Soft roofing is one of the most popular materials for roof cladding due to its simple installation technology, unpretentious operation, resistance to various climatic and atmospheric phenomena. However, her choice is not unambiguous, and in some cases this material cannot be used. Therefore, it is important to familiarize yourself with the types of soft roofing, its characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and installation methods in order to avoid many mistakes.
Definition and characteristics of a soft roof
Soft roofing is a multilayer flexible material based on fiberglass or cellulose fibers impregnated with modified bitumen or mastic compounds. To harden the surface and increase the decorative properties, manufacturers additionally apply a layer of mineral chips to the front side. The shape of the sheets can be rectangular or hexagonal. Fastening to the lathing is performed on an adhesive base or by heating and melting bitumen. Unlike other types of roofing materials, flexible sheets are attached to the base with the entire contact area, therefore, a high level of tightness and resistance to external mechanical influences (wind, snow and other loads) is guaranteed..
Even the most expensive types of soft roofing are significantly cheaper than other roofing materials. At the same time, in terms of their functional and operational properties, they are in no way inferior to them. Savings are achieved even though it is necessary to equip a continuous crate.
The soft roof is suitable for arranging the following types of roofs:
- single and gable,
Material selection criteria
A competent approach to the choice of a soft roof is a must, since this type of coating includes quite large groups of materials, for example, flexible tiles or roofing felt, which have a significant range of prices and basic properties. That is why you need to rely on an estimate for the construction or repair of a roof and take into account the following criteria.
- Estimated calculated external loads based on data on the amount of precipitation in the winter period (mass of the snow and ice layer) and the weight of the structures to be installed (hoods, antennas, snow catchers, ladders, bridges, etc.).
- Operating conditions at various temperatures. This is due to the maximum number of heating and cooling cycles for a certain material, its resistance to heating and the need to maintain properties at negative temperatures.
- The complexity of the roof structure. For simple pitched roofs, roll or membrane materials are suitable, which will speed up installation work, and for complex ones - flexible tiles, which allow you to easily join broken and curved surfaces with a minimum amount of waste, while maintaining the unity of the design style and aesthetics of the look.
- The slope of the slopes. The smaller the angle of inclination of the slopes, the greater the load on the roof and the more important it is to ensure timely drainage of precipitation, therefore, with a slope of up to 15o a material with a smooth surface is required. For roofs with a slope of more than 15o all types of coatings can be used, including those on which a layer of mineral chips is applied.
- The type of base (lathing) on which the installation is performed. Thin material (roofing felt, bituminous fiberglass) can be used for sheathing concrete surfaces, since all the load will be transferred to the base. For wooden structures, it will be necessary to select a strong and thick coating (flexible shingles), since under external mechanical influences, sagging of the lathing is possible and the likelihood of damage to the sheathing increases.
The selection of shingles is usually done in several stages, which can be represented in the form of a simplified block diagram.
I personally had to observe the situation when a friend of mine attached a kitchen with a sloping pitched roof to a house with a gable roof, and the angle of inclination was 13o... The main roof was covered with flexible tiles, so he decided to sheathe the kitchen with the same material, despite violating the manufacturer's requirements. In the very first winter, due to the insufficient rate of precipitation removal, snow accumulated on the surface and an ice crust formed. As a result, the roof sagged, numerous cracks appeared on the cladding, water got into the under-roof space and deformations appeared on the surface, which could not be eliminated by minor repairs.
Advantages and disadvantages
The choice of a soft roof is advantageous due to the following advantages:
- increased flexibility and strength, allowing sheathing surfaces with any geometry;
- resistance to sudden temperature changes;
- non-susceptibility to corrosion, decay and pests;
- a high degree of tightness due to the tight contact of the cladding elements;
- maximum resistance to wind loads;
- minimum weight compared to other roofing materials;
- optimal sound insulation properties - no noise from precipitation;
- wide price range with an optimal ratio of cost and quality;
- a wide range of colors of decorative coatings, allowing you to create unique designs of building facades;
- no need for maintenance throughout the entire service life declared by the manufacturer;
- impervious to fading.
