Read the previous part. ← Zucchini, varieties and growing conditions
Zucchini grade Malchugan
Site selection andsoil preparation
... Zucchini on the site is placed in a well-warmed by the sun and protected from the wind. In areas with a moderate amount of heat, it is best to grow it on the ridges, placing them from east to west so that the plants in the row do not shade each other.
The best predecessors for zucchini arecabbage
, root vegetables, onions, legumes andgreen crops
... To prevent disease damage, it is important to return them to their original place or place them aftercucumber
and otherspumpkin crops
not earlier than in 3-4 years.
Soil preparation begins in the fall. In the area freed from previous crops, careful removal of plant residues is carried out. If early crops (lettuce, dill, onions) were grown on the site, surface loosening of the soil is carried out with a rake or rotary hoes, which contributes to the germination of weed seeds. After 2-3 weeks, after the emergence of annual weeds, the soil is dug to the depth of the arable layer. Areas vacated after late crops (potatoes, root crops, cabbage) are dug up immediately after harvesting.
Zucchini needs highly fertile soils, so in the fall, when digging, it is necessary to apply organic fertilizers in the form of manure, peat compost or humus. Organic fertilizers not only enrich the soil with nutrients, but also improve its structure, water, air and thermal conditions.
Most valuableorganic fertilizer is manure
... When 100 kg of manure is applied, 340 g of nitrogen, 50 g of phosphorus, 470 g of potassium, as well as calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, molybdenum and cobalt - about 30 elements in total, are introduced into the soil.
is biologically inert and is poorly involved in microbiological processes, therefore it is better to apply it in the form of composts. Compost is prepared from plant residues, which are layered with peat, manure, slurry, and tree leaves.
periodically moisten, after 1.5-2 months after the bookmark, they are mixed. When the compost is warmed up, it is compacted, and before frost it is covered with a layer of soil 30-40 cm. The compost is used when it turns into a homogeneous crumbly mass.
A valuable organic fertilizer is humus, which is obtained by the complete decomposition of manure or compost. It is better to apply it in the spring, when digging, or directly into the holes when sowing, and also add to the soil mixture when growing seedlings.
As the main fertilizer, for zucchini, in addition to organic ones, they also usemineral fertilizers
... Phosphorus, potassium and ammonium forms of nitrogen fertilizers can be applied during autumn tillage, and nitrate forms of nitrogen fertilizers during spring. It is necessary to calculate the dose of mineral fertilizer based on the calculation of the active substance (g / 10m²): N-10, P2O5 - 10, K2O - 8.
If the soil on the site is acidic, it is necessary to spend it in the fall.liming
can be determined by analyzing it in a special agrochemical laboratory or on your own using a special indicator paper that is sold in stores. The degree of acidity of the soil is also indicated by the composition of the weeds growing on it.
On soils with an acidic environment, they growhorsetail
, shepherd's bag,pikulnik
, heather. On slightly acidic and neutral ones - field bindweed, chamomile,mother and stepmother
The application rates of lime material (chalk, dolomite flour, slaked lime) depend on the degree of acidity of the soil and its mechanical composition. On acidic (pH 4-5) sandy loamy and light loamy soils, 4-5 kg of lime is applied per 10 m², on loamy soils - 6-10 kg, and on heavy loamy soils –7.5-12 kg; at an average acidity level (pH 5-6), respectively: 2.5-4, 5-6, 7-8 kg per 1 m². Lime materials should not be applied to the soil with manure, as this increases nitrogen losses. In this case, it is better to apply organic fertilizers during spring tillage.
Since sowing zucchini seeds and planting seedlings in open ground are carried out only after the threat of frost has passed, in the spring it is necessary to carry out 1-2 loosening with a rake. This will prevent the soil from drying out and help fight weeds. Before sowing or planting, the soil is dug up to ¾ of the depth of autumn processing.
After that, ridges or ridges are made. Ridge height 20-25 cm, width 120-140 cm; the height of the ridge is 20 cm, the width is 30 cm, the distance between the centers of the ridges is 70 cm. The ridges and ridges must be made two days before sowing seeds or planting seedlings so that the soil has time to warm up well. If the weather is dry, the ridges and ridges are slightly compacted, this helps to pull up moisture from the lower layers of the soil.
Seed preparation for sowing
A prerequisite for an early and high yield of zucchini is a thorough pre-sowing preparation of seeds. This improves their germination, reduces the risk of developing harmful diseases, and accelerates the development of plants.
For sowing, large, well-executed seeds are selected, rejecting puny and deformed seeds. To increase the germination and germination energy of seeds, you need to warm them up, especially if fresh seeds are taken for sowing. To do this, 1.5-2 months before sowing, the seeds are suspended in a cloth or gauze bag in a warm place, for example, near a heating battery.
Very important factors in pre-sowing treatment are disinfection, treatment with microelements and hardening of seeds. All these actions can be carried out in one step, combining them with soaking. For disinfection, the seeds in a gauze bag are placed in a one-percent solution of potassium permanganate heated to 40-45 ° C for 30-40 minutes; at the same time, both thermal disinfection and heating are carried out, if it has not been carried out earlier.
Then the seeds are washed in clean water and placed in a solution of trace elements. To prepare such a solution, 0.3 g of boric acid, 0.4 g of ammonium molybdate, 0.2 g of manganese sulfate, 0.02 g of succinic acid are added to 1 liter of water. Duration of soaking in a solution of trace elements - 18-24 hours at room temperature. Then the solution of microelements is drained and the seeds are hardened with variable temperatures.
