Apple varieties of Professor E.S.Chernenko

Apple varieties of Professor E.S.Chernenko

Kandil, Polinka and others ...

Ekaterina Semyonovna Chernenko

Apple variety Dessert Budagovsky

Ekaterina Semyonovna Chernenko is a worthy representative of the great Russian gardening dynasty "Chernenko - Budagovsky".

The founder of the dynasty is her father Semyon Fedorovich Chernenko. A companion of IV Michurin, he bred dozens of apple varieties, creating the so-called "apple calendar", consistently ensuring the consumption of apples during all months of the year.

Ekaterina Semyonovna continued her father's work, creating completely new varieties on the basis of his varieties, which had just been accepted for state variety testing. I am sure that over time they will be appreciated by gardeners and will take their proper place in family gardens.

All of them are of excellent taste, with beautiful, bright fruits, fruitful, scab resistant and with sufficient winter hardiness. But the main thing is that at the same time, for example, Dessertnoye Budagovsky (July Chernenko x Rozovoe excellent) and Memory Budagovsky (Bogatyr x Kitayka winter early) turned out to be champions in vitamin C. that for every 100 g of apple there are 22.8 mg of vitamin C), and in winter in Memory of Budagovsky - 33.4 mg%.

In order to adequately evaluate these figures, let us inform you that the biochemical analysis of the fruits of Budagovsky's Memory was done on the same day as the famous Antonovka ordinary, whose ascorbic acid content was only 15.8 mg%.

Variety in Memory of Budagovsky

Apple variety in Memory of Budagovsky

The average fruit weight of an apple-tree variety Pamyati Budagovskiy is about 200 g (maybe 300 g), Antonovka ordinary - 100 g. This means that in order to get the daily intake of vitamin C (50-70 mg), it is enough to eat one apple of Memory Budagovsky or four apples of Antonovka ordinary.

The Pamyati Budagovsky variety, in comparison with Antonovka, has twice as much vitamin P - 264 mg%, while Antonovka has only 112 mg% (our daily requirement for this vitamin is 100-200 mg).

It is known that apples are a good antihypertensive agent. According to scientists' calculations, in order for them to be truly therapeutic, they should contain 25-35 mg% vitamin C and 200-300 mg% vitamin R.

The famous Antonovka ordinary, advertised as the best healing apple, it seems, cannot be called such, but in Memory of Budagovsky is a classic antihypertensive variety. There are only three similar varieties among the Central Russian varieties, according to my studies: Rossiyanka, Polivitaminnoe and Uspenskoe. And if we also take into account that the fruits of Antonovka vulgaris are preserved only until the beginning of January, and the apples in Memory of Budagovsky - until May, then what can we say!

This variety was named in memory of the person closest to E. Chernenko, her husband, the founder of dwarf gardening in Russia, V.I.Budagovsky.

Polinka variety

Apple variety Polinka

The winter variety Polinka is also unique in its own way (it originates from the Bogatyr variety) - by the way, it is named after the granddaughter. This variety is of an intensive type, it begins to bear fruit early - it blooms as a one-year-old in the nursery. The trees are short and very productive. Often, the fruits on the branches sit so tightly that they resemble sea buckthorn. Usually, the weight of the fruit is slightly more than 100 g, but it can be larger - up to 180 g.

Their shape is rounded with a wide base and a slight taper towards the top. They are very elegant, bright cherry color, juicy, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. The fruits are harvested at the end of September and stored until spring.

Variety Memory Chernenko

Apple variety Memory Chernenko

Memory of Chernenko (seedling of Anis aportovy). Winter, unusually productive variety. According to the author, sometimes it even seems that there are more fruits on the tree than leaves, and they hold on tightly.

Fruits of medium size (from 140 to 265 g), beautiful, conical shape. The color is elegant, dark red, blurred almost on all surfaces. The waxy bloom gives the fruit a special charm. But the color appears rather late, so do not rush to pick the fruit. In a simple basement, the fruits lie well until summer. They stand out for their good summer drought tolerance.

The variety needs regular pruning, otherwise the crown thickens and the size of the fruit decreases.