It is important to take into account the following disadvantages:
- increased financial costs for the construction and repair of solid crate;
- impossibility of installation at temperatures below +5 and above +25 oC due to the difficulty of ensuring reliable attachment to the base and penetration of bitumen in the layer of material, respectively;
- in case of damage to one of the elements of the roof sheathing, it will be necessary to replace it, as well as the adjacent areas.
Soft roofing materials are available with a bituminous or self-adhesive bottom layer. The self-adhesive backing will speed up the installation of the sheathing, but requires the installation of a damping underlay. It is recommended to use a polyester or fiberglass canvas as a backing.
To save money, it is allowed to lay a substrate for a soft roof only in places that are critical for damage: on the bends of slopes, abutments of walls and structures, ridge, plumb lines. It is recommended to use smooth and durable wooden panels with minimal moisture, for example, OSB, as a continuous sheathing.
On roofs with a steep slope, the lining carpet can be installed only in the most critical places, which, among other things, include pediment and cornice overhangs
The material with the lower bituminous layer is laid on a solid, specially applied to the base - bituminous mastic. To ensure tight contact, additional heating of the lower surface of the roofing is required until the connecting layer melts and ensures reliable contact of the materials.
Types of soft roof
The following types of soft roofs are produced:
- flexible tile.
Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages, which must always be taken into account at the planning stage of construction work.
Roll materials are most in demand for flat or pitched roofs with minimum slope angles of 3o... They are non-woven fabrics based on polyester, fiberglass or fiberglass, which are impregnated with bitumen compositions with polymer additives. A layer of coarse or medium-grained fractions of shale or granulite is applied to the front surface. During installation, the roll is rolled parallel to the plumb line or the edges of the slopes in one or two layers, depending on the thickness of the material.
When using roll material, it is possible to sheathe the roof in the shortest possible time
The main advantages of a roll-type soft roof include:
- simplicity and high speed of installation;
- the minimum number of connecting joints;
- relatively low cost compared to other types of materials;
- good maintainability;
- the possibility of styling in the cold season.
The main disadvantage of rolled roofs is the need for frequent repairs due to their poor resistance to mechanical stress. Therefore, it is very important to comply with all the requirements of the installation technology, do not use steel shovels to clear snow and remove dirt, and also not to allow the load on the slopes at an ambient temperature above +20 oFROM.
Membrane materials are made from various polymers with plasticizing additives. They are produced in the form of rolls with a width of up to 1.5 m. They differ from ordinary roofing materials by their increased elasticity, the ability to pass steam, strength and a service life of several tens of years, depending on the type of material.
A flat roof covered with a PVC membrane differs from analogs with a flat and smooth surface
There are three types of membranes.
- Polyolefin (TPO). They are made of rubber and propylene, reinforced with polystyrene or fiberglass mesh. Installation is allowed in all weather and climatic conditions, with a service life of 40 years. TPO membranes are undemanding to maintenance, have high strength and do not contain toxic substances.
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Produced on the basis of polymers and plasticizers. Flexible and elastic, resistant to ultraviolet radiation and high temperatures. The disadvantages include:
- content in the composition of toxic volatile substances;
- loss over time of aesthetic and strength characteristics;
- not resistant to solvents, oils and bituminous compounds.
- Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM). They are made of artificial rubber with a reinforcing fiberglass layer. They have high strength, durability, resistance to increased loads. They are unpretentious in operation, have a maximum service life in comparison with other membrane materials.
Flexible shingles are made on the basis of fiberglass impregnated with bitumen and covered on the front side with mineral granules (stone chips), and on the back - with a self-adhesive layer. Represents sheets of small sizes with curly cutouts. It differs from other types of soft roofing by the presence of a textured surface, a wide range of shapes and colors.
