Daikon: description, fundamentals of agricultural technology, useful properties

Daikon: description, fundamentals of agricultural technology, useful properties

Unique Japanese daikon radish is delicious and very healthy

Alas, Russians are mostly indifferent to the daikon, but in vain: in addition to the undoubted dietary value, the daikon also has excellent productivity. And it is no coincidence that in Japan, for example, it takes not even the second, but the first place in terms of area among all vegetable crops.

Smart Japanese know well that daikon root vegetables are orderlies of the kidneys and liver, as well as the stomach - even a small amount of this vegetable is able to normalize the intestinal microflora, suppressing all negativity.

By itself daikon - a cruciferous plant, it is the closest relative to all of us the well-known radish and radish, however, it fundamentally differs from them in higher taste qualities - daikon root crops are much more juicy, tender, they are almost completely devoid of rare pungency. The advantages of daikon also include a high yield, and a rather long keeping quality - with practically no changes, root crops can lie for up to three months.

Use daikon fresh, it can be boiled and salted, young leaves are also eaten. It is rich in potassium and calcium salts, contains the fiber we need, pectin substances and vitamin C. Daikon also has medicinal properties, due to the fact that it contains glycosides, phytoncides and specific protein substances that prevent the growth of bacteria. Daikon is practically the only vegetable, with the exception of radish, which is able to cleanse the kidneys and liver and is even able to dissolve minor stones. Daikon, due to the absence of mustard oils in its composition, which are present in abundance in radish and cause excessive cardiac activity, is recommended for use by elderly people, since it does not give such an effect.

In addition, its roots are practically the only of all vegetable crops that absorb a minimum of negative substances from the soil, if the soil, for example, is polluted with them, this also applies to daikon leaves. In the composition of daikon, fructose is also present, instead of sucrose, therefore, it may well be used in the diet of patients with diabetes mellitus. In our country, Japanese and Chinese varieties of daikon are successfully growing, and domestic varieties have already appeared, for example, the Elephant Fang variety is widely known to vegetable growers, gaining a mass of root crops up to 500-550 grams!

The daikon itself is a very unpretentious plant and may well be cultivated even on clay and heavy soils. However, he prefers still light and fertile, where high yields of high-quality root crops grow. For better plant growth, it is necessary to add organic fertilizers, compost, humus to the soil. Usually, up to 5-10 kg of organic matter, 200 g of potassium sulfate and 300-400 g of superphosphate are added per square meter. If the soils of your site are acidic, then lime must be added.

Generally daikon agrotechnology uncomplicated. It all starts with sowing seeds (the most optimal time for sowing daikon is the second half of July). It is placed on 1 meter wide beds, the seeds are sown, leaving a distance between rows equal to 60-70 cm, and between plants in a row - about 25-30 cm. Seeds are sown in nests to a depth of 3-5 cm, usually two seeds per nest ... Seedlings, as a rule, appear already on the 5-6th day. Since we sowed two seeds in the nest, one plant will need to be removed. The most developed is left, if two plants have sprung up and they look equally good, then the second can simply be transplanted to a new place, for example, in the nest where the seeds have not sprouted.

Seedling care consists in obligatory weeding, loosening, and it must be carried out 3-4 times per season and, of course, in watering. Daikon is very fond of abundant watering. If this plant is not watered enough, the root becomes coarse, lacks juiciness, and may crack. If the soils of your site are nutritious enough, then you do not need to fertilize them, but if not, you can add top dressing to the soil, which is better to apply during the period when the plants threw out two real leaves.

To harvest daikon usually start on the 50-70th day after sowing, it depends on the variety and its characteristics. To keep the crop as long as possible, it is best to harvest root crops in dry weather. If your soil is light, then it is permissible to remove the daikon by simply pulling it out by the tops, but on heavy soils you will have to sweat - you will need to carefully dig it out, otherwise you can break long roots. When you dig up your crop, place it in plastic bags or simply in boxes with sand, which must then be installed in a basement with a low positive temperature (+ 4 ... 6 ° С).

I want to draw the attention of readers to the fact that this culture, despite all its nutritional value and usefulness, has and contraindications... Daikon, like radish, cannot be included in your diet for the following diseases:

  • with peptic ulcer,
  • hyperacid gastritis,
  • with diseases of the kidneys and liver,
  • with gout and metabolic diseases.

The medical books provide quite contradictory information related to the treatment of the internal organs of the radish, so it is better to consult with your doctor.

Nikolay Maisky, Michurinsk


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Features of growing and storing crops

Daikon Minovashi is an unpretentious plant, but creating favorable conditions will ensure high yields. The variety can be grown in all regions, provided that the sowing time is correctly calculated. The seedling method does not apply to long-fruited radishes. Even the use of peat pots, carried along with the seedlings, can provoke damage to the root system and the death of the plant.