The variety is named in memory of the father.

Variety Kandil new

Apple variety Kandil new

Kandil new (Firstborn x Antonovka ordinary). The name is given for the oblong, typically candle-shaped fruits. Winter variety. Enters fruiting early.

The tree is not tall, during fruiting it is beautifully decorated with garlands of graceful, large and bright fruits

All these varieties, according to E. Chernenko, are winter-hardy in the conditions of Michurinsk. But, in my opinion, to the north of the Tambov region they still need to be tested by this property.

In 2006, in May, when the gardens were blooming, Ekaterina Semyonovna passed away. I was friends with her, we called each other by name, were on "you". Ekaterina Semyonovna was a reliable friend and supported me in one of the steepest, almost tragic, turns of my life.

And she often said, and then wrote in one of her letters: "You and I are two daughters of famous breeders, we must stick together and do everything possible to preserve the memory of our dear fathers." This is a will. Now I am left alone and, as far as I can, must keep the memory (and the work itself) not only of my father, but also of Chernenko's father and daughter.

Irina Isaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences

Read also:
• Features of growing columnar apple trees
• Apple tree: culture features, an overview of varieties
• Growing dwarf apple trees in the garden
• Forming apple trees is an art
• Apple fertilization system

Apple varieties bred by E.S. Chernenko. Dessert Budagovsky. Memory of Chernenko. Kandil is new. Polinka

Gardeners are well aware of the name of I.V. Michurin of the famous breeder Semyon Fedorovich Chernenko. He bred such varieties of apple trees, which in terms of fruit consumption "fill" almost all months of the year. This set of varieties is called "Chernenko's apple calendar". For many years, the daughter of a scientist, Ekaterina Semyonovna, has been engaged in selection. She crosses the Chernenko varieties with each other and with other varieties. The results are worthy of the attention of our readers.

Gardeners are well aware of the name of I.V. Michurin of the famous breeder Semyon Fedorovich Chernenko. He bred such varieties of apple trees, which in terms of fruit consumption "fill" almost all months of the year. This set of varieties is called "Chernenko's apple calendar".

For many years, the daughter of a scientist, Ekaterina Semyonovna, has been engaged in selection. She crosses the Chernenko varieties with each other and with other varieties. The results are worthy of the attention of our readers.

Dessert Budagovsky. This summer variety is the result of a hybridization between July and Excellent pink. From the original forms, he took a winter hardiness higher than that of Antonovka, early fruiting, high productivity, unusually bright color of fruits, tender juicy pulp and dessert sweet-sour taste with a weak aroma. Fruits are round, rather large (150-230 g). On weak rootstocks V.I. Budagovsky fruiting occurs early, two years after planting. Annuals bloom in the nursery. Trees are of moderate growth. In summer, there are few good apples. Before the autumn varieties ripen, there is an "empty" period. The new variety Dessertnoe Budagovskogo successfully fills this niche. Its fruits ripen 10-12 days later than Melba and are usable until mid-September.

Memory of Budagovsky. Obtained from crossing the Bogatyr variety with Kitayka red. Bogatyr is a productive variety with beautiful, tasty, large fruits (200-300 g), lying well until spring. The seedlings in the nursery are powerful (like the fruits, they justify the name of the variety), they delay growth in the fall. If they do not have time to ripen, then after harsh winters, freezing of the tops is possible. The new variety has a very high frost resistance, it is resistant to drought and fungal diseases. From Bogatyr, he inherited a large size of fruits (170-260 g), excellent taste, winter ripening period, long keeping quality until May. When stored under controlled conditions, it showed better results compared to many zoned varieties and a shelf life of 7-8 months. The red kitayka gave the variety a shorter growing season and an elegant color: bright red strokes against a light cream background. Both parents rewarded the new variety with a high yield. The shape of the fruit is of the same type, flat-round, convenient for packing. Fruiting occurs early, in the third year after budding, annuals bloom in the nursery.