A house with a hip roof, sheathed with flexible tiles, looks natural, aesthetically pleasing and attractive
The main advantages of shingles include:
- preservation of aesthetic properties throughout the entire service life;
- minimal amount of material waste, even when covering difficult surfaces;
- optimal sound insulation that does not require the installation of sound-absorbing material;
- long service life - more than 50 years.
The main disadvantage of this type of soft roof is the complexity of forming the base and laying the material in accordance with the requirements of the technology. It is because of non-observance of the rules for preparing the surface for cladding that leaks occur. When installing flexible shingles, it is unacceptable to bend the sheets by more than 20oas the likelihood of cracking increases.
Soft roof manufacturers
The service life of a soft roof largely depends on the quality of the manufacture of materials, therefore, when choosing, you should pay attention to renowned manufacturers who guarantee the high quality of their products. It is recommended to purchase roof sheathing from the following companies:
The Finnish company Katepal was founded in 1949. It specializes in the production of shingles, roll roofing materials and underlays. The products are of high quality and fully comply with the requirements of the EN 544 standard.
There are five main product lines:
Foxy roof tiles are made of diamond-shaped elements with smooth petal lines
Jazzy roof tiles allow you to create a unique roof pattern by mixing red and black granules on each hexagonal element
Katrilli tiles have natural color tones and a three-dimensional look thanks to the “shadows” in the upper parts of the hexagonal elements.
The classic KL roof tile is composed of hexagonal elements and features a textured color scheme
Rocky roof tiles are designed by Katepal OY. has a unique arrangement of rectangular elements and color gradients from terracotta to black
In the production of shingles, elastomeric bitumen is used, thanks to which the sheets withstand repeated bending and cyclic temperature changes and last up to two times longer than competing counterparts. High resistance to mechanical stress and tearing allows finishing edges and corners of roofs without damaging the tightness of the layers.
Flexible tiles "Ruflex" have been produced at the "Katepal" plant since 2003. The products are certified and comply with the first quality class according to the EN544 standard.
The material is made on the basis of non-woven fiberglass impregnated with SBS-bitumen. The front side is covered with a layer of colored stone granules, which, after installation, visually create a three-dimensional perception. A self-adhesive layer is applied on the reverse side. Sheet dimensions are 1000x317 mm.
The main advantages of Ruflex tiles are:
- minimum angle of inclination of the slopes - installation is allowed with a slope of 11.3o and more;
- preservation of all properties at temperatures from -55 to +110 oFROM;
- ease of installation due to the unique self-adhesive technology;
- resistance to ultraviolet radiation, mechanical damage and sudden temperature changes;
- 25-year manufacturer's warranty.
7 types of "Ruflex" tiles are produced:
Esten shingles have improved strength characteristics and modern design with bright saturated color
Briss tiles have natural color shades and a three-dimensional visual effect due to the application of a black corner element to each vertex
Ornami roof tiles are made in the style of the material for the roofing of ancient castles, it looks natural and original
The classic shape of Sota tiles with natural color shades and volumetric effect will look harmonious on any type of roof and will fit neatly into any facade design
Tab shingles have a classic design that resembles brickwork and will look great on pitched, tapered and semicircular roofs
Ruflex Runa shingles have a modern unique design and natural color shades
Flexible tiles Mint are made in a classic style, have a stylish look due to the volumetric effect of perception and the optimal combination of the main color with black splashes
Imitations of classic tiles and modern variations are available with monotone, gradient and texture color shades of the surface.
The Russian company Technonikol has been producing shingles since 2002. The quality assurance is the conformity of products to the international standard ISO 9002 and the European standard EN 544. The size of the sheets is 1000x317 mm.
The front side is covered with basalt chips, and the back side is covered with a frost-resistant self-adhesive layer.The main advantage over competitive products is the introduction of our own innovative developments, thanks to which the cost of soft roofing has become much lower than that of many foreign counterparts.
The Lithuanian plant "Technonikol" produces flexible shingles "Shinglas", known on the European market since 2003. It meets the international standard ISO 9001: 2015, as well as European safety and reliability standards. The material is made on the basis of fiberglass impregnated with modified bitumen, which makes it ideal for use in the middle climatic zone.
