Blueberry feeding video
I have planted 3 different types of blueberries, among them there is one American large-variety. There are blueberries grown from seeds, they are not so large, but they never freeze. It is slightly larger than blueberries, very pleasant to the taste, it seems to me that it is richer in taste than large-fruited. The branches are lower, not so big, they are under the snow and therefore never freeze.
Fertilizer for blueberries
Most importantly when growing blueberries, they need acidic soil. If you plant in ordinary garden soil, loam, or sandy loam soil, then you will not get a good result - the plants wither. They do not die, but they do not develop either, they do not give a good harvest. Be sure to plant in acidic peat soil. The best and simplest mixture is marsh-red peat mixed in half with coniferous litter, which can be easily collected in the forest.
To maintain acidity, it is useful to feed blueberries with acidic fertilizers. There are special fertilizers for heather crops, on sale they are called fertilizers for azaleas. Azaleas also belong to heather crops. Fertilizers are sold in bottles, you dissolve them according to the instructions and water. You can also use some mineral fertilizers that give an acidic reaction.
How else to feed blueberries
Now I will show you another way, if there are no acidic fertilizers at hand, and you are somewhere far from the city and forgot to buy. I will tell you a very simple way to solve this problem.
Probably, rhubarb and sorrel grow in every garden, and in every garden there is an oxalis, if you try, it has sour leaves, it is also called "hare cabbage" sometimes. Narvite all these leaves: there are more sour liquor and rhubarb, it is used in food only in spring, in summer it contains a lot of acids, oxalic acid in particular, which is not very useful for people who have stomach problems. Cut all this finely, especially the stalks, they are infused in the water for some time, about a day. It turns out to be an acidic solution. The finer you cut, the more acid the plant will give, you will get a good acidic fertilizer for your heather crops.
You insist in the bucket a good bunch: a few rhubarb leaves, break it all. You can also squeeze out a regular lemon. For a 5 liter bucket, 1 lemon or an armful of sour grass. You can filter it, or you can not filter it - pour it right with all these leaves under the blueberry bush.
She has very beautiful berries, I advise everyone to plant this wonderful culture. Watch the video about blueberries.
If you want to get the best possible harvest, then you need to observe some blueberry growing conditions:
- The ideal soil for blueberries is acidic. The acidity of the soil should be 3.5 - 4.5 pH.
- A place planting for blueberries in spring should be sunny and calm.
- Choose peaty-sandy or peaty-loamy soil.
The choice of the variety must be taken seriously. Choose a strain based on your climate, how hot your summer is and how long it lasts. Carefully familiarize yourself with the variety that you have chosen, because the blueberry harvest depends entirely on this.
The grapes in the middle lane are a guest. But even here it can give good harvests. To do this, it must be "fed" regularly. Moreover, top dressing should be varied, then the grapes are guaranteed to receive all the substances they need, and will thank you with abundant fruiting.
The cooking method is the same as for the first feeding:
120 g of ammonium nitrate,
160 g superphosphate,
80 sulphate potassium.
Dissolve in 10 liters of water:
100 g superphosphate
50 g of potassium sulfate.
Important: there should be no nitrogen in mineral fertilizers!
How to care for blueberries?
Regular weeding is of great importance in caring for blueberries. Especially when the bushes are young, weeds are the worst enemies of blueberries.
Loosening is no less important, but it should not be forgotten that the root system lies at a depth of 20-40 cm and, therefore, we must loosen the near-trunk circles to a depth of no more than 8-10 cm.
During the growing season of the plant, it is advisable to mulch the trunk circles 2-3 times with a mixture of sawdust and rotted manure.
Popular blueberry varieties
When choosing the right blueberry varieties, it is necessary to take into account not only their climatic characteristics. It is important to know how they are not whimsical in care, how quickly they take root and bear fruit.
The most popular types of this berry include:
- Bluegold is an early variety with spreading branches that will need to be pruned. Its fruits fully ripen in July. From one bush, you can collect about 4 - 5 kg of berries. This variety is suitable for northern regions, as it is able to withstand severe frosts.
- Bluecrop is another early cultivar that grows primarily in the south. The bush reaches a height of 1.5 - 2 m. From it, you can collect up to 9 kg of berries, which are characterized by large sizes with a diameter of more than 20 mm.
- Blurey is a high-yielding variety. Up to 12 kg of berries can be harvested from one bush. Its only drawback is that, due to its high productivity, the bush can quickly deplete and dry out.
- Jersey is, on the contrary, an unpretentious kind of blueberry to care for. It will grow well in southern environments and even sandy soil. The bush will begin to bear fruit from mid-August to September.
- Patriot is a mid-season variety with bushes up to 150 cm high. It has large fruits with a pale color. Depending on the region of planting, the berries will ripen in July and August. It is resistant to frost and disease.
- Chippewa is a medium-sized and early-maturing variety. The fruits are sweet and medium in size. The bush is frost resistant.
- Duke is a tall variety that gives early fruits and high yields. The berries are large and will not become smaller over the years. This species is frost-resistant, but needs more pruning.
