Plant paprika (lat.Capsicum annuum) belongs to the species of herbaceous annuals of the genus Capsicum of the Solanaceae family, widely cultivated in agriculture. A native of the vegetable pepper from Central America, it came to Europe in the 15th century and, despite the exacting care and increased thermophilicity, quickly became the most popular garden plant. Today there are about 2,000 varieties of capsicum, but most of them belong to the sweet pepper subspecies, and others - to the bitter pepper subspecies.
In this article, we will tell you about how to plant peppers, how to dive peppers, how to water peppers, how to fertilize peppers, how to grow pepper seedlings and when to plant sweet pepper seedlings. Bitter pepper will be the topic of a separate article.
Planting and caring for peppers
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in February or March, planting seedlings of peppers in a garden bed - at the stage of formation of the first buds, in late May or early June.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, neutral, well-drained and fertilized in advance.
- Predecessors: good - cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, green manure, pumpkin; bad - all nightshade crops, including pepper.
- Watering: before flowering - once a week, during the period of fruit formation - 2 times a week at a consumption of up to 6 liters of water per m².
- Top dressing: twice in the seedling period: two weeks after the pick and at the stage of development of the second pair of leaves, then twice after planting the pepper in the ground. Both organic and mineral solutions are used as fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: spider mites, aphids, slugs, wireworms.
- Diseases: verticilliasis, bronze (or spotted wilting), phytoplasmosis (or stolbur), late blight, fusarium, black leg, apical and gray rot.
Read more about growing peppers below.
Sweet pepper, or paprika, is an annual vegetable that is naturally a perennial shrub. Its leaves are simple, petiolate, collected in a rosette or single, the color of the leaves, depending on the variety and variety, can be of different shades of green. The flowers of the pepper are axillary, large, collected in a bunch or single, with a white, purple or greenish corolla. The fruits are false, hollow polyspermous berries of yellow, red, brown or orange color of various shapes, weights and sizes.
Growing pepper from seeds
How to sow seeds
Sweet peppers in our latitudes are usually grown by seedling seed method. The timing of sowing seeds for seedlings depends on climatic conditions, however, in any case, sowing sweet pepper is carried out no later than the beginning of March.
Planting pepper on seedlings begins with pre-sowing seed treatment: first, they are immersed in water at a temperature of 50 ºC for swelling for five to six hours, then, wrapped in a damp cloth, they wait 2-3 days at a temperature of about 20 ºC for the seeds to bite, and only after that they are sown in the ground. Such preparation of seeds accelerates their germination, and seedlings may appear within 2-3 days after sowing.
The soil for pepper seedlings is prepared as follows: 2 cups of garden humus are mixed with 1 glass of sand, one glass of garden soil, add a spoon or two of wood ash, stir well and sterilize this mixture in the oven or in the microwave, then put it still hot in boxes, level it , allow to cool to 40-45 ºC and spread the seeds on it at intervals of 5 cm from each other with a depth of 1.5-2 cm. But it is better to put the seeds in peat pots, since the pepper does not tolerate a pick. Crops must be watered, and then cover the seedling containers with polyethylene or glass and place in a warm place - the temperature required for seed germination is 21-22 ºC.
Growing pepper seedlings is not much different from growing seedlings of any other vegetable. As soon as the first shoots appear, the temperature in the room rises in the daytime to 26-28 ºC, and at night the seedlings need coolness - 10-15 ºC. Keep an eye on the moisture content of the soil in containers with seedlings - it should be moderate, as in too wet soil, plants can get sick with a black leg. However, the soil should not be allowed to dry out either. Water the seedlings with settled warm water - about 30 ºC, the cold water makes the seedlings sick, wither and die.
Seedling care involves the creation of high humidity in the room, so the seedlings should be sprayed from time to time. In addition, regular airing of the room is necessary, but do not let the seedlings get into the draft. You may need to arrange additional lighting for the seedlings as they need to be exposed to light from 7 am to 9 pm.
In the development phase of the seedlings of the first pair of leaves, they dive. If you sowed seeds in peat pots, then you do not need to dive, but if your seedlings grow in boxes, when diving, the seedlings are placed from boxes into peat pots 8x8 cm in size and buried in the ground up to cotyledon leaves.