The following series of flexible tiles "Technonikol" are produced:
- "Ultra". It includes the following product lines:
Foxtrot roof tiles have an original design of sheets with a unique combination of shingles and rich color shades
Shingles "Samba" look great due to the classic hexagonal shape of the shingles with natural color shades
- "Classic". Represented by the following models:
Embossed flexible tile "Rumba" is made in natural pastel colors, giving the roof design uniqueness and aesthetics
Roof tile "Modern" imitates the surface of a natural landscape with a natural rich color reproduction
The texture of the Tango tile resembles foliage on trees, so the material looks very original and fits a modern or classic facade design
The "Quadrille" tile has an impeccable classic design with a three-dimensional visual effect of the coating, a hexagonal shingle shape and an original gradient pattern.
The "Flamenco" roof tile is produced with bright and saturated colors, due to which it shimmers in the sun in a wide range of shades and realistically imitates brickwork
- "Finnish". The following models are available here:
Flexible tile "Accord" will be an excellent option for those who want to find a strict and laconic monochrome roofing
Roof tiles "Sonata" have expressive forms of elements due to the effect of shadow contrast and a combination of shades of the main color with black
Each series is represented by a wide selection of colors, sheet shapes and surface textures. The main advantage is the optimal ratio of cost and technical characteristics.
Roof structure and roofing cake under a soft roof
The construction of a roof for a soft roof requires the obligatory phased laying of the following layers.
- Vapor barrier - to exclude the accumulation of moisture in the under-roof space due to the temperature difference between the room and the environment.
- Thermal insulation - in order to increase the energy saving of the roof.
- Waterproofing - to exclude the ingress of moisture from precipitation into the roofing cake.
The correct arrangement of the roofing cake under the shingles is a guarantee of long-term use of the coating without the need for serious repairs.
Laying a roofing cake under a soft roof is performed as follows.
- A rafter system is installed taking into account the requirements for the selected type of roof.
It is recommended to erect a gable roof truss system with an angle of inclination of more than 30 degrees
- From the inside, the rafters are sheathed with vapor barrier material.
The installation of the vapor barrier layer should be overlapped with gluing the joints with a special adhesive tape
- A counter-lattice is installed along the vapor barrier on the inside of the rafters.
For a counter-lattice installed over the vapor barrier, it is recommended to use boards with a width of 15 cm and a thickness of at least 10 mm to prevent breaks and hold the insulation between the rafters
- A heat-insulating layer is placed in the resulting space between the rafters and the counter-lattice.
It is important to lay the mineral wool slabs as tightly as possible to the rafter structure to reduce heat loss
- A waterproofing layer is mounted on top of the insulation.
When installing waterproofing on rafters, it is important to use special spacers for fasteners so as not to break the tightness of the layer
- A solid crate is laid.
When fixing a solid lathing to the rafters, it is important to make an interval between adjacent sheets of 3-5 mm to take into account the thermal expansion of the material
- A soft roof is being installed.
It is imperative to lay shingles on a lining carpet fixed to a solid sheathing
I personally encountered a case of repairing an unheated gable roof, which was erected in accordance with all the requirements of the manufacturer and installation technology. The problem has been the swelling of the OSB boards and the appearance of cracks in the joints of the shingles every winter for the last three years. After studying all possible reasons, it turned out that the chimney from the solid fuel stove was not well insulated, as a result of which the attic space warmed up and condensation formed in the roofing cake due to the dew point shift (due to the temperature difference outside the house and inside the room).
Correct drawing up of a rafter system drawing simplifies the construction of a gable roof
Differences in technologies for laying soft roofs on flat, pitched and semicircular roofs
The technology of laying soft roofs on various types of roofs has certain features.
- On flat roofs (slope up to 15o) it is allowed to lay only roll and membrane materials. Installation is carried out parallel to one of the plumb lines. First, rolls are rolled out over the laid insulating layers of the roofing cake with an overlap of each subsequent layer on the previous one by 15 cm and thoroughly smearing the joints with bitumen mastic. Then the surface of the roof is heated to the temperature of partial melting of bitumen to fix the sheathing to the base.