Memory of Chernenko. Obtained from free pollination of the autumn variety Anis aportovy. Winter variety. On dwarf rootstocks, fruiting occurs early - in the second year after planting, annuals bloom in the nursery. The harvest is plentiful and not abruptly periodic. In normal years, it seems that there are more fruits on the tree than leaves. Apples hold on tightly. Fruits are of medium size and above (140-275 g). The shape of the fruit is beautiful, conical with a wide base and a noticeable taper towards the apex. The color is elegant, dark red, blurred almost over the entire surface. A strong waxy coating gives it a special charm. The pulp is white with a light green tint, juicy, sparkling, tender, pleasant sweet-sour taste with a harmonious combination of sugar and acid. Coloring appears rather late, so you should not rush to pick up the fruit. The fruits lie well until summer, even in an ordinary basement. They are transportable, the existing pressures do not rot. The variety has shown high drought tolerance. In 2002, in Ukraine, in the Sumy region of Yampolsky district, in an unusually dry summer, 100 kg of standard brightly colored fruits were removed from 15-year-old trees on dwarf rootstocks. The disadvantage of the variety is that if the pruning is not timely, the crown thickens strongly, which leads to a decrease in fruit.

Kandil is new. Obtained from crossing the Pervenets variety with Antonovka ordinary. The Firstborn has many valuable qualities: early maturity, yield, high immunity, beautiful fruits that are not inferior to the best southern varieties in taste, apples are also very good for peeing. The Firstborn transfers these qualities to its hybrids. Kandil new - a winter variety, early-growing, fruitful, winter-hardy. Fruits are of a beautiful broad-oval shape with a slight taper towards the top, such as candilia. On the sunny side - an elegant scarlet blush on a light cream background. Fruit size is medium to large (125-260 g). The pulp is white, dense, juicy, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. Fruits can lie until spring. Trees of moderate growth. The crown is oval, moderately thickened. Elegant fruits, densely located on the branches, form spectacular garlands.

Polinka. Obtained from crossing the Bogatyr grown from the crown and root (Bogatyr - crown x Bogatyr - roots). Winter variety, fast-growing, very productive. In favorable years, the fruits sit so tightly on the branches that they resemble corn cobs. Annuals bloom in the nursery. The size of the fruits is medium (110 g), but they can be quite large (180 g). The shape of the fruit is round with a wide base and a slight taper towards the top. The color is elegant, bright cherry, blurred almost throughout the fruit. The pulp is white, dense, juicy, sweet and sour, pleasant. It is advisable to remove the fruits at the end of September, when they gain color more fully, and can be stored until spring. Trees of moderate growth, oval crown, rounded leaves. Winter hardiness for the middle lane is good.

Calvil is golden. Obtained from crossing the Bogatyr variety with Antonovka ordinary. Winter grade. From Bogatyr he inherited the size, shape, winter ripening of fruits and their long keeping quality. Fruits are large (up to 300 g), rounded with a slight taper towards the top, sometimes with soft wide ribs, like the Bogatyr's. The color is green at the time of removal, in the sun there may be a delicate pink blush. In maturation, the fruits become light yellow with a slight light green tint. A characteristic feature of the variety is the strong rustiness of the funnel, which goes beyond its limits, like the Bogatyr. The pulp is white, dense, juicy, sweet and sour, pleasant. Fruits can be stored until spring. Trees of medium vigor with a rounded crown and strong branches. Winter hardiness for the middle lane is good.

E.S. Chernenko, doctor of agricultural sciences Sciences, Michurinsk

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Apple tree beforest description photo

In March, I often wake up very early with an incomprehensible sense of happiness. It appears as soon as I open my eyes and see through the window the first rays of the rising sun through the crowns of trees in my apple orchard. The first minutes do not leave me with snatches of sleep, I still continue to walk in the awakening spring garden, conduct a dialogue with my grandchildren, and I understand that I really have a reason for happiness.
- Grandpa, and when we start de.

So today, having woken up completely, I sat down to write new articles for a book about our paradise ecological garden. And, of course, the first article about the apple tree.

Autumn varieties of apple trees

Autumn varieties of apple trees are preferred by gardeners who sell fruits after harvest. Such varieties ripen in autumn, can be stored for a long time without losing their external qualities.