The pickled peppers, after they take root in the cups, begin to develop intensively, and shortly before the solemn moment of planting the seedlings in the open ground, they begin to accustom them to the environment in which they have to find themselves: the seedlings are daily taken out into the fresh air for a short time, but gradually the time of in new conditions, they increase, preventing the seedlings from getting into a draft or under “frost” below 13 ºC.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, pepper is fertilized, and at least twice: two weeks after the pick or in the phase of formation of the first pair of leaves in the seedlings, and then after another two weeks, or when the second pair of leaves develops in the seedlings. Top dressing is best applied in liquid form. The best fertilizers for seedlings are Agricola, Solution, Krepysh, Fertika Lux.
Growing pepper on a windowsill
In order to grow sweet peppers at home, you need self-pollinating seeds, a good substrate, phytolamp and a place in the apartment where the sun shines for at least 3-4 hours a day. When your potted peppers are blooming, shake them at least once a day to ensure successful pollination. Large fruits take a lot of energy from the bush, so leave 5-6 ovaries for ripening, and remove the rest.
Fruiting crops quickly deplete the soil in which they grow, so it is necessary to feed the pepper bush once every 2-3 weeks by adding a teaspoon of Agrolife to the topsoil or watering the soil with a solution of one cap of the Growth preparation in two liters of water.
Sweet pepper at home is a perennial plant, and it will not be superfluous to pour fresh vermicompost into the pot every two months, as long as the capacity allows, or to transplant the bush into larger pots when the need arises. To prolong the life of the plant, it is advisable to carry out a small annual spring rejuvenating pruning of pepper, and then you are guaranteed a harvest of fruits for several years.
Planting pepper in open ground
When to plant
Grown, matured and hardened seedlings at the stage of formation of the first buds are planted in open ground when the air temperature reaches 15-17 ºС. Typically, planting pepper in the ground occurs at the end of May - mid-June.
Sweet peppers love light, non-acidic soils, but you need to prepare a site for pepper a year before planting. Moreover, it is not at all necessary that nothing grows in this place for a year, it is just that the soil is prepared for crops preceding the pepper, the best of which are cucumber, zucchini, carrots, onions, pumpkin or green manure. But after crops such as eggplant, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, physalis - in short, after nightshades, peppers are not grown.
When preparing the soil for the spring planting of predecessors, 5 kg of organic matter is added per 1 m2 for a year for digging, and in the fall, after harvesting, the site is dug up with the addition of 50 g of phosphorus and potash fertilizers to the same unit of area. In the spring, in the year of planting pepper, 40 g of ammonium nitrate is added to the topsoil for each m², and five days before planting the seedlings, the area is spilled into the ground with a disinfecting solution, adding a tablespoon of copper sulfate to a bucket of water.
How to plant in the ground
In the bed, holes are made at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other, and the distance between the rows is about 60 cm. The depth of the hole should be such that the root collar of the seedling after planting is flush with the surface of the site. Spread one tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer in the wells, which includes nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, and thoroughly mix the pepper fertilizer with the soil at the bottom of the well.
If the seedlings grew in peat pots, then lower the seedling into the hole right with it, and if you grew seedlings in a common container, then carefully remove the pepper from it, trying not to destroy the earthen ball, and lower it into the hole. Fill the hole halfway with fertile soil, then water each plant abundantly, using one bucket of water for three seedlings, and when the water is absorbed, fill the holes with earth to the top. After planting, it is advisable to mulch the area with sweet peppers with peat. If temperatures drop below 13 ºC at night, planted seedlings will need shelter.
Growing pepper in a greenhouse
There are varieties of peppers for open ground, and there are those that can only be grown in greenhouses. Pepper varieties include Arnes, Accord, Alyonushka, Vesper, Bonus, Atlant, Buratino, Orange miracle, Tenderness, Swallow, Nochka and others. First, the seeds are sown on seedlings, and when they grow up and undergo hardening procedures on the balcony or terrace, they are planted in the greenhouse soil. Sowing seeds and the stages of growing seedlings, we have just described to you.