The main tasks of installation work on a flat roof is the correct leveling and fastening of the roofing material.
- On gable roofs, it is allowed to lay all types of soft roofs, provided the slope of the slopes is more than 15o... Roll materials can be rolled parallel to the cornice (from bottom to top) or plumb lines (to the left or right side), and shingles can be rolled up from one of the lower corners. When installing each element, it is fastened mechanically or on a self-adhesive base.
It is necessary to melt the bitumen so that the roofing material is fixed to the roof over the entire sheet area
- Hip roofs are sheathed from an imaginary vertical centerline of the slope in two directions from bottom to top. For the convenience of carrying out the work, it is necessary to think over in advance a plan for laying out materials on the surface, then with chalk draw approximate lines on the lining layer.
- On semicircular slopes, before installing a soft roof, it is imperative to apply chalk markings... These should be not only ordinary lines, but also vertical ones, so that during the installation process it was possible to cut the material to size and not violate the scheme.
It is necessary to sheathe a semicircular roof of double curvature in two layers due to increased loads on the concave parts and a high probability of defects in the material at bends
- On cone-shaped roofs, laying is carried out from top to bottom, on semicircular ones - from one of the plumb lines from the two lower sides to the top, if flexible shingles are being installed, or on one side, if rolls are laid.
The appearance of the section of the semicircular roof, sheathed with flexible tiles, is made while maintaining the rows, therefore it looks harmonious and attractive
Video: installation rules for flexible shingles "Ruflex"
During installation work, it is important to avoid the following mistakes:
- sheathing of the line of joining of two planes of the slopes at angles of more than 30o without the use of a special substrate or installation of additional elements;
- laying a soft roof on a damp base;
- the use of sealants and bitumen compositions that are not recommended by the manufacturer of the material;
- sheathing of slopes, the slope of which exceeds the maximum permissible values;
- refusal to lay a vapor barrier layer;
- cladding of a wooden base of insufficient strength and / or with an increased moisture content;
- failure to seal the joints of the material or abutments to other structures;
- fastening a soft roof with staples.
Video: installation errors of flexible shingles
Maintenance of a soft roof is performed at least twice a year. The first check is carried out before the onset of frost. Careful inspection of the slopes is necessary in order to detect and eliminate possible cracks or other defects that could cause further damage or destruction of the outer layer. Lowering the ambient temperature negatively affects the plastic properties of the material, as a result of which, under the influence of a snow or ice mass, the tightness of the roof can be compromised.
The second service is performed in the spring. It is necessary to perform the following list of works:
- check the integrity of the coating: joints, seams, bends;
- assess the condition of the joints to the roof structures (chimney, chimneys, antennas);
- clean drain pipes for high-quality moisture removal and make sure they are passable;
- remove foreign objects from the slopes and clean the surface from dirt;
- carry out an independent repair or invite a specialist to eliminate all found defects and damages.
Soft roof problems in winter
The winter period for a soft roof is the most difficult, since it is subject to significant snow and ice loads, as well as mechanical damage. As a result of sharp temperature changes, ice forms, which, when warming, can come off the roof, scratch the surface, and depressurize the joint seams.
Particularly negative is the presence of cracks not eliminated in a timely manner in the outer coating. During a thaw, moisture can penetrate into them, which can create an ice crust in freezing in the inner layers and cause deformation.
Violation of the tightness of the butt joint due to non-compliance with the requirements of the installation technology must be immediately eliminated
The third problem is the accumulation of ice in the gutters and drainage pipes. Firstly, this negatively affects the drainage of precipitation, and secondly, the fastenings of structures may not withstand the load.
Video: rules for the maintenance of soft pitched roofs sheathed with flexible shingles "Shinglas"
Service life: influencing factors and recommendations for increasing it
It is possible to ensure the maximum service life for a soft roof only if all the requirements for laying and maintenance technology are met, as well as a competent choice of material, the technical characteristics of which must fully comply with the operating conditions. It is at the initial stage of roof design and construction that all negative factors must be taken into account and their effect on durability and reliability must be reduced.
