cut off in the fall for drying.
Interesting results are obtained by joint cultivation on a 1 m wide ridge of radish, spinach, kohlrabi, head and leaf lettuce.
Kohlrabi (6 pieces) should be planted in 3 rows, alternately with head lettuce. Plant 2 rows of spinach between them. Sow 1 row of lettuce on the sides alternately with radishes. This arrangement promotes pest control: lettuce helps kill cruciferous flea beetles. First, the harvest of radish and spinach ripens, after which the head lettuce must be removed. The last to be removed is kohlrabi. Placing various crops according to the proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 7.5 kg of yield from an area of 1 m 2 (see Fig.).
It is quite beneficial to grow marjoram and carrots together, which has a beneficial effect on its growth. With mixed crops, 4 rows of marjoram can be placed on a 1 m wide garden bed, and between them - rows of carrots. Such an arrangement (see fig.) Allows not only to make harvesting of carrots for the winter, but also to dry the marjoram greens.
Growing parsley, broccoli and head lettuce together is equally beneficial. On a ridge 1 m wide, you first need to sow parsley in 3 rows so that 1 row is located in the middle, and the other 2 rows are at a distance of 5 cm from the edge of the garden. In May, broccoli should be sown between the rows of parsley, placing the crops in 2 rows.
It is required to leave a distance of about 45 cm between the plants in the row, and 60 cm between the rows. Then thin out the slightly grown parsley and plant the seedlings of the head lettuce in the row. A distance of about 30 - 45 cm should be left between the seedlings in the row.
The joint cultivation of table beets, cabbage and lettuce is easy to organize according to the following scheme. Plant seedlings of lettuce and lettuce at a distance of 30 cm from each other. As soon as the lettuce seedlings sprout, 20-30-day beet seedlings should be planted in its aisles, leaving the distance between plants in a row of 10-15 cm. After 30-40 days after planting, the lettuce can be removed. During this time, beet plants are able to take root and develop well.
Root crops will reach maturity in September and early October, then they should be harvested.
The joint cultivation of watercress, radish, peas and Brussels sprouts can be organized according to the following scheme. Plant Brussels sprouts in the middle of the garden every 20 cm. Sow several radish and watercress seeds between cabbage seedlings. On the sides of the bed, sow 1 row of peas at a distance of 30 cm from the central row. The first of these crops will ripen the peas, followed by the radish. Watercress is in the shade of Brussels sprouts. The crops of these crops can be harvested as needed.
Co-cultivation of watercress, radish, peas and Brussels sprouts
No less useful is the joint cultivation of carrots and broccoli, which can be organized on a ridge 1 m wide. Sow carrot seeds in 3 rows, 1 row in the center of the ridge, 2 others at a distance of 10 cm from the edge. At the beginning of May, broccoli seedlings should be planted between the rows of carrots with a distance of 50 cm between the rows, and between the plants in a row - 45 cm each. Harvesting of broccoli can be done during the intensive growth of carrots. Carrots are traditionally harvested at the end of September.
The joint cultivation of dill and cucumbers gives good growth of plants with an increase in their yield. The planting scheme is quite simple: the cucumber seedlings must be planted in 2 rows at a distance of 60 cm g from each other.
Sow dill in 3 rows: 1 row - in the middle between cucumbers, 2 others - along the edges of the garden.
A large plot is needed to grow cabbage, tomatoes and celery together. These plants need additional fertilizers, so they must be fed with slurry. Neighborhood with tomatoes is very useful for cabbage - they protect it from the cabbage moth. In small areas, you can grow kohlrabi cabbage in such a neighborhood. If the plot is large, then it is better to plant cauliflower, savoy cabbage, or broccoli.
Good results are obtained by the joint cultivation of crops such as parsnips and lettuce - head or leaf. Why do you need to sow parsnip and lettuce seeds alternately in the nests of the 1st row. As soon as the salad sprouts, it should be thinned out. It is recommended to remove the parsnips after the salad as the roots develop.
Cultivating peas, cucumbers and dill together benefits cucumber seedlings because the peas protect them from the wind. Dill, on the other hand, always grows between crops much better than in simple sowing. Neighborly cultivation of these crops, covering the soil, ensures moisture retention.
The joint cultivation of garlic, strawberries and shallots is beneficial in that the phytoncides of onions and garlic always protect various crops from pests and diseases, favorably affecting their growth and development. With such a neighborhood, the garlic should be planted in 1 row between the strawberry plants, and the onions should be placed in rows between the strawberries.