To do this, the swollen seeds are placed in a damp cloth and kept for four days alternately: 12 hours at a temperature of 2 ° C (in the refrigerator) and 12 hours at a temperature of 18-20 ° C. These techniques affect the activation of growth processes, increase the resistance of plants to adverse weather conditions and contribute to an early and higher yield.
Growing zucchini in the open field
Zucchini variety Black handsome
Sowing. The timing of sowing zucchini seeds in open ground is determined by the climatic conditions of the growing region. Zucchini is a more cold-resistant crop than other pumpkin crops, but its seedlings are damaged by spring frosts. Therefore, sowing should be carried out when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to + 10 ... + 12 ° С, and the air temperature will be at least + 15 ... + 18 ° С, and the threat of frost has passed. In the southern and central parts of the Non-Chernozem zone, such conditions usually correspond to the first and second decades of May, in the North-West region - the first decade of June.
Before sowing with a hoe or shovel, make holes according to the scheme: on ridges with a row spacing of 70 cm - the distance between holes is 80-100 cm; on ridges with a width of 120-140 cm - the distance between rows is 60-70 cm, in a row 80-100 cm. So that the plants do not shade each other, it is better to arrange the holes in a checkerboard pattern. In the event that organic and mineral fertilizers have not been applied since autumn, 0.5-1 kg of humus, 30-40 g of granular superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium salt are added to each hole and mixed with the ground. If the soil is dry, it is watered at the rate of 1-1.5 liters of water per well.
2-3 seeds are sown in each hole, placing them at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Seeds are planted to a depth of 3-5 cm on heavy soils and 5-6 cm on light soils. From above, the holes are mulched with dry earth, peat or humus. To create more favorable conditions for germination, the ridge can be covered with a polymer film or non-woven material (spunbond or lutrasil), covered with earth at the edges.
If there are no special holes for plants in them, then after the emergence of seedlings they are removed. On waterlogged soils, a polymer film should not be used for this purpose, so as not to worsen the air regime of the soil. If you cut cross-shaped holes in the black spunbond spread along the ridge and plant seeds or seedlings of zucchini in them, then the shelter can then not be removed. It will help the soil to warm up better, allow rain moisture to pass through and inhibit the development of weeds.
You can get production 1-1.5 weeks earlier by planting seedlings in the cotyledon phase in open ground. The seeds are germinated for ten days in sawdust moistened with mullein solution (1:10). It is important not to allow the sawdust to dry out, for which they are periodically moistened with the same solution.
placed in a warm place, and after the emergence of shoots are transferred to a cooler place. Seedlings should be planted immediately after removing them from the sawdust, preventing the roots from drying out and direct sunlight.
Seedling method of growing. To obtain an earlier harvest, use
zucchini. Seedlings are grown in film greenhouses or greenhouses; in their absence, a small amount of seedlings can be grown on window sills facing south, southwest or southeast. A prerequisite for growing zucchini seedlings is sufficient illumination.
Seedlings are grownin peat pots
8-10 cm in diameter. Instead of pots, you can use plastic or paper cups without a bottom or with holes in the bottom. The soil for filling them can be purchased in stores or prepared by yourself. The main components of such a soil mixture are peat, sod or field land, humus in a ratio of 3: 1: 1. If not peat, but peat compost is used, the proportion of humus is reduced by 10%.
For 10 kg of soil mixture add 6 g of ammonium sulfate, 12 g of powdered superphosphate, 5 g of potassium sulfate. Instead of applying dry fertilizers, you can pour the filled pots with a solution of mineral fertilizers (for 10 liters of water - 20 g of nitrogen, 30 g of phosphorus and 20 g of potash) and mullein (1:10). With increased acidity of the prepared soil, lime, chalk or dolomite flour are added to it and the pH is brought to normal (6-7).
Pots or cups filled with soil are placed in shallow boxes, lining their bottom with foil. Before sowing, the soil is watered with warm water or a pink solution of potassium permanganate. The date of sowing seeds is determined depending on the timing of transplanting seedlings to a permanent place. The most optimal age for seedlings is 25-30 days.
It is better to sow seeds that have grown, placing them one at a time in each pot. Then the seeds are covered with the same soil with a layer of 2-3 cm and again watered with warm water from a watering can with a strainer. After the end of sowing, the boxes are covered with plastic wrap, transferred to a warm (+ 25 ... + 27 ° C) place and maintained at optimal humidity. When seedlings appear, the film is removed and the air temperature is lowered to + 16 ... + 18 ° C in order to prevent them from stretching. In five to six days, when the seedlings get stronger, the air temperature is raised to + 20 ... + 22 ° С.
Seedlings are watered with warm (+ 18 ... + 20 ° C) water, soil moisture should be moderate. Waterlogging leads to disruption of soil aeration and poor development of the root system, and in combination with high temperatures and insufficient illumination, it causes stretching of plants. The optimum air humidity is 70-80%.
Plant feeding is carried out twice. For the first time, 10-12-day-old seedlings are watered with a mullein solution (1:10), and, after another 10 days, with a solution of mineral fertilizers at the rate of: 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
7-10 days before planting, they begin to harden the seedlings, gradually reducing the temperature to + 15 ... + 18 ° С, and then - to + 12 ... + 15 ° С. This leads to a restructuring of the physiological processes in the plant, contributes to an increase in their resistance to low temperatures and good survival after transplantation. If all these growing conditions are met, the seedlings are strong, with short internodes, and have 2-3 well-developed true dark green leaves.