When designing and installing a roof, it is important to use the following recommendations:
- the material must withstand the expected loads from precipitation and temperature conditions in a specific region where it is supposed to be used;
- when buying a material, it is important to evaluate its quality: the absence of cracks, delamination, deviations in size, the uniformity of sprinkling with mineral chips;
- to mount a smooth, even and durable solid sheathing under the soft roofing;
- use high-quality fasteners recommended by the manufacturer;
- avoid laying roofing material on bends, ridges and other difficult surfaces without using a bedding layer and additional elements.
Once I had to face the repair of a flat roof, which was sheathed with tar paper because of the need to save money as much as possible. For 2 years of operation, the casing literally turned into garbage: due to the large amount of precipitation in the region, its tightness was broken, gusts of wind tore the roofing paper into pieces that could not be restored. The concrete base cracked due to high humidity and sudden temperature changes in winter, and after warming it was covered with moss, the joints and abutments were completely unusable.
Typical damage to a shingle roof, received after the winter season due to violations of installation rules, led to the need for a major overhaul of the roof.
To extend the life of the roof, the following rules should be observed:
- carry out maintenance only with the use of soft shoes and tools that are not capable of damaging the coating;
- timely clean the slopes from snow and prevent the formation of an ice layer in winter;
- restrict access to the roof at ambient temperatures below +5 and above +20 oFROM;
- carry out periodic inspections of the integrity of the roofing material and, if necessary, carry out its repair or replacement;
- prevent moisture accumulation;
- remove debris and foreign objects from the roof.
Repair of a soft roof
The soft roof needs repair in the following cases:
- swelling and blistering on the surface;
- partial or complete exfoliation of the material;
- mechanical damage: tears, scratches, deformations.
Qualitatively, roof repairs are divided into emergency, current and overhaul. Emergency is carried out immediately after the discovery of damage in any period of the year. The current one is performed immediately after scheduled inspections in case of a violation of the tightness of the coating. Both types of repairs involve partial replacement of the roofing material or the installation of temporary patches.
To eliminate a small leak in the roof, sometimes it is enough to replace one piece of shingles.
Overhaul should be carried out in cases where more than 40% of the roof needs to be restored. At the same time, a complete replacement of the roofing material and substrate is performed, as well as, if necessary, the repair of the lathing.
When repairing the roof, I personally had to face the problem of leakage in bituminous tiles due to the negligence of the builders. The problem was the presence of numerous leaks along the ceiling, the reasons for which were as follows: major repairs were carried out in the winter, OSB boards were used that were stored outdoors and absorbed moisture, and they were laid without gaps. As a result, the owners of the house had to make another major overhaul of the roof, but in compliance with the technology requirements.
Minor repairs are carried out in the following sequence.
- The surface is cleaned of dirt, debris and foreign objects.
You can clean debris from the roof surface covered with roofing felt using an ordinary broom
- All visible defects are removed by cutting out problem areas.
It is convenient to cut out small damaged areas with a construction knife
- The damaged parts are filled with a suitable sealant or bitumen, depending on the type of coating.
It is necessary to apply the mastic over the entire area of damage and cover the area suitable for use by 5-10 cm around the perimeter
- A patch with dimensions exceeding the damaged area is laid on the sealed area.
It is important to cover a patch of roofing material with an outer layer of mastic to increase resistance to mechanical stress and precipitation
In some cases, to increase the strength of the roof, it is recommended to use an intermediate layer of roofing material, but it should be understood that this method is ineffective.
For the repair of the outer layers of the soft roof, it is recommended to use materials with a thickness of 4.5–5 mm, the service life of which exceeds 10 years, for example, "Uniflex", "Izoplast", "Technoelast". To restore the bottom layer, use materials with a thickness of 3–3.5 mm with optimal elasticity and thermal insulation properties, such as Bireplast, Technoelast, and Stekloelast.