Vegetable compatibility in the garden
Vegetable plants planted side by side or in joint plantings can be "good" or "bad" neighbors. In the first case, they have a beneficial effect on each other, attract bees for better pollination of "neighbors" and even protect them from pests. In the second case, vegetables are affected by common diseases and oppress each other. It is necessary to follow other rules of the "successful garden".
|Basic vegetable plants||Compatible (good neighbors)||Incompatible (bad neighbors)|
|Legumes||Beets, cabbage, carrots, marigolds, pumpkin, strawberries, corn, tomato, mustard, potatoes||Fennel, garlic, onions, peas|
|Broccoli||Beans, beans, celery, dill, mint, nasturtium, onions, oregano, potatoes, sage, rosemary||Lettuce, tomato, strawberry|
|Eggplant||Peas, tarragon, thyme|
|White cabbage||Beans, beans, tomato, garlic, beets, celery, dill, hyssop, mint, marigolds, nasturtium, onions, potatoes, sage, radishes||Strawberries, tomato, oregano, grapes|
|Brussels sprouts||Beans, beans, celery, dill, hyssop, mint, nasturtium, potatoes, sage||Strawberry|
|Cabbage||Lettuce, bush beans, peas, carrots, spinach||Cucumber, kohlrabi, turnip, spinach, rhubarb, beetroot, curly beans, tomato, zucchini, onion|
|Cauliflower||Beans, beans, celery, dill, hyssop, mint, nasturtium, potatoes, sage||Strawberry, tomato|
|Potatoes||Legumes, cabbage, lettuce, onion, celery, radish, petunia, nasturtium, marigold, corn||Apple tree, pumpkin, tomato|
|Zucchini||Beans, beans, mint, nasturtium, radish, corn, sorrel||Potatoes|
|Kohlrabi||Beets, onions||Beans, peppers, tomato|
|Bulb onions||Beets, cabbage, carrots, lettuce, tomato, potatoes, strawberries, cucumber||Legumes, turnips|
|Leek||Carrots, celery||Legumes, broccoli|
|Carrot||Legumes, sage, onions, peas, radishes, celery||Dill|
|Cucumber||Legumes, dill, broccoli, celery, cabbage, lettuce, radish, beetroot, asparagus, spinach, onion||Sage, tomato, asparagus, zucchini, rhubarb, carrot, turnip, leek|
|Pepper||Basil, carrot, lovage, marjoram, oregano, onion||Fennel, kohlrabi|
|Parsley||Carrots, asparagus, tomato|
|Rhubarb||Beans, cabbage, lettuce, spinach||Peas, turnips, potatoes, cucumbers, carrots, radishes, radishes, beets, tomatoes, onions|
|Radish||Legumes, squash, cauliflower, cucumber, peas, lettuce, pumpkin||Tomato, fennel|
|Turnip||Peas, beans, spinach, tomato, lettuce, celery||Cabbage, cucumber, potatoes, carrots, beets, radishes, rhubarb, onions|
|Celery||Legumes, cabbage, onion, tomato, cucumber||Turnip, spinach, rhubarb, beetroot, radish, radish|
|Beet||Cabbage, beans, peas,||Cucumber, potatoes, turnips, spinach, rhubarb, celery|
|Tomato||Asparagus, sage, basil, carrots, parsley, onions, beans||Dill, potatoes, peas, cucumber|
|Pumpkin||Legumes, mint, nasturtium, radish, corn||Potatoes|
|Garlic||Carrot, rose, tomato||Legumes, strawberries|
|Spinach||Eggplant, cabbage, celery, onions, peas||Asparagus, zucchini|
|Bush beans||Cucumber, potatoes, cabbage, cabbage lettuce, turnip, radish, radish, rhubarb, celery, spinach, tomato||Asparagus, curly beans, zucchini|
Growing carrots through seedlings - garden and vegetable garden
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
An annual herbaceous monoecious plant with a powerful root system. The stem shoot reaches a length of 4-5 m or more, it can be single-stemmed or branching, creeping or climbing.
The fruit - a false juicy berry - is formed within 30-50 days after fertilization and in most varieties reaches 4-10 kg (in large-fruited - over 100 kg).
Homeland pumpkin is Central and South America. Of the 20 species in culture, three are known: large-fruited, nutmeg and hard-barked. Large-fruited - very productive, late-ripening and less demanding on heat compared to other species, Muscat - late-ripening and the most thermophilic hard-bark - has smaller fruits, is distinguished by early maturity.