When to plant Minovashi daikon outdoors:

  • In April, it is permissible to sow an early maturing subspecies resistant to flowering, but even this can cause loss of yield. During this period, Japanese radish is planted with the aim of obtaining seed.
  • In late May - early June, plant in Siberia and the Urals.
  • Late June - early July are suitable for the middle lane.
  • Mid July - early August is a good sowing time in hot southern regions.

When choosing a place, you should pay attention to open, sunny areas, since the tops will stretch in the shade, taking nutrients from the root crop, and nitrates and nitrites can also accumulate in it.

It is undesirable to sow in a lowland, as stagnant moisture will lead to cracking and decay. Any predecessors are possible, except for cruciferous crops.

The soil should be loose, fertile. Acidity is neutral or slightly acidic, if necessary, corrected by autumn liming or the addition of dolomite flour, wood ash. Fresh manure cannot be used; at least 2 years must pass after it is applied to the garden. The heavy structure of the soil will be corrected by peat, grass dust, compost, chopped straw, rotted sawdust. For summer sowing, the beds are best prepared in spring.

Of fertilizers during digging in the fall, the following are introduced:

  • humus
  • ash
  • superphosphate
  • urea
  • nitroammophoska
  • potassium sulfate.

The length of the root crop requires additional preparation when sowing. To grow even and large fruits, the soil must be loose and fertilized to a depth of 50 cm. To do this, when planting, form holes according to the scheme, pierce deeply with a thick stick. Cover the resulting depression with compost, water well. In a similar way, furrows can be made, deepening at the required distance. Watering should be done well to avoid wetting the surface after planting.

Sowing and caring for the Minovashi daikon

The preliminary preparation of the seed consists in keeping it for 20 minutes in hot water (+ 50 ° C), then 1-2 minutes in cold water. You can then wrap it in a damp cloth, place it in the refrigerator for a day for hardening, but Minovashi is almost always sown in the summer, so the procedure is not needed. To prevent fungal diseases, before sowing, treat the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate.

The planting scheme depends on the subspecies, it is indicated on the package with the seed. Often used for early maturing daikon 30x15 cm, for an average ripening period 60x20 cm, 60x30 cm. Seeds are buried 1.5 cm into heavy soil, 3 cm into light soil. Sprinkle with loose soil on top. If desired, you can moisten with a spray bottle, but do not water so as not to wash off or displace the seeds.

The main care consists in timely and sufficient watering, loosening, hilling, removing weeds. Top dressing is optional if the beds were prepared in advance. But you can apply complex fertilizers 1-2 times during the period of active formation of root crops. Cannot be fed 1 month before harvest. Excess nitrogen will lead to active growth of tops instead of vegetables.

Water 2-3 times a week in the evening or early morning. In drought conditions, daily soil moisture may be required. After the procedure, if necessary, loosen the formed crust. Remove weeds immediately after emergence. When the root crop begins to rise above the surface of the earth, periodically huddle.

With spring sowing in small areas, you can artificially reduce daylight hours by pulling dark agrotechnical material over the bushes at the right time.

Regularly inspect the plants, if pests or symptoms of the disease appear, immediately take action. It is permissible to use biological products that are safe for humans and animals. Daikon is resistant to diseases, therefore, compliance with the rules of agricultural technology will protect plants from their appearance. As a preventive measure, you can dust the bushes and the ground around with tobacco-ash flour. Insects will be scared away by the smell of marigolds planted nearby.

Harvesting and storage

Root crops should not be allowed to freeze, therefore, harvest on time. For a few days, crush the green mass a little, if it has not yet begun to turn yellow. Minovashi forms a very long root crop, you just won't be able to pull it out. It is not necessary to dry the ground on purpose, on the contrary, water it abundantly the day before, so that it is easier to pull vegetables out of the ground. Dig up the soil around the bush with a pitchfork or a shovel, trying not to touch the root crops. Reach out carefully, as they may break.

Before harvesting for storage, the crop should be thoroughly dried. Do not tear off the earth when it dries up, it will fall off on its own. Cut the leaves, leaving 2-3 cm stumps. All damaged, broken vegetables should be eaten immediately. You can store only root vegetables without violating the integrity of the peel.

Transfer the prepared daikon to the basement or cellar. Fold in boxes or on shelves so that there is no contact with each other. Optimum conditions are + 1-5 ° C temperature and high relative humidity. Part of the root vegetables can be placed in the refrigerator or on the balcony. Minovashi is not intended for long-term storage, but nutritional and beneficial properties are preserved for 2-3 months.

This variety is undemanding to care, compares favorably with similar ones in resistance to flowers and diseases, high yield. Delicate, sweetish taste of daikon allows it to be used in children's nutrition for the prevention of colds.


Origin and brief description of the culture

The root crop was known as far back as Ancient Egypt and Greece. From the seeds of a vegetable grown in the Nile Delta, an oil was made, which was used as a base for various medicines.