If a disconnection of the joints is found on the surface, it is recommended to partially lift the material to assess the damage from water that has got into the roofing cake. If the base has not lost its basic properties and has not been deformed, then it is necessary to dry it with a construction hairdryer and complete the seal similar to the instructions given above.
With a complete repair of a flat roof covered with roofing felt, in order to save money, only the damaged area can be replaced
Recently, the question arose: “What to choose after all? Metal tile or still a soft roof !? " After watching articles and videos on the Internet, I decided to consult with experts and started calling construction companies. In the company SpektorStroyMontazh, for example, a certain manager Nikita advised me to buy a soft roof, explaining that, although metal tiles are cheaper, there is too much noise from it in wind and rain. Therefore, I stopped all the same on a soft roof. I chose Katepal from the firms, and was very pleased. I advise everyone!
A soft roof is the best choice for roof overlap, as it is available in a wide price range with a huge selection of decorative and technical characteristics, is highly resistant to all types of precipitation, creates a low load on the base and has a relatively simple installation technology. Due to the elasticity and unpretentiousness in operation, it is allowed to lay materials on surfaces of any complexity. Compared to analogues, the installation of soft tiles is carried out with a minimum amount of waste due to the optimal size of the sheets and ease of processing.
Types of soft roofing: installation of Shinglas tiles photo and video
Soft roofs are more and more popular in construction. And it is no coincidence, because the quality characteristics of materials provide not only a reliable roof, but also a modern look of the whole house.
Fig (lat.Ficus carica)
Also known as fig, fig tree, fig tree, wine berry. Deciduous tropical plant of the genus Ficus. One of the most ancient cultivated plants. Produces sweet and high-calorie fruits.
Varieties of roofing
Metal roof - material with steel (galvanized), aluminum or copper sheet in the middle. A layer of polymer may be applied on top.
This could be:
- metal tile
- corrugated board
- folded roof.
If the sheet is profiled, then in front of us is a corrugated board or metal tile. Seam roofing is made of smooth metal.
Slate - corrugated sheets made of asbestos-reinforced cement. They are cheap, used more often for outbuildings.
Ondulin (euro slate) - also made in the form of wavy sheets. It contains cellulose fibers with bitumen impregnation.
Soft roof - is based on modified bitumen. It can be in the form of rolls (for example, roofing material) or separate elements of various shapes (flexible tiles based on fiberglass). We should also mention the flexible membrane soft roofing made of special polymers.
Self-leveling roof - bitumen mastic or polymer emulsion, applied to the roof in liquid form, and then solidified in air. It can have a waterproofing and reinforcing layer.
Ceramic roof tiles - a natural covering made of fired clay mass. Beautiful, but expensive and difficult to install. Cement-sand tiles are slightly cheaper.
It is necessary to prepare in advance a set of tools and accessories for work:
- electric or simple metal scissors
- a hammer
- mechanical stapler
- tape measure and pencil
- hacksaw or circular saw.
It is most convenient to cut metal tiles with electric scissors.
The Cyclops cabbage variety is quite popular with gardeners, who give it positive reviews:
- Tatyana Fedorovna from Chelyabinsk liked the Cyclops hybrid. Her cabbage grew tasty, well kept and perfectly suited for fermentation.
- Tatyana Kazantseva from the Irkutsk region also appreciated this cabbage, and will continue to plant it.
- And Vladislav Igorevich from Voronezh is just going to try this variety on the recommendation of a farmer friend who considers this Japanese cabbage very good.
Cyclops F1 cabbage is perfect for beginners and experienced gardeners. It is often used for industrial plantings, because this hybrid is tasty and fruitful, resistant to diseases and pest attacks.