- Sunrise is a medium-high species with spreading bushes. It will not need pruning due to its weak shoot formation. The fruits are dense and slightly flattened.
You can choose for your site several varieties with different ripening times. In this case, you can enjoy sweet and sour berries for a longer time.
Like all plants, blueberries can be propagated vegetatively and by seed. For all cultivars, only the vegetative method is suitable, since when planted with seeds, the seedlings most likely will not receive parental qualities.
Reproduction in a vegetative way
Blueberries are propagated mainly by aerial parts, since they practically do not form underground rhizomes. They are also propagated by layering, but this is a very lengthy process.
Propagation by green cuttings
For this method of reproduction, cuttings are taken that have not yet had time to lignify, but have already matured enough. When breaking off the handle, the so-called "heel" should remain, that is, a piece of last year's stem.
Before planting on a bed for rooting, it is advisable to treat cuttings with growth stimulants.
Harvest when properly planted
In the lower part of the cutting, the leaves are removed and planted in the garden bed. But, not too often, so that the leaves would not cover one another. Planting must be regularly moistened and covered with foil or glass to maintain a humid microclimate.
The roots should appear in about a month and a half. After this period, you need to accustom the cuttings to fresh air, removing the shelter for a short time.
The cuttings are left to winter in the open field, covered with a thick layer of sawdust or peat. After the ground freezes, the beds are additionally insulated with a covering material.
In order to get full-fledged seedlings, it is advisable to grow cuttings on a growing bed for one more season.
Propagation by lignified cuttings
Cuttings for this breeding method are harvested in late winter - early spring. Be sure to have time before the kidneys swell. Branches for harvesting take annual, flexible.
Before planting, the cuttings are stored in the refrigerator or in the snow.
Before planting, the lower edge of the cutting is cut obliquely. This should be done just below the lower kidney. The upper cut is made straight, a few cm above the kidney. This is necessary so that the kidney does not suffer when the cut dries.
Cuttings are planted on a growing bed in the same way as green ones.
The rooting period of lignified cuttings is approximately two months.
Reproduction by layering
Reproduction of blueberries in this way takes several years, the root formation process alone can take 1-2 years.
The branch must be bent to the ground and pinned, then the base is covered with sawdust or peat and so left. This place needs to be moistened periodically. Growth stimulants can be added to the water for irrigation.
In order to get the seeds, they take well-ripened berries, knead them and wash them. And then separating the pulp from the seeds. The seeds can be planted immediately, or they can be dried and stored until planting. By the way, blueberry seeds remain germinating for more than 10 years.
For germination, seeds need stratification, so they can be planted either before winter, the main thing is not to lose this place in the garden. Or you can place it in wet sand before planting and keep it in the refrigerator for 2-3 months.
Seedlings appear in half a month - a month.
The seedlings are sown to a permanent place after two years of cultivation, the first harvest can be obtained in another 2-3 years.
Although the reproduction of blueberries is quite troublesome, it is very interesting. In addition, having bought just one bush, in a few years you can get your own plantation.
While watching the video, you will learn about the breeding of blueberries.
In addition to being a very tasty berry, blueberries are also healthy. It can be consumed both fresh and prepared from it for compotes and preserves, as well as frozen.
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Planting blueberries in spring
To plant blueberries outdoors in spring, you need to prepare the soil. We dig a hole 60x 60 centimeters in size and 50 centimeters deep. Depending on the size of the bush, select the distance of the holes from each other, if the variety is undersized, then 50 centimeters will be enough, and if the medium is 100-120 centimeters, for tall ones 150 centimeters. Let's create an acidic substrate by mixing high-moor peat with sawdust, pine needles, sand, gray 50 grams. Mix the mixture thoroughly and put it on the bottom of the pit, but before that it is advisable to loosen the soil in the pit for air to enter. Do not in any way apply any organic fertilizers at this stage. Now you need to prepare the seedlings by lowering the roots for 20 minutes in water, and then gently straighten them. We lower the blueberries into the hole and sprinkle with earth so that the root collar is buried by 3 centimeters. Only the planted plant with seedlings, water and mulch.
- Thoroughly and gently loosen the soil without removing the mulch. Replenish the mulch every two years.
- Water the blueberries twice a week. Watering should be carried out twice a day, one bucket per adult bush. Watering time is morning and evening after sunset. On hot days with the scorching sun, you need to spray the bushes with water to prevent overheating. Pay attention to watering in July and August.
- You can only fertilize blueberries with minerals. For this, after all, suitable: ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, superphosphate. Fertilization of blueberries is usually done in the spring when the buds are swelling. Ammonium sulfate is added three times:
- during the swelling of the kidneys add 40%
- at the beginning of May 35%
- early June 25%
For one bush, this is about 80 grams of fertilizer.
Superphosphate is applied in summer and autumn, 100 grams per bush. Magnesium sulfate is applied only once 10 grams per bush. Potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate are also added once, but 2 grams each.
4. In the spring, it is imperative to prune the bushes. Pruning is carried out until the buds swell. This is not at all difficult to do.