North synap

The variety was obtained as a result of free pollination by the breeder SI Isaev, who used the seed material of the Kitayka Kandil variety.

A vigorous, powerful tree with a wide-pyramidal thin crown. The bark is gray-brown. The height of an adult tree reaches 7 m. The leaves are small, with a glossy surface and a wide shape, of a dark green, slightly grayish hue. The fruits are medium in size, have a rounded-conical shape, reaching 110-130 g in weight. The peel is green, with a brownish-red blush. There are numerous, light subcutaneous points. The white pulp is juicy, the taste is sweet with pleasant sourness, the structure is dense and fine-grained.

Fruiting of a tall tree occurs 5-6 years after planting. Dwarf trees begin to bloom for 2 years. The yield is high - up to 150 kg of apples are harvested from an adult tree.


The variety was first described at the beginning of the 19th century by A.T. Bolotov. Scientist M. V. Rytov described the Borovinka variety more than 150 years ago. The variety was liked by the North Americans, who began to grow it on their plots. They also named the Oldenburg apple tree.

The tree can grow up to 5 m in height. The bark has an olive tint. The leaves are oval, dark green in color. Fruits are round, with a smooth surface and medium size, their weight does not exceed 90 g. The pulp is juicy, granular. The peel is smooth, light green with pink streaks. The taste is more sour than sweet.

Fruiting occurs in the 4th or 5-10th year after planting. At the age of ten, the plant brings good yields - on average, 60-75 kg of fruits are harvested from one tree. At the age of 25-30 years, the plant can yield yields of up to 200 kg.


It is a foreign variety of American origin. When crossing, breeders used two types of apples - Jonathan and Wagner. The Idared variety was obtained in 1935.Due to its good productivity and commercial qualities, the variety has become popular not only in the United States, but also in Russia.

Idared is a vigorous, autumnal variety with mixed fruiting. In adulthood, the height of the apple tree reaches 3-5 m. The plant has a wide, oval or spherical crown. The bark is grayish brown, smooth. Leaves are medium, elongated, with pointed edges, dark green shade. Fruits are round, medium in size, their weight reaches 140-190 g. The peel is pale green, thin, smooth. There are few large subcutaneous points. The creamy pulp is firm, firm and juicy. The aroma is weak, the taste is sour-sweet.

Fruiting occurs 5-6 years after planting. Fruits are harvested at the end of September before the first frost. About 30 kg of fruits are harvested from a young tree, and up to 90 kg of apples can be removed from a plant aged 15 years. Fruits are stored for about 6 months.


The Macintosh variety attracts with its history of appearance. In 1796 in the state of Ontario, a certain John Mackintosh acquired a farm. While clearing the garden, he found several apple tree seedlings. Having transplanted them to a new place, the plants died, but one apple tree took root, receiving the name in honor of the farmer.

The tree is medium-sized, the crown is spreading, rich. The leaves are small, ovoid, light green in color. The fruits are large, weighing up to 180 g. The peel is light yellow, there is a slight blush and carmine stripes. The rind is smooth, shiny, dense, but thin. White pulp, juicy, aromatic. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, pleasant.

Fruit ripening is non-simultaneous. The first fruits ripen in August, the plant bears fruit until the end of October. Up to 200 kg of apples are harvested from one plant, sometimes indicators reach 300 kg. When stored in a cool room, the fruits are stored until spring without losing their taste and appearance.


The apple variety was bred by breeder Evgeny Nikolaevich Sedov in 1977. The purpose of the breeding was to develop a variety with increased resistance to scab fungus. This was achieved by hybridizing the Skryzhapelkh 1924 variety.

Plants have a spherical crown, not thickened. The height of the trees is above average, the seedlings grow quickly and develop well. The bark is smooth. The leaves are elongated, dark green in color. The fruits are large, characterized by a flattened shape. The weight of one apple reaches up to 160 g. At the stage of technical maturity, the peel is light yellow, with full ripeness, a pink-red blush appears. The peel is oily, the flesh is juicy, dense, of a pale green hue.