In Japan, for the first time, the daikon variety of white radish was bred, which has gained great popularity. Hence the common misconception that this vegetable comes from the Land of the Rising Sun.

If we talk about the daikon radish, it is a hybrid. The root crop was obtained by crossing several varieties of loba (a wild variety of radish) and radish. Japanese breeders managed to get a large root crop with a less pungent odor and less pungent taste than the lob.

The name is translated from Japanese as Big Root. Some root vegetables grow up to 60 cm in length. Their weight is usually 400-500 g, and the largest weigh more than 1 kg. A feature of the hybrid is the green color of the root crop at the base of the tops.

Today there are a large number of daikon varieties, so breeders have singled them out into a separate group, which was given the name Japanese radish.

White and Japanese radish are plants of the Cabbage family. They form powerful green tops. The root crop, depending on the variety, can be of different shapes: oblong, round, cone-shaped.

White radish was grown in Russia and was a staple food. Unlike the Japanese subspecies, its taste is spicy. The root vegetables are round, white in color, their weight is 100-200 g.

Calorie content and chemical composition

The calorie content of daikon is only 21 kcal per 100 g of product. The root vegetable is part of many diets. Weight loss is facilitated by special protein compounds that have an effect on the human nervous system. Among them, lysozyme can be distinguished. The vegetable contains a large amount of carotene.

The root vegetable is also rich in B vitamins. It contains:

  • thiamin (vitamin B1)
  • riboflavin (B2)
  • biotin (B7)
  • folic acid (B9).

In the composition of the white radish, these vitamins are contained in smaller quantities than in the hybrid. The calorie content of a spicy root vegetable averages 18 kcal per 100 g of product. It is rich in vitamins C and E, which are excellent for strengthening the immune system. In addition, there are many useful substances in the vegetable, among them:

  • mustard oils and phytoncides, which have a detrimental effect on pathogenic bacteria
  • simple trace elements: sodium, potassium, iron and selenium, sulfur, iodine
  • nicotinic acid, which is involved in the metabolic processes of the body and has a beneficial effect on the liver.

The spicy variety of white radish, unlike the hybrid, is rich in inositol (vitamin B8), which is needed for normal brain function and improved vision.

Useful and medicinal properties

Radish has a positive effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the low amount of nutrients, it is used in dietetics, it is consumed fresh in salads or sashimi. At the same time, the maximum amount of substances useful for digestion is preserved.

The Japanese hybrid is used to purify blood from cholesterol. Fresh leaf juice in green cocktails helps to normalize the nervous system.

The main difference between the Japanese radish and the spicy one is that the daikon contains a lot of magnesium and does not accelerate the heartbeat, so this root vegetable can and even should be included in the diet for diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is enough to consume 100 ml of juice a day to improve her condition.

The spicy variety of the vegetable has an antiseptic effect. It is often used for colds as a cough suppressant by mixing finely chopped root vegetable with honey. Hot juice is diluted with warm water and taken for a sore throat.

A large amount of phytoncides in the vegetable contributes to the overall strengthening of the immune system, helps the body to cope with serious diseases - bronchitis, whooping cough, pneumonia.

In folk medicine, spicy white radish is used as a means of normalizing the work of the adrenal glands, kidneys, and also the liver. It has a beneficial effect on diseases of the bladder.

Eating white varieties is not a panacea. This root vegetable can bring a person not only benefit, but also harm, so you need to know in which cases it cannot be included in the diet.

Contraindications

The spicy radish and the Japanese subspecies contain different amounts of mustard oils. Due to their smaller amount, the taste of daikon is less pungent.

A sharp root vegetable should not be consumed by people suffering from ulcers and heart disease. Mustard essential oils can disrupt the tone of the uterus, so the vegetable should be excluded from the diet of pregnant women. Daikon has no such contraindications, but it should be consumed in small quantities.


Daikon Minovashi: reviews, planting and care

Daikon Minovashi is a kind of root vegetable, related to radish and radish, but differs from them in the absence of bitterness characteristic of these cultures in taste. The homeland of this daikon variety is Japan, where it is as widespread as potatoes in Russia. In our country, this culture is not yet very popular, although there are long-time admirers of it among Russian gardeners.

  1. Description of the Daikon Minovashi variety
  2. Growing conditions for the Minovashi daikon
  3. Planting and caring for the Minovashi daikon
  4. Landing dates
  5. Selection and preparation of the landing site
  6. Landing rules
  7. Seedlings
  8. Seeds
  9. Loosening and weeding
  10. Watering and feeding
  11. Diseases and pests
  12. Harvesting and storage
  13. Minovashi daikon recipes
  14. Daikon salad with chicken breast
  15. Fried daikon Minovashi
  16. Pickled daikon Minovashi with turmeric
  17. Conclusion
  18. Reviews about daikon Minovashi

Watch the video: HOW TO GROW AND HARVEST RADISH AT HOME?