Planting pepper in the greenhouse it is carried out when the seedlings reach a height of 25 cm and an age of at least 55 days, it has a thick green stem and 12-14 leaves each, in the axils of which buds are already formed. The soil in an unheated greenhouse should be warmed up to 15 ºC by the time the seedlings are placed in it, so replanting is unlikely to take place earlier than May 15.
Before planting, the soil for pepper in the greenhouse is fertilized with potash and phosphorus fertilizers at the rate of 30 g of the first and 40 g of the second per m² and watered abundantly. The planting density of seedlings depends on the variety: 35 cm should be left between the seedlings of vigorous varieties, an interval of 25 cm is sufficient between medium-sized seedlings, and early maturing undersized varieties are planted at a distance of 15 cm from each other. The distance between the rows is from 35 to 60 cm. After planting the seedlings in the holes, the soil is compacted and mulched with peat.
Growing pepper in the open field involves timely watering, weeding and loosening of the site, garters and feeding the plants. Professionals recommend removing the central flower from the first branch on each bush - this should increase the yield of pepper. Also, to increase the yield, the bushes are formed into 2-3 stems, for which it is necessary to promptly remove the resulting lateral shoots - stepchildren. They do this in hot and always humid weather. No more than 20-25 fruits can be left on one plant.
When planting seedlings of high varieties of pepper into the ground, drive in a peg right next to each seedling, to which, if necessary, you will tie a bush.
For successful pollination of pepper, it is necessary to attract pollinating insects to the site, for which the bushes are sprayed with boric-sugar syrup, dissolving 2 g of boric acid and 100 g of sugar in a liter of hot water. And refuse to treat the garden with pesticides from the moment the pepper blooms, otherwise the insects pollinating the pepper may die.
After planting in open ground, the seedling looks somewhat sluggish, but this is quite natural, so it is very important at this time not to overdo it with soil moisture. Before flowering, you need to water the pepper once a week, and during the period of fruit formation you will have to water it twice a week at the rate of 6 liters of water per m². After watering, you need to very carefully loosen the soil between the rows, taking care not to damage the superficial root system of the plants.
Watering the pepper is carried out with warm, settled water from a watering can by sprinkling. From a lack of moisture, pepper slows down growth and can shed flowers and ovary. To keep the soil moist, experienced gardeners recommend mulching the area with pepper with a ten-centimeter layer of rotted straw.
After dressing in the seedling stage, pepper in the open field is fertilized twice with a solution of chicken manure at a concentration of 1:10, and foliar dressing is also used with a solution of a tablespoon of nitrophoska in a bucket of water. Twisted pepper leaves with a dry border around the edges will tell you that there is not enough potassium in the soil, but do not use potassium chloride as a fertilizer - pepper does not tolerate chlorine.
From lack of nitrogen the leaves acquire a dull, gray tint and gradually become smaller, and from the excess of this element, the plant sheds ovaries and flowers. When pepper lack of phosphorus, the underside of the leaf plate becomes deep purple, the leaves rise up and press against the trunk.
From lack of magnesium sweet pepper leaves become marbled. Be attentive to the plant, and you will be able to help it in time by adding the necessary top dressing.
The fight against diseases of peppers during the period of fruit ripening with pesticides is undesirable, since all the beneficial properties of the plant are leveled by nitrates and other chemicals harmful to humans absorbed after treatment. With proper care and adherence to agricultural technology, the type of problems with diseases or pests should not arise in pepper, but if they do appear, let's consider what measures will help get rid of them and at the same time keep the quality of the fruits at a high level.
Pests and diseases
Readers often ask questions about what pepper is sick with. Most often, sweet peppers are affected by diseases such as verticillosis (wilting), bronzing (spotted wilting), phytoplasmosis, fusarium, late blight, apical and gray rot, black leg.
Verticillosis - a fungal disease that exists in three forms: brown, green and dwarf, each of which manifests itself in its own way. Since the destruction of pathogens with pesticides on vegetable plants is undesirable, only preventive measures remain: the destruction of all plant residues in the fall and the cultivation of varieties resistant to verticillosis.