The plant begins to actively bear fruit from 7-8 years after planting the seedling. Fruits are harvested in mid-September. Up to 200 kg of apples are harvested from one adult plant. If stored properly, fruits do not lose their qualities until mid-February.

Apple Orlik is undemanding and easy to care for. For planting, an open, sunny place is chosen, in cool regions - protected from the prevailing winter winds. In the south, seedlings are placed on the site after leaf fall - there the apple tree will have time to settle down and take root before the onset of severe frosts. In other regions, early spring planting is recommended. Since it should be carried out before the start of sap flow, the pit is prepared in the fall.

Important! With an open root, you need to buy 1-3-year-old seedlings, then the survival rate of the apple tree decreases sharply.

The Orlik variety tolerates a thickened planting, which is why it is so popular in small areas. Saplings can be placed at a distance of 2 m.

During a prolonged drought, the apple tree should be watered, especially if the weather is hot. Autumn charging with moisture is necessary, without this, the variety will winter badly, and next year it will give a meager harvest.

An adult apple tree is fertilized twice a year. In spring, nitrogen should prevail in top dressing, in autumn or at the end of summer - phosphorus and potassium. Many gardeners limit themselves to the introduction of the mineral complex at the beginning of the season, while in the fall they cover the trunk circle with rotted humus and ash.

If the ash is not taken from coniferous trees, phosphorus must be added to the apple tree's diet. Only in the ash of gymnosperms is the element present in sufficient quantities to allow it not to be added separately.

The care scheme necessarily includes treatments for the prevention of diseases and pests, sanitary and formative pruning. It is recommended to whitewash the trunk annually in the fall.

Although Orlik is a problem-free variety, you need to take care of the tree. But if you follow the minimum requirements of agricultural technology and regularly carry out sanitary measures, it will cause much less trouble than other apple trees.

Features of ripening and fruiting



  • The first apples will appear on your apple trees 2-3 years after planting. If they are on dwarf rootstocks
  • It is clear that these will be single copies. And later on seed stocks. For a couple of years. Or for a year
  • A 5-6 year old apple tree will delight you with a solid harvest of delicious apples.

The Starkrimson apple tree begins to bear fruit for 2-3 years.

Features of the

  • Flowers and fruits are formed mainly on the ringlets. Of all ages
  • There are significantly fewer of them on pods.



  • You will not see a blooming apple tree in early April. As in June. BUT in the first half of May blooming apple trees attract the attention of all those who are not indifferent. And poets
  • This variety is no exception.

Blooming apple tree Starkrimson.

Fruit ripening

  • You will begin to shoot apples at the end of September
  • Continue early October
  • Store
  • They have consumer maturity only a month after removal.
  • Better yet, the quality after long-term storage.

Harvest storage

  • They can be stored even until April. When creating conditions for their storage
  • And you must take off on time. Early pick-up is not suitable. As well as belated. Everything will come back to haunt when stored on their quality
  • ANDsometimes bitter pitting appears during long-term storage.

Starkrimson apples are stored until April.

It is required to update the apple varieties.

Our apple trees have aged, and I do not like all varieties. But what was planted once grew. Still, I decided not just to rejuvenate the old ones, but to plant new ones. And the question arose about varieties that are tasty (this is the main thing.) And fruitful in our Middle Volga region (Kazan). The taste, the color, of course, there are no comrades. There is no dispute about tastes - I also know that. But nevertheless, I decided to turn to the universal feeling (not the mind), the taste of CM gardeners.

Girls, what would you know for sure yourself (grown, grow, with a friend, with a mother.) Would advise you to purchase from apple varieties, given the following requirements:
1. So that the apples are not very small. 2. To be tasty (sweet and sour, not bland, no soreness). 3. So that they do not fall asleep like Grushovka or Iyulskoye Chernenko (it is this summer variety that grows with us, but I do not like it terribly). 4. I allow to bear fruit

in a year. 5. We need early, that is, summer and late varieties.

About what I have - Renet Krüdner, Iyulskoe Chernenko, Northern Sinap, Kitayka (unknown variety, but great for getting juice), Autumn striped (Streyfling).

Watch the video: Apple Varieties of the Future from WSUs Apple Breeding Program