Varieties. The mid-season varieties Almond 35 and Mozoleevskaya 49 are recommended for the climatic conditions of Belarus. The Institute of Vegetable Growing has created a new promising variety of large-fruited pumpkin - Zolotaya Korona. Forms fruits weighing 10-12 kg, the fruit bark is soft. By the content of dry matter, carotene, sugars and pectin, it surpasses all known varieties of the hard-barked pumpkin species.
|NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE|
Fruits are valued for the high content of sugars, pectins and carotene in the pulp, vitamins B1, B2, C, E, PP, mineral salts (especially potassium and phosphorus). Pectins are known to promote better absorption of food and remove toxins from the body.
Pumpkin fruit are a valuable dietary product, are recommended for those suffering from renal diseases, obesity and decreased gallbladder function. Pumpkin seeds ("white seeds") are rich in protein and fat.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Pumpkin it is necessary to cultivate on light and medium-sized non-acidic soils (loam, sandy loam), rich in humus, well filled with fertilizers. The best predecessors are annual and perennial grasses, early potatoes, onions, legumes, early and medium cabbage varieties.
Pumpkin plants need a sufficient amount of water in the soil, especially in the first half of the growing season. On average, three to four waterings are enough (60-70 liters per 1 m 2). If it rains frequently, no irrigation is required.
Pumpkin - light-loving plant, does not tolerate shading or thickened sowing.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Sowing. In our zone, pumpkin seeds are sown directly into the ground. They germinate at temperatures not lower than 16-17 ° C, optimally 25-35 ° C.
Sowing (usually in a square-nest method) is carried out during the period when the soil at a depth of 10-15 cm warms up to 14-16 ° C, usually in the second half of May. Seed preparation - like a cucumber.
Sowing scheme: 140 x 140-200 cm, 2-3 seeds per hole. Seeding depth is 3 cm, on lighter soils - 4 cm.If the topsoil is very dry or in dry warm weather on light soils, seeds should be sown at a greater depth than with a moist topsoil, in cold weather or on heavy soils. It is better to put seeds in the holes at different depths.
For an earlier harvest pumpkin can be grown by seedlings. This process takes place in a greenhouse or greenhouse after planting early cabbage in pots or sod 8 x 8 cm. Sprinkle with warm water sparingly, but infrequently. Until shoots appear, the seedlings are kept at a temperature of 18-25 ° C during the day, 15-18 ° C at night, and after the emergence of shoots - 15-20 ° C during the day, 12-13 ° C at night, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving one plant in a pot the film must be removed, the seedlings should be watered occasionally, and kept in the light during the day. If necessary, seedlings are fed 1 - 2 times with a solution of mullein, slurry or bird droppings with the addition of mineral fertilizers.
CARE AND CLEANING
The main care is weed control and loosening. Recommended 2-3 inter-row treatments: one - when the first leaves appear to a depth of 8-10 cm, the other - with top dressing to a depth of 6-8 cm in the phase of 5-6 true leaves. When weeding and loosening, it is necessary to huddle the plants with adding soil under the cotyledon leaves.
Every 7-10 days, top dressing is carried out (mullein, slurry), the first being 20-25 days after sowing seeds in open ground or 7-10 days after planting seedlings. Composition: 1 bucket of mullein solution (1:10) with the addition of 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride - for 7-9 plants.
Forming a bush is also an important, albeit time-consuming, care technique. The first time, the top of the plant is pinched in the phase of 5-6 true leaves (this gives an impetus to the formation of fruiting lateral shoots), the second is the growing points above the 5-7th leaf, starting from the ovary, on all shoots.
The fruits are harvested before the first autumn frosts - from late August to early September. Maturity is determined by tapping on the fruit: the sound should be the same as from a hollow object.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Traditional medicine has accumulated a lot of effective advice. Peeled (not fried, but only dried!) White seeds are recommended, especially for children, against tape and sometimes round worms. A decoction of seeds is used for diseases of the heart, kidneys and liver, for stomach ulcers, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. For insomnia, before going to bed, drink a decoction of pumpkin pulp with honey. Pumpkin juice helps dissolve kidney and bladder stones, remove chloride salts from the body, and soothes inflammatory processes in the liver and prostate gland. Lotions with pumpkin pulp gruel help with burns, lichen and eczema.
TO YOUR TABLE
Various types of pumpkin used in boiled, baked, fried, stewed form, its pulp goes to the first and second courses, puddings, candied fruits, marmalade, molasses, jam.
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Pilaf with pumpkin and fruit. Fresh apples (if you get it, add quince to them, if not, pears will do), peel and seeds, cut into cubes and mix with washed raisins. Melt some of the butter in a saucepan, place the pumpkin slices (without peel and seeds) on top of 1/3 of the dish on the bottom, add washed rice, put a layer of fruit mixture, cover with rice, put the rest of the fruit and rice again. Pour all of this with the remaining oil and add salted water to cover the top layer of the rice. Cover the saucepan and cook pilaf for 1 hour over low heat.