Phytoplasmosis, or stolbur, manifested by the fact that the roots of the plant begin to rot, dwarfism develops, the fruits grow small, thin-walled and tasteless, the leaves curl, harden and turn yellow, as a result, the pepper dries. They suffer from leafhopper disease. The fight against phytoplasmosis is carried out by processing the pepper with Akara at the time of planting and three weeks after it - spraying the vegetable at this stage of development will not cause harm. In addition, it is necessary to regularly loosen the soil in the area and remove weeds.
Fusarium - a fungal disease in which the pepper turns yellow: the leaves become poisonous yellow. Sick specimens are destroyed, the rest of the plants are carefully looked after: they are watered moderately in the morning, and weeds are not allowed to appear on the site. Keep in mind that it is best not to grow peppers next year in an area infested with fusarium.
Late blight - a common fungal disease that affects peppers and tomatoes.Symptoms of phytosporosis are the formation of hard spots on the fruits that capture the pulp. The causative agents of the disease are destroyed with Oxyhom, Zaslon, Barrier, but only before the beginning of the flowering of the pepper. By the way: hybrid varieties are much less susceptible to disease.
Blackleg affects the root part of the stem of pepper seedlings as a result of too dense sowing and keeping at high soil and air humidity. Over time, the stalk softens and the seedling dies. To avoid the disease of seedlings with a black leg, you should sow the seeds spaciously, dive the seedlings in time and monitor the humidity level in the greenhouse. If you find diseased seedlings, immediately remove them, dry and loosen the soil in which the seedlings grow, and sprinkle it with wood ash. At this stage of plant development, it is permissible to spray seedlings with a solution of the Barrier in the ratio: 3 caps of the drug per 1 liter of water.
Top rot arises on the plant, oddly enough, in the case of a lack of moisture and manifests itself in shiny or black deep spots on the fruits. Sometimes the cause of the disease can be an excess of nitrogen and calcium in the soil. The infected plants are burned, and the rest are sprayed with calcium nitrate.
Gray rot can infect every plant at any stage of development with putrefactive spots and gray molds. Usually rainy weather provokes its appearance. The affected fruits and plant parts must be removed, and the bushes on the site should be sprayed with fungicides, if it is not too late.
Signs of bronze, or spotted wilting, look like brown spots on the leaves, acquiring a bronze or purple tint. These necrotic spots are located mainly along the main vein of the leaves. As a result of the development of the disease, the top of the plant dies, the fruits in the area of the stalk are covered with green, brown or pale yellow ring spots. To save the harvest, ripe fruits are cut off, and the soil is no longer watered. The fungus is destroyed by Fundazol, however, before treating the pepper with a fungicide, once again weigh the pros and cons of such spraying.
Of the pests, pepper aphids, spider mites, wireworms and slugs are annoying. You can help protect the plant from slugs by scattered nut shells, ground hot pepper or mustard powder. You can also place bowls of dark beer here and there, to which shellfish will slide from all over the site. And do not forget to loosen the soil in the aisles to a depth of 4-5 cm in the heat.
Clicker beetle larvae, or wireworms, remaining in the soil for five years, they gnaw at the roots of plants. To get rid of wireworms, they dig up the ground on the site in the fall, and in the spring, before planting the pepper, several baits are arranged on the site, burying pieces of sweet root vegetables in the ground and outlining these places for themselves. Clicker larvae will surely crawl to these baits. Every two to three days, the bait is dug up, the larvae are collected and destroyed.
Spider mites plant on plants in dry land, they settle on the underside of leaves and suck out cell sap from them. If you do not know how to treat pepper from a tick without resorting to insecticides, we offer you a recipe for a solution that is non-toxic to the human body: a tablespoon of liquid soap or dishwashing detergent along with a glass of finely chopped onions or garlic, as well as chopped dandelion leaves are mixed in 10 liters of water, let it brew and spray pepper with this composition at any stage of its development.