Zucchini seedlings are planted in open ground after the threat of the last spring frost has passed. It is advisable to plant in the afternoon, in the late afternoon, in cloudy weather - at any time of the day. A moderately warm, windless day is most favorable for planting. Seedling pots and holes are well spilled with water. Peat pots are placed in the hole and covered with soil, evenly and tightly squeezing 2 cm above the level of the upper edge.
If ceramic pots or made of film or paper were used for growing seedlings, they are removed, preventing the destruction of the clod of earth around the roots. Such seedlings must be buried in the hole to the cotyledon leaves. After planting, the plants are watered, the soil around them
dry humus, earth or peat. Until they take root, they need to be watered daily.
Plant care consists in loosening, weeding, watering and feeding, protecting againstdiseases and pests
... The first loosening is carried out after the emergence of seedlings or on the second day after planting the seedlings. If a crust begins to form on the soil, then loosening should be carried out even before the emergence of seedlings, so that the seedlings do not suffer from a lack of oxygen.
In the phase of the first true leaf, thinning of soil crops is carried out, leaving one plant in the hole. Weak plants are removed, carefully plucking them out so as not to damage the root system of the rest. Subsequent loosening and weeding is repeated as the soil crust appears and the crops are overgrown with weeds. Usually, at least three loosening and weeding is carried out before the leaves close.
Timely feeding is a prerequisite for obtaining high yields of squash. The first time the plants are fed in the phase of three to five leaves, the second - before the beginning of fruiting. In wet weather, fertilizers are applied dry, in dry weather - in liquid form. 15-17 g of ammonium sulfate, 10-15 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate are consumed per 1 m². In the second feeding, the dose of potash fertilizer is doubled, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer - one and a half times. On soils poor in humus, feeding with infusion of mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20) gives good results; the consumption rate per plant is 1 liter in the first feeding and 2 liters in the second.
Very responsive zucchini forfoliar feeding
, especially in the phase of 5-6 leaves, after prolonged cloudy weather. 10-15 g of urea and 1 tablet of microfertilizers are thoroughly dissolved in 10 liters of water. Spraying of plants is carried out in the evening to prevent the evaporation of water from the leaves before they absorb the nutrient solution. The leaves are evenly moistened, consuming a bucket of solution for 25-30 plants.
With abundant fruiting and noticeable depletion of plants, feeding is carried out during the fruiting period. Fertilization doses are the same as in the second top dressing.
With insufficient rainfall, especially during the period of intensive growth, zucchini requiresregular watering
... Watering is carried out in the afternoon or evening to reduce water loss from evaporation.The rate of water consumption is 5-6 liters per plant. It is important to loosen the soil shortly after watering - this avoids soil crust and moisture loss.
Read the next part. Diseases and pests of zucchini →
candidate of agricultural sciences,
VIR named after N.I. Vavilova
Photo by the author
Read all parts of the article "How to grow a high yield of zucchini fruits"
- Part 1. Zucchini, varieties and growing conditions
- Part 2. Growing marrow outdoors
- Part 3. Diseases and pests of zucchini
- Part 4. Growing marrow in film shelters
Varieties and varieties: which zucchini to choose for growing
There are two varieties of this vegetable culture - white-fruited and zucchini.
In white-fruited varieties, the fruits are cylindrical, light green, and have snow-white flesh. Notable representatives: Gribovskiy 37, Yakor, Kavali F1, Iskander, Salvador, Alba.
White-fruited zucchini Gribovsky 37 - a popular variety with light green fruits
Zucchini has a more varied skin color (yellow, green, variegated). Fruits are cylindrical, round, clavate. The pulp is crispy, snow-white. Zucchini form a small, non-branching bush, attract high yields.
Zucchini are also distinguished by strongly dissected leaves, often with white spots in the corners of the veins. Some inexperienced gardeners mistake them for powdery mildew and begin to intensively treat them. Popular zucchini varieties: Zebra, Tsukesha, Negritenok, Aeronaut, etc.
Zucchini zucchini "Aeronaut" has a delicate taste and thin skin
By the shape of the bush, zucchini can be divided into bush and climbing.
Bush varieties give bountiful yields and are easier to care for. Climbing zucchini take up more space (lashes up to 3-4 m), but they have a richer taste.
Climbing zucchini species require support, bushy - grow in a compact bush
Popular zucchini varieties
Zucchini variety Masha F1
Early maturing variety. The plant is bushy, compact. The leaf is medium-sized, green, with a mottling of medium intensity, slightly dissected. The fruit in technical ripeness is cylindrical, slightly ribbed, whitish-green in color with a pattern in the form of rare light green spots, of medium length and diameter. Fruit weight 0.7-1.1 kg., Elongated, glossy, light green. The pulp is medium density, tender. The taste is good and excellent. The variety is resistant to diseases, pests and unpredictability of the climate and is able to ripen well even in dry and rainy weather. Zucchini bushes are low.