For 500 g of pumpkin -1.5 cups of rice, 200 g of fresh apples, 100 g of quince (pears) and raisins, 1/2 cup of butter, salt.
Pumpkin and rhubarb marmalade. Wash and dry the pumpkin, cut into slices and peel from fibers with seeds (do not remove the peel). Bake the slices until soft and rub through a sieve.
Wash rhubarb, peel, chop and mix with pumpkin puree.
Simmer the mixture, stirring occasionally. As it thickens - add sugar. Cool the finished marmalade. For 600 g of pumpkin - 400 g of rhubarb, sugar to taste.
Pumpkin pancakes. Grind 0.5 kg of pumpkin and 2 apples, add 5 tbsp. tablespoons of flour, 1 egg, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar, sour cream, soda and salt to taste.
Growing carrots through seedlings - garden and vegetable garden
Sweet pepper - a plant from the nightshade family. His homeland is Mexico and Guatemala. In the middle of the 15th century, it was brought to Spain, in the 16th century. spread to European countries, ended up in India, then through the south-west of Asia it penetrated to the south of Russia, and through Bulgaria - to Moldova and Ukraine.
In its homeland, this plant grows as a perennial, but in the conditions of European countries and Russia it is cultivated as an annual, self-pollinating, in the form of bushes from 0.5 to 1.5 m high. Its stem is herbaceous, lignified in the lower part. The leaves are soft, rounded with a pointed tip, from light to dark green, and the flowers are pale yellow, light purple, solitary in large-fruited varieties or connected by 2-3 on one pedicel - short or elongated, bending when the fruit grows.
The fruits are round in shape, attached to the peduncle with a wide end. The length and diameter of the fruit are different in varieties. The fruit is polyspermous, 2- or 4-celled. Inside the fruit are round yellowish seeds. The color of the fruit with pulp (in biological ripeness) depends on the variety and can be from light pink, yellow to red-violet. Fruits grow either upside down, or like candles - upside down.
It is believed that pepper two phases of ripeness: technical, when the fruit is green, but with complete growth, and biological, with a bright varietal color and ripe seeds.
In terms of the content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in fruits, pepper surpasses all vegetables and some fruits. Thus, with the technical ripeness of vitamin C, it contains 39.6-271 mg / 100 g of raw material, and with the biological ripeness, 125-306.3 mg / 100 g of raw material. Provitamin A (carotene) contains (at technical ripeness) 0.34-0.46 mg / 100 g of raw material, and with further ripening of the fruit, its amount increases. With the biological ripeness of pepper, the content of vitamin P (rutin) —300 - 450 mg / 100 g, vitamin B | - 60 mg / 100 g, In — 30 mg / 100 g of raw material.
In the pulp pepper biological ripeness there are: proteins, sugars, fructose, mineral salts and other useful substances.
According to VIR, 21 varieties have been zoned in Russia sweet pepper and 11 spicy. This culture grows and develops better with 12-hour daylight hours. Shelter is required during the white nights
Based on the results of the work carried out on one of the garden plots in the Leningrad Region, the following can be recommended pepper varieties.
Tenderness, VIR selection, average ripening period. The growing season is 115 - 120 days. Blooms and forms ovaries until autumn frosts. The height of the bush is 150 - 180 cm. The shape of the fruit is truncated-conical, with a blunt top. It grows up like a candle. Its diameter is from 4 to 8 cm, height is up to 15 cm, weight is 80-90 g, flesh is fleshy, juicy, taste is good. The color of the fruit is bright red, shiny. Productivity - 6-7 kg / m 2.
Swallow, VIR selection, medium ripening. The growing season is 115 - 125 days. The height of the bush is 90-100 cm. The shape of the fruit is oval-conical, weight -50-75 g, good taste. The color of the ripe fruit is bright red. The yield is 6-7 kg / m 2.
Winnie the Pooh, VIR selection (early maturing). Ripening period is early. The growing season is 90-100 days. The bush is not high, 25-30 cm. The shape of the fruit is conical, the height is 5-7 cm. The weight of the fruit is 40-50 g, the taste is good. The color of the fruit of biological ripeness is red. Productivity -3-3.5 kg / m 2.
Moscow, VIR selection, early maturing. The growing season is 95-110 days. Sprawling bush, 70-85 cm high. Fruits are conical (elongated) 10-12 cm long, with a sharp top. Fruit weight -45-55 g. The taste is good. The color of the ripe fruit is dark red, shiny. Productivity - 5-6 kg / m 2.