From aphids get rid of wood ash or tobacco dust infused in 10 liters of hot water in the amount of one glass. You can also, if necessary, use the treatment of pepper with a solution of rapidly decomposing insecticides such as Karbofos or Keltan at the rate of: one tablespoon of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Collection and storage
Pepper has two types of ripeness - technical and biological (or physiological). At the stage of technical maturity, all peppers are usually green in color - from dark green to greenish-whitish hue. If the peppers on the bush are yellow, red, orange, purple or brown, then we can say that they are already at the stage of biological maturity, which means that the fruits removed from the bush must be used immediately - canned or eaten, since they are stored such peppers for a very short period of time.
The fruits harvested in a state of technical maturity under suitable conditions can be stored for up to two months. The time difference between technical and biological ripeness is 20-30 days. The readiness of the pepper for harvesting is determined by the crackling of the fruit when you lightly press it. And one more landmark: peppers are harvested at about the same time as eggplants and tomatoes.
Usually, the first fruits are harvested in early or mid-August, and they continue to pick peppers until frost. That is, ripe fruits are removed selectively every 5-7 days. To keep the pepper better, it is cut off along with the stalk. During the growing season, three to five harvests are carried out. Before the onset of frost, all the fruits are removed from the bushes, and their further ripening takes place indoors, after sorting by size and degree of maturity.
Before storing the fruit, the stalk is cut off, leaving a segment of only 1-1.5 cm. Only healthy thick-walled fruits that do not have mechanical damage are suitable for storage. Thin-walled varieties are stored in the refrigerator. Varieties with juicy walls can be kept in plastic bags with a thickness of at least 120 microns, it is desirable that they have a membrane with perforation on the side wall. Peppers keep better if each fruit is wrapped in paper. Peppers can be stored in baskets, shallow boxes with 1-2 rows or on shelves in the basement with a temperature of 8-10 ºC and an air humidity of 80-90%.
Since peppers quickly absorb odors, make sure nothing in your basement grows moldy or decays. Keeping peppers in the right conditions keeps them fresh for one and a half to two months. Bell peppers can be stored for up to a month in the refrigerator at 9-10 ºC. Many housewives prefer, after washing the fruits and removing the testes, fold the peppers one into the other and store them all winter in the freezer, so that at any time you can cook your favorite dishes from it or add a slice or two to borscht or salad.
Those fruits that are not suitable for storage can be processed. They make excellent marinades, aromatic winter salads, borsch dressing.
Types and varieties
We have already mentioned that vegetable peppers can be sweet and bitter. We promised to tell you in detail about hot pepper in a separate article.
Sweet peppers are divided into the following varieties:
- bell pepper;
- tomato-shaped vegetable pepper;
- cone-shaped vegetable pepper;
- cylindrical vegetable pepper;
- bell-shaped vegetable pepper.
Popular varieties include outdoor peppers, greenhouse peppers, and container varieties that grow and bear fruit on a balcony or windowsill. Varieties also differ in terms of ripening: early varieties reach maturity in 80-100 days, mid-ripening ones need a little more time to ripen - from 115 to 130 days, and later ones will take 140 or more days.
- The early peppers include the varieties Zdorov'e, Dobrynya Nikitich, Snow White, Swallow, and also hybrids Atlantic, Orange miracle, Montero, Cardinal, Denis.
- Of the mid-season, the best varieties are Prometheus, Ilya Muromets, Korenovsky, Belozerka, Maxim and Vitamin hybrids.
- Of the late varieties, the Gold Medal variety and the Nochka hybrid have proven themselves well.
By the way, what is the difference between the concept of "variety" and the concept of "hybrid"? The seeds of the hybrids do not retain varietal characteristics, so it is pointless to collect seeds from hybrid varieties. You will have to buy the seed of the hybrids you like every year. But hybrid varieties are distinguished by high yields, large fruits with excellent taste, in addition, they are very resistant to diseases.
Pepper varieties also differ in size and shape of the fruit, and this is very important, since for stuffing, for example, you need thick-walled peppers of a large size, oval or spherical, and for salads you can use other varieties, with thinner walls and smaller sizes. In shape, sweet pepper fruits are elongated, cuboid, conical, oval, spherical and cylindrical. They can be either smooth or lumpy.