Zucchini variety Apollo F1
The guarantor of an excellent harvest in absolutely any weather. The plant bears fruit amicably, even if planted in dense shade. An early ripening hybrid (its ripening period is 38-41 days) is good because it can be harvested in any weather. In shape, its fruits are the most ordinary - elongated-cylindrical, white, with a slightly noticeable slight greenish tinge, but large, weighing 3-3.5 kg, and the pulp is very tender and tasty.
Zucchini variety Odessa
Early ripening variety (from germination to technical ripeness - 40-41 days). Bush plant. The fruit is cylindrical, smooth, milky or pale green in color. The pulp in technical ripeness is light yellow or pinkish yellow. Disease resistant. Recommended for fresh consumption and canning.
Zucchini variety Kveta
The variety is represented by semi-bushy plants with one main whip up to 100 cm long. Zucchini belongs to varieties of early ripening (early ripening). The period from full sprouting to the onset of technical ripeness is 34–54 days. The pumpkin is cylindrical or clavate, smooth, weighing 0.7–1.8 kg. The color in the phase of technical and full ripeness is whitish. The pulp is whitish-yellow, thick, tender, juicy. The palatability of the fruit is good. Marketable yield is stable and amounts to 2.7–6.3 kg / m 2. The variety is relatively resistant to downy mildew and fungal fruit rot. Recommended as one of the best varieties for canning young fruits, home cooking and cooking squash caviar.
Zucchini variety White
Unpretentious in cultivation. An ultra-early ripening variety of seeds of marrows "White" with a good yield. The ripening period from germination to harvest is 35 to 40 days. Fruits are white, medium in size, oval in shape, slightly elongated. The pulp is firm, pale cream in color, very juicy with excellent taste. The mass of one zucchini in ripe form is from 600 gr. up to 1 kg. Zucchini seed variety "White" is resistant to various forms of the disease. Suitable for long-term storage. It is widely used in cooking to prepare a variety of dishes. Suitable for canning and pickling, for baby and diet food.
Zucchini variety Gribovsky-37
The variety is medium early. From the emergence of seedlings to the first fruits, an average of 46-57 days pass. Zucchini is zoned for Russian regions and the CIS countries. The variety has been bred for a long time and has proven itself well. The plant is resistant to many diseases, such as bacteriosis, powdery mildew, and vegetable rot. The squash bush is well developed with strong branches. The leaf petiole can reach a length of 32 cm. The shape is pentagonal, the contour is slightly dissected. Saturated green color of the leaf without white blotches. differs in unpretentiousness to growing conditions. It is considered to be high yielding. From one square meter of planting, you can get 8.5 kg of zucchini.
Zucchini variety Belogor F1
The variety is hybrid, early maturing. It is represented by compact, bush-shaped plants with predominantly one stem. The main shoot is short. The leaf is green, with whitish spots, of medium size, relatively dissected. The pumpkin is cylindrical, weighing 0.5–1.0 kg. The surface is smooth, greenish-white, without mesh or pattern. The bark is thin, woody. The pulp is white, medium, dense, tender, slightly juicy. The hybrid is prized for the good taste of the processed products. Marketable yield is high and amounts to 3.6–14.3 kg / m 2, depending on growing conditions. The hybrid is relatively resistant to gray mold. Recommended for canning and cooking squash caviar.
Zucchini variety Nemchinovsky
One of the best zucchini hybrids. Early ripening begins to bear fruit on the 38-48th day after germination. The fruit is cylindrical, weakly pubic, pale green, up to 30 cm long, weighing 610-770 g. The pulp is tender, juicy. Differs in a friendly return of the harvest. In wet weather, it is affected by powdery mildew.
Zucchini variety Zolotinka
Zucchini is a bushy and compact plant. It begins to release small lashes only in the second half of its development. From one bush, you can collect up to 15 bright yellow zucchini. The variety is early maturing, harvesting can begin within 47-50 days from the moment of planting. Fruits, which are 15 cm long, have a dense, smooth skin and an orange or yellow-orange sweet, crunchy flesh. The Zolotinka variety is ideal for feeding babies from 1 to 7 years old. Fruit pulp does not lose density when canned.
Zucchini variety Anchor
An early ripening variety, fruit ripening occurs 41–49 days from germination. The bushy form of a plant with weak foliage does not require thinning of the leaves during the formation of ovaries. The light green cylindrical fruits have an average weight of 0.9 kg, juicy light yellow flesh and good taste. At the stage of technical ripeness, they acquire a light yellow color. The variety is very productive - 7.5–9.7 kg / sq. m. Suitable for commercial production.
Zucchini variety Spaghetti
This variety received this name because the flesh of the zucchini, after heat treatment, begins to break down into fibers that resemble pasta. Medium late variety - ripening occurs after 95-130 days. Their length reaches 30 cm. As they mature, they change color from green to yellow. There are varieties of whitish ripeness. The skin is dense, like a pumpkin. Weight from 0.7 to 1.2 kg. Vegetable growers note good transportability.
Zucchini variety Aeronaut
The variety belongs to the category of early maturing subspecies of zucchini and begins to bear fruit 44-47 days after planting. Bush plant. The ovary is cylindrical, with an outer thin smooth integument of a dark green color, mottled with a dotted pattern. The inner tissues of the fruit are delicate, white-yellow in color, with a piquant taste. The vegetable is intended for culinary use. The technical ripeness of the fruit is preserved with a weight of up to 1300 g. The length of the commercial ovary is 14-15 cm. During the fruiting period, up to 7 kg of pumpkins per m² are harvested. The variety is intended for cultivation in greenhouses and in open space conditions.