Pepper it is very demanding on heat and light, therefore in the Leningrad region it can be grown only in seedlings, and then only in greenhouses and hotbeds. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that with a decrease in temperature to 13 ° C, the growth of pepper stops, and at 0 ° C it dies. If the illumination is poor, the stem stretches, flowers and ovary fall off.
Before sowing, the seeds are calibrated - the largest are selected and immersed in a solution of table salt (a teaspoon in a glass of water), mixed well and wait for the seeds to separate - some will settle to the bottom, others will float. The floating ones must be thrown away, and the settled ones taken out, thoroughly rinsed with water, then they must be wrapped in gauze and immersed in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per half a glass of water) and kept in it for 15-20 minutes in order to disinfect them. Then remove the seeds (in gauze) and rinse in running water. After that, it is necessary to scatter the seeds in one layer on a wet cloth and cover it with it, and then put it in a warm place for two days to swell, preventing it from drying out.
It is even better if, after rinsing in running water, immerse the seeds in gauze for 24 hours in a solution of aloe juice (a tablespoon of juice in 1/2 glass of water). After that, when growing seedlings in peat pots, they should be filled with soil from microsteo pots or prepared according to the following recipe: add 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea, a glass of ash to a bucket of a mixture of equal parts of peat and humus, and mix everything thoroughly.
You can also grow seedlings in boxes with cells of 7X7 or 8X8 cm. Before sowing seeds, the soil must be well moistened. Then, in each pot (or cell of the box), you need to spread out 3 seeds (to a depth of 0.5 cm) and lightly pour water again, and then, covered with foil, put in a warm place with a temperature of 25-30 ° C. Do not let the earth dry out, you need to water it or spray it with warm water all the time.
After the first shoots appear, they need to be given more light. That is why drawers are placed on the window. The temperature in the room must now be maintained at 20 ° C.
Pepper seedlings are fed every 12-15 days with one of the solutions: for 10 liters of water 20 g of urea and 40 g of potassium sulfate for 10 liters of warm water 1 glass of ash and manure in relation to water.
In the phase of cotyledonous leaves, the seedlings should be cut open, that is, one strong plant should be left in each pot (or cell of the box), and the rest should be planted in pre-prepared boxes with soil, poured abundantly with water and covered with a plastic cap until they take root.
After two months, the seedlings should be 20-30 cm tall. They should be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse in the last decade of May. When growing pepper in the greenhouse, the soil is prepared in it in the fall, it should be light in structure, with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction and consist of a mixture of turf soil with humus and peat.
In the fall, for digging, it is necessary to make 60 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate per 1 m 2. If manure or compost was not introduced under the previous crop, then one or the other should be added at 5-6 kg per 1m 2.
In early spring, it is required to loosen the soil with a rake, scatter 40-50 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 g of urea (and 100 g of ash per 1 m 2) over the surface, embedding them in the top layer of the soil. Potassium chloride is impractical to add.
Pepper seedlings planted in cold weather or in the evening. They make holes 30 by 40 or 25 by 35 cm, so that 6 - 8 plants are planted on 1 m 2, preferably in a checkerboard pattern. The wells must first be sprinkled with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then with warm water, add 2 tablespoons of ash to each, mix it with the ground and put the pots with seedlings in the holes to the level of the beds, without deepening. Plants immediately need to be watered a little with water.
After planting for two weeks, the pepper grows poorly. 12-15 days after planting, the plants should be fed with a solution - for 10 liters of water, 300 g of bird droppings and a matchbox of urea - 0.5 liters for each plant. You can also feed the mullein solution (1:10).
We must not forget about the possibility of spring frosts. To protect against them, seedlings should be additionally covered with a film on a trellis or arcs. The second liquid top dressing should be done at the end of June by dissolving 2 glasses of ash in a bucket of water. Apply the third top dressing during the fruiting period. Here you need: a solution of foskamide (30 g per bucket of water) or a solution of 15 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate and 1 g of boric acid per bucket of water.
After each top dressing, the soil under the plants is watered and mulched with peat or earth. Watering should also be carried out as the soil dries out on the garden bed, and then slightly loosen the surface so that a crust does not form.
Subject to the specified agrotechnics, the crop ripens at the end of July. A month after the formation of the ovary, fruits are obtained in the phase of technical ripeness, which are quite suitable for human consumption. Earlier than all, the fruits of the Winnie-the-Pooh pepper are ripening.
Seeds suitable for cultivation must be obtained from soft fruits in the biological ripeness phase, keeping them for some time in the ripening room.
The final harvest takes place in the first decade of September. Bushes of low-growing varieties can be transplanted into pots with soil, and indoors they will bear fruit even in winter, of course, with appropriate care. Or, by cutting off a bush with unripe fruits, hang it upside down in the room and leave it for ripening.