And, of course, the varieties of pepper differ in the color of the fruit in the phase of biological maturation. Such varieties as Alyosha Popovich, Red Elephant, Swallow, Ilya Muromets, Winnie the Pooh and hybrids Zarya, Latino and Red Baron have red fruits. Yellow peppers are represented by varieties Katyusha, Yellow Bouquet and hybrids Raisa, Isabella, Indalo. The Maxim hybrid has a violet color in the case of technical maturation and dark red in the biological one. The Cardinal hybrid has purple fruits, the Bonus variety has ivory to dark red fruits, the Apricot Favorite variety and the Chanterelle hybrid have bright orange ripe fruits.
We offer you several popular varieties of pepper, among which you will surely find those that you want to grow on your own.
- Fat Baron - an early ripe variety with sweet red cuboid fruits weighing up to 300 g. 8-9 fruits ripen on a spherical bush 50-60 cm high.
- Red shovel - a bush up to 70 cm high, on which up to 15 red sweet fruits weighing up to 150 g and wall thickness up to 8 mm ripen.
- California miracle - proven for decades, a well-deserved mid-early variety, which takes about 75 days to ripen from the moment the seedlings are planted in the ground. The height of the bush is up to 80 cm, the fruits are red, thick-walled, weighing up to 250 g.
- Yellow bell Is one of the earliest disease-resistant varieties that needs only 65-70 days to mature. The height of the bushes is 70-80 cm, the fruits are golden-yellow, cuboid, up to 12 cm high and in diameter, the walls are 8-10 cm thick.
- Hybrid series Star of the East with thick-walled fruits weighing from 150 to 350 g, mostly early ripening with fruits of white, white with red, golden and chocolate color.
- Tevere - mid-season thick-walled sweet hybrid with yellow fruits weighing up to 300 g.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Solanaceae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Fruit Garden Plants Solanaceous Plants on P
Sea buckthorn from seeds
Hello dear friends!
I already told you earlier about the reproduction of sea buckthorn by woody and green cuttings, root shoots. Today my story will go about growing sea buckthorn from seeds. To prevent sea buckthorn seeds from losing their germination, they must be stored in a dry place. You can sow in late autumn, but it is better in early spring in fluffy, nutritious soil with the addition of sand and peat. The soil must not be allowed to be very dry.
It is advisable to stratify the seeds. To do this, you need to mix them with coarse sand (1: 3) and keep them in the refrigerator for 20-25 days at a temperature of 0-3 degrees Celsius. During this time, they are mixed 4-5 times. As soon as the seeds begin to hatch, they need to be dried for 1-3 hours to a free-flowing state, then sown to a depth of 5 cm and mulched with clean sand or other mulch that does not create a crust on the soil surface. If the seeds do not sprout for two months, then consider that they are gone. Seedlings of plants sown in late spring predominantly die.
When the first true leaves appear, the seedlings can be cut open so that they can grow for 2-3 years. The fact is that approximately the same number of female and male plants emerge from the seeds. Throwing away smaller plants is not worth it, since only men can remain. It is impossible to distinguish between them at first. This can only be done when male and female kidneys are being laid. Female kidneys are small and consist of two scales, while male kidneys are 2-3 times larger and have 5-7 scales. 4 female trees and one male tree are planted in a permanent place. The distance between the trees is 4 meters. Sea buckthorn loves nutritious sandy soils in a sunny location.
Root growth appears around sea buckthorn trees, which is very depleting of the main tree, so it must be carefully removed. Above ground pruning leads to more intensive growth of the growth. To stop its growth, you need to carefully rake the soil to the base of the overgrowth and cut it into a ring near the main root. If even a small stump remains, the shoots will begin to grow even more intensively. Every year, before budding with an early vein, you need to cut off dry branches and form the crown of the tree.
Be sure to try to grow sea buckthorn from seeds, because it is so great when a large adult plant is obtained from a small seed, delighting you with its fruits and berries.
Pepper: growing from seed in the garden - garden and vegetable garden
The most common way of growing potatoes is vegetative, that is, planting with tubers. Thanks to it, it is possible to preserve economically valuable characteristics of the variety - early maturity, yield, biological quality of the fruits for which it was zoned.