Zucchini variety Rolik
Zucchini belongs to the ultra-early ripening varieties. The period from full germination to the first harvest of fruits is 36–38 days. It is represented by bushy plants with shortened internodes. The foliage is weak, the main lash is up to 35 cm long. The leaf is pentagonal, strongly dissected, small, green, sometimes with small white spots. The pumpkin is oval, smooth, white. There is no grid or drawing. The pulp in marketable ripeness is light green, of medium thickness, loose, tender and slightly juicy. Fruit weight 0.9–1.3 kg. Productivity 7.0 kg / m 2. The crop is characterized by good keeping quality. Recommended for use in the canning industry and home cooking.
Zucchini variety Cavili
Cavili is a hybrid variety and is marked with the special F1 label. He showed himself excellently in the greenhouse and in the open field. The internodes are small. Leaves and petioles are covered with prickly pubescence. The fruits have a beautiful cylindrical shape, 16 - 22 cm long. The weight of a ripe marrow is 320 g, but it can grow up to 500 g. The color, traditional for many species, is light green. The skin on young fruits is thin, on overripe ones - more dense. The pulp is white or slightly greenish. Very tender and juicy with excellent taste. Even overripe fruits taste good and have a delicate texture.
Zucchini variety Diamant
Early ripe variety 40-47 days (from germination to first fruiting). Productivity 6.5-7.2 kg / m2. The plant is compact, medium-growing, the leaf is large, dark green, strongly dissected, the spotting is weak. Harvesting 1-2 times a week, avoiding overgrowth. Fruits are dark green, cylindrical, with a smooth, even surface, a mottled pattern on the skin. Weight 0.6-0.9 kg, length up to 30 cm. Taste and marketability are excellent. The pulp is dense, tender, sweet, juicy. The commercial qualities are high, they perfectly tolerate transportation over long distances. Zucchini of this hybrid variety belongs to the zucchini variety type, they have an excellent taste, young zucchini are suitable for side dishes, salads. They can be canned, stewed with any vegetables, and fried. Ripe large fruits are stored for up to 4 months.
Zucchini variety Tsukesh
An early maturing variety with an unusually beautiful skin color. While the ovary weighs up to 200 g, it is about 10-15 cm, it is used in fresh salads along with the peel. The low level of astringents and the long absence of grains are the conditions due to which the choice is made on it. The variety is suitable for all types of storage and processing. According to the description, it is cold-resistant both at the moment of growth and for storage. Technical ripeness occurs on the 40-50th day. Fruits weighing 700-900g. From 1 sq.m. you can get 12-15 kg of fruit.
Zucchini variety Parthenon
A Dutch breeding hybrid, very compact and productive. For 1 sq. m you can place 3-4 bushes and collect up to 15 kg of fruit. Good fruit set without insects and early ripening make this variety an excellent candidate for planting in greenhouses. Fruits of the variety are dark green, cylindrical with light green dense, juicy and tasty pulp. It can be used not only for canning and preparing various dishes, but also eaten raw. The fruiting period of zucchini is very long and can stretch until September.
Preparing a garden for zucchini
Allocate a sunny and wind-protected area for zucchini. All varieties of zucchini grow well on chernozem soils and light loams. Avoid clay and peaty soils. Agronomists recommend often changing the place of planting zucchini and every two years to allocate new beds for them in your garden. Growing zucchini outdoors requires that you pay attention to the "predecessors" - the plants grown in the previous season. The places where potatoes, root vegetables, cabbage and peas grew are suitable.
The soil is dug up to a depth of 22–27 cm and organic fertilizers are introduced into it, at the rate of 30–50 kg 10 sq. M. In the absence of manure or compost, mineral fertilizers are applied 500–800 grams / 10 sq. M. In spring, soil care is not so difficult, the soil is simply loosened to a depth of 10-15 cm. If it was not possible to apply top dressing in the fall, and planting zucchini is planned in a week, apply organic fertilizers immediately. Organics require 10–20 kg / 10 sq. m of mineral fertilizers - superphosphate 150 g, potassium salt 70 g, ammonium sulfate 70 g per 10 sq.m. Before sowing, the soil is harrowed with a rake - such care will help break the soil into small fractions and the soil will warm up better.
Planting zucchini in open ground
The seedling method of growing zucchini allows you to bring the first fruits closer and increase yields. Seedlings are usually difficult to take root, so they are most often grown in cut-bottom plastic cups or in peat pots.
In open ground, marrow seedlings are planted at the age of 20-25 days. Transplantation of zucchini with formed leaves on the garden bed is carried out when the threat of frost has passed and the soil has warmed up to + 16 ... 18 C. Sowing with seeds is possible at lower temperatures from + 9 ... 13 C.
Before planting, the seedlings should have 2-3 true dark green leaves with a short stumpy stem, and the root system of young plants should tightly cover the entire volume of the cube, the roots should be white, intact. Such seedlings will painlessly take root in the new conditions of open ground. More mature zucchini seedlings take root much worse.
It is necessary to plant seedlings in cloudy weather or in the afternoon, in the late afternoon. If the weather is sunny, then the planting should be shaded so that the plants do not wilt, this is especially important if the sunny weather is accompanied by a strong dry wind.