Agrotechnics of pepper is less complicated than tomato, since it does not need to be pinned. Only aphids do harm to pepper. When it appears, the plants are sprayed with this solution: 40 g of soda ash and 40 g of laundry soap per 10 liters of water. Do this early in the morning or in cloudy weather.
Pepper fruits are used in salads, for preparing first and second courses, as well as for salting and pickling.
Here are some recipes for preparing peppers for the winter.
Salting. Remove seeds from fruits, immerse in boiling water and boil for 5-10 minutes. Take out, cool, put in liter jars and fill with hot brine. To prepare the brine, you need: 70 g of salt, a little dill, garlic, 3 grains of allspice, bay leaf, and boil everything in 1 liter of water.
Pickling. Cut the fruits in half (lengthwise), peel off the seeds, blanch in boiling water (2-3 minutes), remove, cool, put tightly in a liter jar, shifting each row with cloves of garlic and coarsely chopped celery and parsley, pour boiling marinade. To prepare the marinade, per liter jar you need: 0.5 liters of water, 1 tablespoon of salt, 2 tablespoons of sugar, a few grains of allspice and 2 bay leaves. Boil for 5-8 minutes in an enamel bowl, then add 3/4 cup 9% vinegar.
Snack. Take 2.5 kg of pepper fruits, peel from seeds, rinse and dry. Separately prepare 150 g of finely chopped garlic and a bunch of parsley. Prepare the marinade like this: for 1 liter of water 2 tablespoons of sugar, salt to taste, 8 bay leaves, 8 grains of black pepper. Boil everything for 5-8 minutes, then pour in a glass of vinegar and immerse the peppers in a boiling marinade for 3 minutes. Remove, dry slightly and (in an enamel cup) pour over 250 g of sunflower oil on the pepper. Then put the pepper in sterilized jars, sprinkle with garlic and parsley, pour boiling marinade and roll up the jars with lids.
Ripe peppers contain sugars, proteins, carotene, mineral salts, vitamins B1 and B2. And in terms of vitamin C content, it dominates among vegetables. But a patient with a disturbed heart rhythm, high blood pressure, an unstable, highly excitable nervous system should not get carried away with it.
Growing pepper not much different from growing tomatoes. Some peculiarities are that pepper is more thermophilic. Taking into account the variety of varieties and our relatively cool climate and short summer compared to the southern regions, it is more expedient to sow varieties and hybrids that are early ripening, disease-resistant, thick-walled.
Pepper has a long growing season. Therefore, the seeds are sown in February and grown for 80 days. When growing seedlings, you should pay attention to the illumination, with a lack of which the plants stretch out. Seedlings in the phase of the first true leaves should be fed with ammonium nitrate (1-2 g per liter of water). Pepper does not tolerate a dive (transplant), plant growth after that is delayed for one to two weeks. It is more expedient to carry out this work by the transshipment method, that is, to plant the seeds in small cups, then, together with the ground, without disturbing the root system, transfer them into a large container. And it is better to immediately sow seeds in half-liter pots in order to exclude intermediate transshipment. True, in this case, the supply of air to the root system of the seedlings is somewhat deteriorated. But this method compensates for the loss of time in the development of peppers due to the poor formation of new roots.
Seedlings are planted, as a rule, under shelters (in film or glass greenhouses) with the onset of stable warm weather and in warm soil no earlier than mid-May. Pepper loves fertile, humus-rich soil. Plants are planted in a hole fertilized with one or two handfuls of humus, a handful of ash and 10-15 g of superphosphate, two plants each according to the scheme 30 x 40-50 cm in the phase of six to seven true leaves. Pepper does not like deep planting - they plant it at the depth that it occupied in seedling pots. Pepper requires high humidity. It should be watered by irrigation, often, but in small doses, with warm water (not lower than 18 ° C), especially during the period of fruit formation. Spraying the plants regularly with water stimulates fruit setting and protects against spider mites.
When the plants reach a height of 15 cm, it is recommended to remove the top bud, which promotes branching and increases yields. Stepsons do not remove, except for those that appear before the bush branches. They, like the flowers located at the bottom of the plants, should be pinched. After the appearance of the ovary, the tops of the shoots are also pinched. In this case, the plant directs its nutrients to the growth of the set fruits, and not to the formation of new ones that do not have time to biologically mature. To speed up the ripening of the fruits when they start to turn brown, you need to cut off the lower leaves.
Pepper does not tolerate even minor damage to the root system.
Pepper is very sensitive to temperature conditions. At temperatures below 15 ° C and above 30 ° C, flowers fall off, fruit ovaries are not formed. It reacts painfully even to short-term drying out of the soil and high temperature. At the same time, plant growth slows down, and the stem becomes woody, which reduces productivity.