Let your food be a medicine ...
Blueberry fruits are rich in vitamin K (phylloquinone). In the body, it dissolves in the presence of fats and directly affects the level of blood clotting. It is found in bone structures, connective tissues, heart and lungs. It has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the kidneys and heart muscle. The presence of vitamin P reduces the fragility of blood vessels, giving them elasticity. The result is a normalization of blood pressure. When paired with ascorbic acid, also present in berries, the effect is only enhanced. The magnesium in the fruit has a calming effect.
So, due to the high absorption capacity of the bush, blueberries can accumulate toxins from the soil, so if they are purchased, it would be good to ask about the place of collection. In addition, even in the case of organic products, it is recommended to avoid combining blueberry consumption with coffee or classic tea, in order to avoid possible headaches or nausea. Some people are allergic to blueberries, so you shouldn't eat too much right away.
Since in home gardens the soil characteristics are rarely optimal for tall garden blueberries, everything must be prepared to grow the plant. First of all, the place. You can, of course, plant a bush under a fence, in the dense shade of trees, but in this case you should not expect a high return from it. It is noticed that the berries that have received a sufficient amount of sunlight are larger and sweeter.
For planting, a hole is dug with dimensions of 1x1 m with a half-meter depth (the dimensions for the root system are really impressive, but do not forget that the life expectancy of the plant is up to 100 years). The walls are isolated from the surrounding soil with boards made of boards. Humus of foliage, crumbling needles and peat with high acidity are mixed, watered abundantly. It is permissible to mix sand, sawdust and manure in a ratio of 3: 3: 1, respectively. After planting, a thick (60 mm) layer of mulch from sawdust or shavings is poured on top. Planting is carried out in early spring, like all other plants. The distance between adjacent pits should not be less than one and a half meters.
With insufficient acidity per 1 sq. you can add 250 g of sulfur in powder (no earlier than a year before planting). Classical agricultural technology recommends fertilizing young blueberry bushes once a year with a composition of a mixture of 10 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium and 5 g of potassium sulfate. As it grows, each year the amount of fertilizer is increased by 15 g of each component. When applied separately, potassium and phosphorus are added in the fall, and nitrogen-containing additives - in the spring, until June. Alternatively, you can try to water the planting site ... with kefir. In many cases, this gives the desired effect, without worrying that later there will be some kind of "chemistry" in the fruits. The root system of blueberries is shallow, rarely deepening more than 40 cm, so loosening requires care.
At home, there are several ways to determine the acidity level of the earth. Of course, they will not give accurate data, but they are quite enough for orientation. The simplest is as follows: you need to take a soil sample and pour it with ordinary food vinegar. The presence of a reaction (bubbles) will indicate a neutral / alkaline composition, but the absence will indicate increased acidity.
When deciding to start growing blueberries, the easiest way is to contact the appropriate online store or look at the nearest market. In this case, a ready-made seedling with a developed root system is bought.Another method involves the presence of an adult plant and the desire to get new bushes.
In the spring, before the buds swell, a favorite last year's shoot is selected and 8-10 cm is cut off from it.The cuttings are planted in prepared soil of peat and sand (1: 1) with a distance between plants of 3 cm, and between rows - 5 cm. until only one bud remains on the surface. The plot is covered with film, agrofibre, or a full-fledged frame greenhouse is erected. Watering is required.
The method for the "lazy" consists in bending a section of a bush branch, pinning it in the soil and watering it. After a while, a separate root is formed and a new plant can be transplanted.
Trimming and shaping
On young plants, the first berries appear in the 4th year after planting. From this point on, you can begin to remove weak shoots and old branches, especially those lying on the surface and damaged by rot. Ideally, the bush should contain 8-10 branches of different ages. With weak shoots, the branch is shortened to the first - the strongest. Global pruning is done every 10-20 years. Any such operation is performed in early spring, while the plant is "sleeping" and the movement of sap is sluggish, or in late autumn, before frosts.
Features of the
Blueberries are considered one of the most difficult plants to take root. Most often, the problem lies in the fact that gardeners act in a formulaic way, planting in soil that is ideal for the vast majority of plants, but completely unsuitable for blueberries. Acidity, humidity level, illumination, temperature conditions - all this remains without due attention. Attention to detail is a guarantee of rapid growth of the bush.
The real scourge of blueberries is fungal diseases. Spots on leaves and shoots, dying and drying tops, rot or mummification of fruits and an unhealthy appearance of the entire plant are signs of the disease. If you do not take measures to improve, then often all this leads to the death of the bush. First of all, you should cut out and burn damaged areas, reduce moisture in case of its excess.
Before budding, as well as in the fall, after the foliage has fallen off, the plant must be sprayed with fungicidal preparations. A time-tested recipe is a weak solution of ferrous sulfate (300-400 g per 10 liters of water).
Or you should pay attention to specialized fungicidal preparations, for example, "Topsin-M". Unfortunately, blueberries are a favorite "delicacy" of mushrooms, so spraying is most likely indispensable. Alternatively, it is advisable to initially acquire disease resistant varieties.