Types of roll materials
Gone are the days when the only representatives were roofing felt and roofing felt, the materials are short-lived and extremely unstable to aggressive environments. The whole problem was in the coating and the method of reinforcement with cardboard. After all, paper is a non-moisture resistant material that quickly rots and collapses under the influence of water, and oil bitumen loses its flexibility due to temperature changes and becomes covered with cracks. However, innovative technologies were able to significantly improve the performance of bituminous roofing materials (as evidenced by numerous brands of roofing material). Reinforcement with fiberglass and improvement of the properties of the binder with elastomers and polymer additives extended their service life to 20-25 years. Despite the apparent diversity, the main types of roll materials are as follows:
- Roofing material - as mentioned earlier, an extremely short-lived material, manufactured in accordance with GOST 2697-83. However, it compensates for its shortcomings by having the lowest price.
- Fused roofing material - rubemast. The production technology is not much different from the production of roofing material.This roll roofing has a layer of bitumen on the back side, which, when melted, is glued to the base of the roof, and on the front side - granite chips to protect against mechanical damage.
- Glass roofing material. As a reinforcing layer, not natural (cardboard, cellulose), but synthetic materials (fiberglass, polyester) are used. This innovation made it possible to significantly extend the life of the roof, since fiberglass has high resistance to aggressive media, as well as mechanical damage.
- Membrane roll material. The most modern soft roll roofing. It is distinguished by a fiberglass base, high-quality bitumen-polymer binders, granules that protect the front surface from damage and UV radiation. And also easy installation, as this material is self-adhesive. It is enough just to tear off the protective film from the back side and roll it over the roof, in warm sunny weather it will grab itself.
How soft roll roofing is indicated
Types of roll roofing materials can be recognized not only by the characteristic external signs. Information in the form of a code is necessarily contained on the label. Marking is made with a stamp and includes letters and numbers. The first letter denotes the base that is used as reinforcement:
- M - soft fiberglass
- E - polyester nonwoven fabric
- X - fiberglass
- T - frame fiberglass.
The second is the type of face cover:
- K - coarse-grained mineral powder
- M - fine-grained powder (usually sand)
- P - polymer film.
The bottom cover type is determined by the third character:
- B - ventilated cover
- P - polymer film
- C - self-adhesive coating
- M - fine-grained powder (sand).
Types of roll materials: soft roll roofing
Designation ruberoid brands also includes three letters, followed by three more numbers. The first letter encodes the type of roll material:
- R - roofing material
- С-Р - glass roofing material
- P - glassine.
The second defines the purpose:
- K - roofing
- P - lining
- E - elastic.
The last letter indicates the type of dressing used in the production:
- H - scaly mica
- P - dusty
- M - fine-grained
- K - coarse-grained.
The numbers indicate the density or weight per square meter of cardboard.
The article would not be complete and not too correct if I had not collected feedback from the owners of these roofs for you. I have been sent letters with questions and advice about this roof more than once and put them together for you. I opted for a gable roof, as I wanted to organize a full-fledged attic space.
Leave your feedback in the comments and we will add it to the table!
Read and analyze, and the choice is yours.
|Username or nickname||For or against||Opinion|
|Stanislav Kravchuk||Vs||I chose a gable roof for my bath. |
If you do, then thoroughly, but with a lean-to
the roof has some problems, it is standing on the barn.
|Cherie||Vs||I do not understand at all people who |
build pitched roofs for their baths.
Well, to begin with, it is not at all beautiful, and secondly, it is not safe.
There are several people familiar with such roofs, I know what I'm talking about.
|Anton||Per||You just have to do okay |
then a pitched roof
does an excellent job with its functions.
But the fact that the gable is more practical
and comfortable - yes.
|Evgeniya||Per||Any roof will do |
if only snow does not accumulate on it.
|Alexander||Pros and cons||The optimal solution for small buildings, |
like a barn or a bath, or in
as an extension to the house.
In all other cases,
I would choose a gable roof!
|Foreman||Per||Great roof option, but there are a few special features. |
If the roof slope is less than 14 degrees, then corrugated board should be laid,
if the slope is more than 15 degrees, then metal tiles can be laid.
If the slope is less than 15 degrees, then water will collect in the grooves of the metal tile,
and subsequently dirt and mud.