An important point, especially during the flowering period, is the airing of the greenhouse. During the same period, the plants need feeding. For her, use 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 - superphosphate and 20 g of potassium per 10 liters of water. Spray the plantings with novosil or other growth stimulant as buds form. Feeding and extraction of ash is effective (insist 250 g of ash in 10 liters of water for a week), which is carried out during the period of mass flowering. And for the third time, the bushes are fed during the period of formation of rather large green fruits (1 liter of solution per bush) with superphosphate (20 g per bucket of water) and potassium sulfate (15 g).
The poured peppers are cut still green every three to five days, removing them from the stalk. It is not necessary to wait until the fruit turns red or yellow. From this, its taste and nutritional quality does not deteriorate. First of all, deformed and damaged fruits are removed. Two or four fruits must be left on the bush, then new ones will appear in the place of the removed ones and the harvest will be greater.
Growing carrots through seedlings - garden and vegetable garden
Cultivation of garden strawberries.
Strawberry - a valuable dietary food product. Its fruits contain sugars (dominated by fructose and glucose), organic acids, dry and pectin substances. Vitamin B content 9 (folic acid) it surpasses all other grown fruits and berries, as well as oranges, grapefruits and grapes. There is more vitamin E in strawberries than in oranges, tangerines, red currants, cherries, cherries and other fruit and berry crops.
Strawberry fruits have therapeutic and prophylactic properties: they regulate cholesterol metabolism and hematopoiesis processes, prevent liver obesity, maintain capillary elasticity, and increase the body's resistance to diseases. Strawberry is a diuretic, useful for kidney and gastrointestinal tract diseases.
Some people may experience allergic reactions when eating strawberries. They can be weakened by eating berries with milk, cream, sour cream, sugar, or half an hour after eating.
Strawberries can bear fruit once a year (usually in cultivation) or several (remontant varieties). Varieties , bearing fruit once a year, there are early, mid-early, semi-late and late. They differ in the size of berries, their shape, color, aroma.
Most strawberry varieties shoots (whiskers) grow, which take root in the ground with rosettes and form new daughter plants. To get strong seedlings, use the first three rosettes from the mother plant, they are usually stronger than the more distant ones.
The best place for strawberries is warm, flat areas with sufficient moisture. She needs abundant rather than frequent watering. At the same time, before flowering, it is watered with sprinkling - the plants are freed from dust, and they develop better. During flowering and fruiting, it is necessary to water only around the root, so as not to create conditions for the development of putrefactive bacteria on the berries. Light loamy and sandy loamy fertile weakly acidic and neutral soils are most suitable for strawberries.
In one place, strawberries are grown for three years, collecting two full harvests. In the fourth year, the plants grow old, get sick more often, their yield drops sharply. Therefore, in the third year, new beds should be laid, where strawberries have not grown for the last four years. Saplings are planted two to three weeks after soil preparation. Before it is dug up, fertilized with rotted manure (10-15 kg per square meter) or compost, superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (20-30 g). Fresh manure should not be used.
Planting is carried out in late August - early September, or in spring, late April - early May. Before planting, the mustache is shortened to a centimeter. Seedlings are disinfected in water at a temperature of 40 ° C for 15 minutes, after washing the roots from the ground and wrapping the seedlings in clean burlap or cotton cloth. Then it is cooled with clean water, the roots are dipped in a soil mash and planted. The bushes are planted in pre-prepared small holes in rows separated from one another by half a meter, leaving 30 cm between the plants in a row. The apical bud of the plant should be at the level of the soil when planting. The aisle can be used for planting onions, garlic, lettuce, radishes.
Planting of strawberries is also used by squeezing the soil with a metal, or better with a specially prepared wooden spatula, followed by pressing the soil and squeezing the seedling. The latter method is preferable, with it the apical bud is more reliably preserved at the ground level.
Summer residents use and seedling method of growing strawberries ... In this case, the seeds purchased or independently obtained from the berries of the desired variety are sown in March in seedling boxes in moist soil without deepening and lightly compact its upper layer with the palm of your hand. The box is covered with glass or foil and placed in a warm place. Considering that the seeds are very small and seedlings appear in almost a month, maximum attention is required when sowing and caring for. Crowding and thickening of seeds, drying out of the soil should not be allowed.
With the appearance of real leaves, they very carefully undermine the seedlings with a table knife or a special scapula and plant them in another box at intervals between the plants. Care is similar to caring for vegetable seedlings: plants are watered, fed, they do not allow hypothermia, overheating, etc. Seedlings are planted in the garden in late April - early May in the late afternoon. Since unfavorable climatic conditions are not excluded during this period, it is better to cover the landing with a spunbond along the installed metal or wooden arches.