If your seedlings are stretched out during cultivation, then it can be buried to the cotyledonous leaves by slightly tilting the stem. After planting, the plants must be watered abundantly with warm water, preventing it from drying out in the future.
In the phase of 3-4 true leaves, and then every 3 weeks, it is advisable to add humus, soil or peat under the plants, and not to rake the soil from the surface, exposing and damaging the roots.
Zucchini grows quickly, especially when the weather is favorable. Within a week after planting, the plants bloom. Ideally, when the male and female flowers bloom at the same time. But if after 3-4 days you notice that the ovary does not increase in volume, it means that pollination has not occurred. You will have to do this work instead of a bee, especially if the weather is inclement.
Zucchini usually do not need shaping. However, during the flowering period, if the vegetative mass has grown to the detriment of the fruits, in order to improve the conditions for pollination of flowers by insects in the morning in sunny weather, it is necessary to cut off 2-3 central leaves. It is also necessary to systematically remove aging leaves and rotted fruits.
The land in which the zucchini is grown should be warm, loose and sufficiently permeable to water. The procedure for loosening on loam should be carried out more often than on sandy soil, since this type of soil is capable of forming a rather hard crust. Loosening is usually combined with weeding.
Outdoor zucchini care involves regular, but not very frequent watering. One abundant watering every 10 days will be enough.The water temperature is also important. Ovaries can rot if too cold. Shortly before harvesting, watering should be stopped so that the fruits do not deteriorate. When growing this vegetable crop under a film, you need to remember that it does not tolerate high humidity, so the greenhouse should be ventilated.
Caring for zucchini in the open field also consists in the timely feeding of the plant. This is especially true during the growing season. The first time fertilization is applied before flowering. The optimal solution is mullein with nitrophos, diluted with water. The second time feeding is done during flowering, and the third time - when the fruits appear.
Diseases and pests of zucchini
Basically, zucchini suffers from three serious diseases.
This is a fungal disease. To determine it simply by the appearance of a white bloom on the foliage. The plant looks like it is sprinkled with flour, which is why the disease was named. Affected leaves become brittle and eventually dry out.
This disease develops in cold, damp and cloudy weather. When the temperature rises above 20 degrees, the development of the disease stops by itself, especially with a clear sky in the sun.
Of the old remedies, it is recommended to dust the affected areas with colloidal sulfur powder. Dusting with wood ash may help. This dries up the leaf and creates an unfavorable environment for the development of the fungus.
Copper-containing preparations are also used - a Bordeaux mixture or a solution of copper sulfate: 7 g of copper sulfate and 30 g of laundry soap dissolved in water are added to 10 liters of water.
A numerous group of drugs to combat precisely fungal diseases are called fungicides. Modern fungicides recommended for use in small crop production - Topaz, etc. (there are more than 100 names today) are used in extreme cases according to the instructions on the packages.
It appears from below on the stems. First, the root collar rots, then the lesion spreads up the stems and down, affecting the roots. The onset of the disease is determined by the appearance of brown spots. This is also a fungal disease, and the control measures are the same as for powdery mildew. Watering with cold water and sudden changes in temperature can provoke the disease.
Plant completely killed by disease
It is a bacterial disease. First, it affects the fruits of squash. Determined by the following criteria:
- At the first stage, the ovary stops growing.
- Then it becomes vitreous, the top of the ovary begins to rot.
- The fruit at the leg continues to grow for some time, eventually acquiring an ugly shape.
Watering with cold water, too high humidity, unfavorable growth conditions provoke the disease.
The affected fetus should be removed
Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology can be considered prevention. A strong plant, under good growing conditions, is able to withstand disease. Also, you can not injure (break, scratch) stems, leaves and fruits. The infection enters primarily through open wounds.
For the prevention and treatment of this (and other non-fungal diseases), spraying with the following folk remedies helps:
- For 10 liters of water, 1 liter of any fermented milk products (kefir, whey, fermented baked milk) and 1 tbsp. spoon for treatment or 1 teaspoon for the prevention of pharmacy tincture of iodine.
- 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution (100 g bottle of pharmacy 3% peroxide per 1 liter of water).
Pests rarely affect the coarse foliage of zucchini. The main and most dangerous pest of zucchini is the larvae of the butterfly moth. They gnaw through the stem and settle inside, feeding on the tissues of the plant. As a result, this can lead to the death of the entire bush. It is not easy to spot them, as they live in the ground and are nocturnal. Treating the soil with pesticides does nothing, since poisons do not get on pests.
However, the measures to combat them are simple:
- Weed and loosen the soil regularly. This procedure, necessary in itself, destroys the eggs and larvae of the pest.
- At the beginning of the butterfly's flight, when it has not yet laid eggs, they set up sticky traps - industrial from stores or from sugar syrup, kvass, fermented juice, jam.
This will help get rid of the bulk of the pests. Single larvae cannot do much damage.
If the zucchini weakly builds up the green mass, does not form or sheds the ovary, the reasons are most often in unfavorable growth conditions.
- The temperature is below 12 and above 30 degrees.
- Root locking due to excessive moisture.
- Drying out of the soil.
- Landing in the shade.
- Critically unsuitable ground, for example, among construction waste.
- The bee does not fly to pollinate bee-pollinated varieties.
It is not possible to diagnose each case in absentia, but everything can be figured out on the spot, knowing the basic rules of agricultural technology.