However, such cultivation of potatoes is associated with a progressive accumulation of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases in tubers. Diseases lead to the degeneration of the variety and the yield is rapidly falling. The supply of nutrients in the tubers of diseased potatoes is 2 - 3 times less than in elite ones.
A high yield can be ensured by replacing a degenerating variety with a new elite one. But, unfortunately, many people cannot afford to buy super - elite tubers. And there is no complete certainty that these very "super" are not ordinary tubers from the neighboring garden.
Many troubles can be avoided by growing potatoes from seeds, while at the same time they are freed from many diseases.
But we must warn that this technique at the first stage requires a lot of labor. This applies to the first year of cultivation, when the generative pathway (by seeds) is converted to vegetative cultivation (by tubers).
Immediately you need to tune in to the fact that from seeds, even on good soil and with careful care, you cannot get a large amount of marketable potatoes in the first year, but only small nodules of different colors and shapes the size of onions - sets. They should be kept away from potatoes grown from tubers in the traditional way.
In the second year, the nodules are planted separately and during the entire growing season, the condition of the plants is closely monitored. Then, according to the power of the bushes, their resistance to diseases, the yield, the tubers are selected for further reproduction. These will be the very same super - elite potato tubers.
Growing potatoes from seeds can be divided into:
In early April, seeds are sown in seed boxes. They are pre-quenched with variable temperatures. At night, the soaked seeds are placed in a refrigerator for 12 hours at a temperature of 1 - 2 ° C, in the afternoon they are kept at room temperature for 12 hours. Quenching is carried out within 10 to 12 days. It is most convenient to use trays or cuvettes for developing photographs for this purpose.
Before sowing, the boxes are filled with a wet peat-earth mixture: 1 part of the earth is taken for 4 parts of peat. For every 10 kg of the mixture, 2 g of ammonium nitrate, 3 g of double superphosphate, 4 g of potassium chloride, 0.25 g of copper sulfate and boric acid are added in dissolved form.
The sprouted or sprouted seeds are placed every 5 - 6 cm from each other, the distance between the grooves is 10 cm. No more than 100 seeds are sown in a box measuring 60 × 50 cm. They are buried to a depth of 0.5 - 1 cm and the top layer is slightly compacted so as not to wash off the seeds when watering. Before the emergence of shoots, the box is covered with a film, installed in a film greenhouse. Weeding and watering are carried out in a timely manner.
In the third decade of May, when the threat of frost passes, 40-50 day old seedlings are planted in open ground, for which holes are made 10-12 cm deep. 300-400 g of humus are added to the holes and watered with 0.5 liters of water per plant. The plants are deepened so that 2 - 3 leaves remain on the surface.
Sowing seeds in open ground.
Sow in a seedless way in the first decade of May, in carefully prepared soil. Rows are marked at a distance of 60 - 70 cm, filled with water. Seeds are sown on a moistened surface to a depth of 0.5 - 1 cm.
When 2 true leaves appear in plants and begin to close together, the seedlings are thinned out and planted at a distance of 15 - 20 cm from each other.
Since sowing potatoes from seeds at first suffer greatly from weeds and do not tolerate overdrying of the soil, you need to be very careful: weeding and watering in a timely manner.
The tubers are harvested in late September - early October.
The potato grower should not be embarrassed if a low yield is obtained from the seeds. Even on good soil and with careful maintenance, it is difficult to collect more than 100 - 150 kg from 100 m2, because mainly small tubers (20 - 40 g) grow. But it is very profitable to use this set for planting next year: you will need only 10 - 12 kg per hundred square meters.
The crop grown from seedlings will be quite full-fledged: not lower, and maybe even higher than when planting tubers, since many plants will be free from viruses.
After three to four years, with an annual selection, you will end up with two or three of your own varieties that you like the most.