After planting, the plants are lightly watered, the soil is leveled, mulched with peat or humus. Young plants require maximum attention and care. The soil must be moist. If necessary, the plants are shaded, fed along the aisles with superphosphate (50 g) and potassium (30 g per square meter of planting).
A plot of fruiting strawberries in the spring is cleaned of dry leaves, sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 l of water). Plants are fed with ammonium nitrate (15-20 g per square meter), urea (10-15 g) or complex fertilizer (20-30 g), slightly puffed up. The soil is loosened, the weeds are removed. In early spring, after processing, feeding and loosening, it is advisable to cover the strawberry bed with plastic wrap, preferably with spunbond. It must be removed when the plants begin to overgrow with leaves in order to avoid their burns. You should not rush to remove the film. In this case, the berries grow and ripen one to two weeks earlier. For shelter, you can use both straw and dry grass. These measures help to retain moisture, protect the berries from decay and pollution, increase the temperature of the soil and keep it, facilitate weeding.
Strawberries are inherently bulging, as a result of which the root system is depleted and cannot normally feed the plant. Check the planting at the beginning of the growing season, and if this happens, then mulch the area with peat, mulch with soil, or deepen the plants without filling the growing point.
During the period of active growth of the ovary and leaves (June), the plants are fed with diluted mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:15). The third feeding with a complex fertilizer is carried out at the beginning of the laying and formation of flower buds for the next year's harvest (20-25 g per square meter). At the same time, you should deeply loosen the soil, huddle the bushes, without filling the apical bud. Potassium fertilization is not recommended from flowering to harvest.
During the ripening period of the berries, a mustache begins to grow, which depletes the mother plants. The mustache should be removed periodically.
At the same time, the plants are fed with a vegetable mixture (40-50 g per square meter) or compost (3-4 kg), adding superphosphate (40-50 g) and potassium (20-30 g). The latter can be replaced with wood ash (100-150 g).
If you do not take measures for the formation of young roots *, the yield of berries will drop sharply. This requires not only loose soil, fertilized (not with nitrogen fertilizers), but also sprinkling to the base of the plants and in the aisles after harvesting compost or its mixture with soil.
For the winter, the plants are slightly covered with earth (without covering the rosettes), straw or spruce legs.
The question is quite problematic: to mow or not to mow strawberry leaves? Gardeners usually remove leaves that are thickening and diseased. It is recommended to cut them off at the base of the petioles immediately after picking the berries, in no case being late with this operation. This to some extent protects the planting from diseases. After a short time, the plants form new, healthy leaves, which contribute to the formation of flower buds. The harvest next year will not suffer from this. On the contrary, strong, tasty, full-fledged, healthy berries will grow. Treatment of plants with urea (a tablespoon per bucket of water) will help the development of plantings.
Strawberry mite, strawberry-raspberry weevil, slugs harm plants. The presence of the latter is indicated by holes in the leaves and eaten berries.
Slugs are nocturnal predators. During the day they hide under leaves, boards, etc. It is useful in these cases to pollinate the soil around the bushes with ash, and the aisles with fluff lime.
Dorotheanthus, undemanding in care, is quite easy to grow on your site. There is no need to feed him. The fact is that in its homeland in Africa, where prolonged drought is not uncommon, the plant's root system obtains the necessary nutrients for itself.
This culture is distinguished by its heat-loving nature. Even slight frosts can destroy it. The flower feels best at a temperature of 15 to 25 degrees.
It is necessary to moisten the soil moderately, and it is better to do this in the morning. In this case, at noon, when the sun is most active, the flower will not overheat. Also, watering in the evening can lead to stagnation of liquid in the roots of the plant. Even if the bushes wilted after a hot day, they should be watered only at the onset of the morning. Only seedlings recently planted in open ground need systematic watering.
In order for the dorotheanthus to grow and develop well, it should be provided with optimal conditions and systematic good care:
- for planting, you should choose a sunny area that should warm up well
- watered sparingly, making sure that the liquid does not stagnate in the root system (can withstand short drought)
- the soil should be light, breathable and permeable
- if there is a threat of frost, the bushes should be covered.
Also some tips from experienced gardeners:
- In order for the roots to receive a sufficient amount of oxygen, and rot does not appear on them, the soil surface around the bushes should be systematically loosened.
- In order for the bush to bloom for a long time and magnificently, it needs to be pruned from time to time.
- Dorotheanthus grows well at home, and it can also be cultivated as an ampelous plant.