The zucchini culture is so problem-free and grateful that somehow you don't even think about the yield, timing, etc. The only thing that bothered me was the seedling method. This is uncomfortable for me. But under a temporary shelter I plant it myself with dry seeds for the May holidays (before the earth was still cold), and they produce until the first autumn frosts ...
I have been planting the Kavili hybrid for 9 years now, three plants are enough for us. There is nowhere to put them. They grow like a Christmas tree, there are more fruits than leaves. In general, all imported hybrids are very productive. Our seed production falls short of them. I plant seedlings early, always on April 5, in the ground for May under the film. First, we collect small ones, then we gorge ourselves, and disgrace begins on the zucchini, hippos grow up to 70 cm and up to 4 kg, this is already for processing.Busyasha
For me, seedlings are not a problem, I do not grow at home, but in a greenhouse. In April, I put earth + sand + compost and a little ash in liter pots. I send a seed there (I soak it beforehand) and it's all short-lived. The pots are in the greenhouse, no lighting is needed, the main thing is not to forget to water in time.
And now I will only plant zucchini in barrels. The Cavili variety grew in a barrel this summer. I feel sorry for the garden bed for zucchini, I save space. They stand under the sink, do not interfere with anyone. I tamp the plant waste into a barrel (full of holes) in the fall, pour the earth on top in the spring and that's it. I sow 3 seeds in a barrel, while the threat of frost sprout under the "roof" of lutrasil, then I take them off, and the three of them grow.Cousin mom
Video: how to get an early harvest of zucchini
In summer, zucchini is consumed in small quantities. Apparently, because at this time is the season for a variety of delicious vegetables and fruits. It is not required as much as needed for a year, for example, potatoes and cabbage. But there are many great recipes for canning this vegetable, including the famous caviar. When calculating the needs of the family, you need to know that under normal conditions, a squash can give 80-100 kg of marketable fruits from 10 square meters. m. And, of course, this dietary product is needed in the modern diet, as an important element of a varied and nutritious diet.
All varieties of zucchini are divided into white-fruited varieties and zucchini-zucchini. The latter are mainly represented by varieties of foreign selection. They differ from zucchini in thicker walls and a small number of seeds, which, moreover, do not ripen, since mainly zucchini are represented by hybrids. Due to their characteristics, zucchini can lie in the garden for a long time without overgrowing. They hardly rot and retain their presentation for a long time. In addition, they are suitable for winter storage and fresh consumption.
The most popular zucchini variety is Aeronaut, a compact bush, predominantly of the female flowering type, resistant to diseases and pests. Productivity up to 7 kg / sq., Early ripening, fruit weight 1.3-1.5 kg with juicy thick pulp. The variety is quite transportable, suitable for fresh consumption, harvesting and winter storage.
Another famous zucchini zucchini is Zebra. Differs in a characteristic striped pattern on the surface, good resistance to low temperatures. This is one of the most productive varieties of universal consumption. The variety is rather early ripening, technical maturity occurs 38 days after sowing. Fruit weight 0.5-0.8 kg, well stored in winter.
You will need seeds for any propagation method. Seed material is not easy to find in specialized stores, so you can try to harvest it by hand. Be prepared for very small seeds. ProceDypa:
- Wait for the end of flowering.
- Collect the boxes that have formed in place of the buds.
- Place them in water for 1 hour. The boxes should be soaked.
- Open them up and collect the seeds.
- Rinse the material. Dry in the sun.
Attention! Dorotheanthus seeds remain viable for 2 years.
It is better to plant seedlings in late March - early April. Use a large box. Breeding conditions are similar to seeds planted in open ground. Expect seedlings to appear in 1.5-2 weeks. Grow at room temperature for 20 days after that, then gradually lower it to +18 ° C, then to +10 ° C.
Plant dorotheanthus in an open, sunny area
The lighting is plentiful. Watering - in minimal portions. After 3-4 weeks, the seedlings are ready for picking into peat pots. Transplant to the site at the end of May.
Attention! Don't worry if the plant starts to bloom by the time you move the pot to the open field. This will not affect the quality of reproduction and subsequent cultivation in any way.
Growing zucchini and squash in the open field - choosing a place, variety, care
Let's talk about growing zucchini and squash in the open field. Zucchini and squash are annual vegetable plants of the pumpkin family. Anyone who has been involved in their cultivation, planting care, harvesting can attest to what fruitful vegetables they are! Ripen quickly, without much hassle. And after they begin to bear fruit, they can no longer be stopped. That is why they are so popular in our gardens.
The homeland of the squash is America. There they were engaged in the cultivation of zucchini 3 thousand years ago BC. But for food they used mainly plant seeds. The marrow was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, along with potatoes and tobacco. About 20 years ago, a variety of zucchini appeared - zucchini. They differ from the usual ones in that their peel is very soft, they are much softer, tastier than just zucchini.
Zucchini are varied in shape and color. They are very fruitful, early maturing. Some varieties can be stored until March-April.
Varieties and hybrids are numerous - zucchini-zucchini Astoria, Golda F1, zucchini White Swan, Anchor, Tsukesha, Zheltoplodny, Gribovsky, Kuand, Kavili F1, others.
The agrotechnology for growing zucchini and zucchini is the same, so below in the text we will call all their varieties zucchini.
Zucchini can be grown not only in the garden. They grow well near the fence, outside the greenhouse, that is, where something else will not even grow. But the place must be sunny. They don't require as much heat as cucumbers. They grow and harvest all summer long.