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SquashPosted on October 8, 2016 | Author: Rais
Everyone knows a delicious seasoning for food - pickled squash. Many also like these vegetables stewed, or cut into circles and fried in oil, like zucchini. They are considered a type of zucchini. But, like zucchini, squash simply belong to the same pumpkin family, and their other name is dish-shaped pumpkin. This annual, imported from America, is not found in the wild, but has long been successfully cultivated in many countries. Squash taste more delicate than squash, somewhat similar to artichoke or asparagus. It is a dietary product useful in diseases of the stomach, liver, kidneys, atherosclerosis, and also has a diuretic effect.
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How to care for
After planting in the garden, young plants need to be properly cared for. In the summer, it consists in watering, timely fertilizing, weeding row spacings and loosening the soil. Autumn care involves cutting off the stems and wrapping up the bushes for wintering.
Watering should be carried out as needed, systematically, in small portions. It is necessary to maintain normal moisture in the soil, since excessive drying, as well as excess moisture, does not benefit the plants. It is necessary to loosen the soil after each watering or weeding. If the seeds were grown in the open field, then the first weeding should be done as soon as the first 2 leaves appear on the plants, while removing the weakest shoots.
In the fall, before frost, shoots from asparagus bushes should be cut off, and the bed should be sprinkled with a layer of organic fertilizers: humus, compost, peat, after which everything should be covered with dry foliage. This process is repeated every year. In order to make it easy to find a garden in the spring, the rows are marked with stakes. In the third year, in spring, the plants need to be spud to a height of 20-30 cm, the upper layer of the ridge should be slightly compacted - cracks that will form on the surface will indicate where the shoot sprouts.
Growing asparagus in the country is impossible without regular feeding. You need to fertilize asparagus plantings several times per season:
- a month after sowing seeds or planting seedlings, the garden bed is fertilized with nitrate 20-30 g / m. sq., or liquid mullein at a concentration of 1: 8
- then 40 g of superphosphate / bucket is added to this solution, and watering is carried out 1 time / month
- during flowering, plants are treated with insecticides for preventive purposes
- in July, the growth of shoots begins to gradually recover, so another feeding is required, for example, bird droppings 1 part / 10 parts of water
- the last feeding is carried out before the onset of frost, at the end of October - superphosphate and potassium chloride 30 g / m. sq. will stop the growth of shoots and help to survive the winter
- in the spring, in the second and subsequent years of life, asparagus is fed with a mineral mixture containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus before the onset of the growing season.
Before the onset of winter, the soil is dug up between the rows. In the early years, while there is still no harvest, it is possible to grow vegetable crops in the aisles: radishes, beans, salad greens.
How to sow bell pepper, step by step instructions
Here's what you need.
• plastic cells with holes in the bottom
• shallow trough where cells are installed
• seed material.
Step 1. Fill the cells with soil by placing them in trays and moisten the soil. The best option is to pour some lukewarm water into the tray. The water will be absorbed into the soil by itself.
Step 2. If you are using brand new seeds, then you can simply plant one seed per cell. Old seeds have a low germination rate, they are planted with 2-3 seeds per cell. If several ascend in the cell, the weakest are removed.
Step 3. Depth of planting seeds 1 -1.5 cm. You can plant in a hole or by pressing on the seed to the specified depth. Sprinkle with earth on top, slightly compacting it.
Step 4. Add Water - If the soil is not yet wet, then you must add water. It is best to water in a tray so as not to disturb the seeds.
Step 5. After making sure the soil is moist, cover the tray with PE foil to create a greenhouse effect and reduce moisture loss. Put in a warm place with a temperature of at least 23 °.
The germination process does not need light. But the emergence of seedlings must not be missed, otherwise the sprouts will stretch out.
Pepper pests and diseases
Pests such as slugs, scoops, aphids, whitefly, bear and Colorado potato beetle can harm plants. It is necessary to pollinate the pepper with wood ash 3 times per season.
Common Bell Pepper Diseases - late blight, Septoriasis, macrosporiosis, apical rot, white rot, black leg.
In the fight against the bear, before planting in the ground, fill the planting holes with onion water (insist 500 g of onion husks in 10 liters of water for 3 days).
If aphids are damaged, treat the plants with a solution: dilute 1.5 liters of milk whey in 10 liters of water. After processing, shake with ash.