Growing zucchini - so how can you do it right to benefit you?
These are quite hygrophilous plants. When growing zucchini through seedlings or sowing in open ground, one rule should be followed without fail - spill the beds well the day before. This will help reduce stress on the seedlings and germinate the seeds faster if you plant them directly into the soil.
How to choose the right place for planting zucchini? Like any plant, they love the sun. That is, a place for growing zucchini, choose a sunny one for planting them.
If you are planting seedlings, then dig shallow (5-7 cm) holes, add 1 tablespoon of azophoska to each. Remember to stir the soil inside the hole to avoid scalding the roots. Pour some water into it. Deepen the zucchini bush to the first leaf.
When sowing with seeds, also pour the same mineral fertilizers on the bottom of a shallow hole, mix, water and spread 2-3 seeds on a wet surface. Seedlings appear in 6-7 days.
If you live in the middle lane, in the north-west of our country, Siberia, I advise you to provide protection from northern cold winds when growing zucchini even during planting. In our Kuban, I also noticed that the zucchini growing next to the shelter are much ahead of their counterparts growing in an open place in growth.
Such shelter can be a small stack of cut grass, a barn wall, a fence, an old metal barrel placed on the north side, or just a pile of dirt. During the day, all this protection will heat up, and at night it will give off heat to the zucchini, that is, day and night temperature drops will not be so noticeable for plants. You will definitely notice the difference between plants growing in an open area or under protection. The bushes of protected zucchini delight with their well-being, the intense dark green color indicates favorable conditions, the leaves reach enormous sizes. The harvest is also pleasing.
How to care for zucchini? Zucchini love organic matter, respond well to mulching. Weeding is important for zucchini when they are small and the weeds are large. It is undesirable for the grass to take nutrients from the soil from them. But after the tops rise up, the weeds are practically not afraid of it. Under the bursty leaves of the squash, the grass does not grow very much.
Another secret of growing zucchini. At the time of their flowering, watering should be suspended. Renew it only after the beginning of fruit setting. The thing is that their pollen becomes heavy when watering - bees or insects may not be able to cope with pollination. But, frankly, zucchini or squash are so fruitful that sometimes you don't know where to put the crop, so, personally, my head does not hurt whether they are tied up or not. Almost never left without a crop.
If your zucchini grows in mulch, then watering will not be so burdensome. And, of course, you need to cut off the zucchini from time to time - young and not so much, so that new ones can be tied. You can leave 2-3 pieces for seeds, and the rest should not be allowed to outgrow.
I made this mistake last year. It was hot, the zucchini leaves wilted, some of them began to turn yellow. I decided to cover some bushes with lutrasil. And what? With this, I closed all the flowers from bees, flies that pollinate them. For a while, the fruits, naturally, ceased to be tied. Until I realized this, time passed. On these bushes, I began to pick zucchini only in August.
As soon as the temperature at night (August, September) begins to drop below 10 ° C, you can cover planting zucchini with spunbond, lutrasil or any other covering material. This will prolong the harvest period.
You have reaped a rich crop of courgettes. How to store them correctly? Let's figure it out. Zucchini or squash are usually eaten when the fruit is not more than 10 days old. The seeds are still small. And over time, there are fewer nutrients. Therefore, it makes no sense to store them. It is better to process young zucchini or squash, make blanks.
Only ripe zucchini zucchini fruits can be left stored.
There is a very interesting variety of zucchini - Winter Beauty. It is a very easy-to-eat variety. It keeps well until April next year in room conditions. The pulp remains juicy. The rind, of course, is hard, but it belongs to the hard-peeled varieties. The seeds will not germinate inside, they will be suitable for planting for the next 5 years.
Squash has been grown in Russia for 1.5 centuries. They did not receive wide distribution. Although, in my opinion, the taste of squash is softer than zucchini, especially pickled ones.
Their fruits are very diverse in shape. They can be plate-like, with or without cloves, bell-shaped. The color of the squash can also be different - white, yellow of different shades, green, purple.
Usually, white varieties of squash are more popular - Disc, Umbrella, Rodeo, and others. Yellow varieties - Sun, Fouette, UFO orange. The purple variety is Bingo Bongo. Green varieties - Chunga-Changa, Gosha.
The agrotechnology for growing squash is the same as for squash, only it should be borne in mind that squash is more thermophilic, therefore, more compost is added when planting. It is better to pick them when young. Like zucchini, squash, the longer they grow, the tougher they become.
I don't know about you, but I'm just in love with zucchini, squash. I fry them, make pancakes out of them, and preserve them. How delicious they are! It is a pleasure to open a jar of pickled zucchini or squash in winter, eat them with crumbly potatoes. Caviar, salads, snacks! And what an extraordinary jam is obtained from zucchini! There are so many dishes to cook!
I was always surprised to see some people say: I don’t like zucchini… Well, how can you not love them ?!
Zucchini, squash, dietary vegetables. Useful. Even medicinal. Dishes made from them are useful for those who are losing weight and those who want to get better. Yes Yes! Do not be surprised! She herself witnessed such a story. She worked in the same organization with two women. Both waited for summer to feast on zucchini. One had a goal - to lose weight, and the other - to get better. Each of them achieved its goal. Moreover, they ate practically the same dishes. Well, perhaps, for weight loss, one of them did not include zucchini pancakes in their menu.