The Bacopa genus includes about one hundred species of perennial or annual aquatic plants. Bacopa is a perennial aquatic plant widespread mainly in the southern United States and in the tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa, America and Australia. It is not a very large plant, at most it reaches twenty five centimeters in height. Bacopa is often used to decorate aquariums and, in case of submerged cultivation, it does not develop flowers. The stems of the bacopa are thin but fleshy and have an erect, slightly tomentose posture, they develop in a particular way under water. The leaves of the bacopa have inside them a kind of juicy substance, have a rather light green color and have an almost round shape with a linear outline without indentations; the flowers can have a white or blue-violet color and are made up of four or five petals.

Environment and exposure

All plants, as well as aquatic ones, need to be able to perform chlorophyll photosynthesis in order to live, so that plants need more or less abundant light to be able to achieve them.

Bacopa can also withstand temperatures just below zero, to make it grow healthy and strong, however, it will be advisable to place it in a partially shaded area, with the possibility of using direct sun for a few hours of the day.

In this way it will be able to flourish at its best; if completely immersed in water it will not produce flowers but only leaves.


Being an aquatic plant, bacopa needs a heavy, humid, sandy and drained soil, possibly rich in organic matter.

It can be grown outside the water and is characterized by being a plant suitable for flower beds and borders, due to its drooping habit. It also fits well inside rock gardens, always taking into account the fact that it needs constant water supplies, so that it does not dry up quickly. It is a rather resistant plant and, although it tends to dry out, it quickly recovers once you provide it with the right amount of water.


The planting of the bacopa is carried out when the stems are about ten to fifteen centimeters long; this plant likes to be completely submerged or placed on the banks of water, on the contrary it does not like shallow waters subject to rapid heating during the hot seasons. As mentioned, it can also be grown as a normal terrestrial plant, in this way it produces delicate and decorative flowers.


As previously said, bacopa is an aquatic plant, so it can live submerged directly in water, or, if grown as a simple terrestrial variety it needs a soil that is always moist, we will therefore have to bring it water frequently about every week, but be careful not to make it soaked; in case of container cultivation instead of the classic pond or other body of water, the water will need to be changed every twenty days.

In the hottest periods of the year, watering must be almost daily, especially if the plant receives direct sunlight for a few hours a day.

Fertilization of bacopa is not necessary; if we want, we can add a specific fertilizer for this type of plants to the water during the vegetative period about every twenty days.


The multiplication of bacopa occurs by seed or by cutting. As for the seeds, at the beginning of the spring season, they will be placed in seedbeds, the new seedlings will be transplanted when we reach about fifteen centimeters in height. In case of cutting, the stem of the bacopa is cut and planted in a container, you will have new leaves and new roots.

To get new seedlings it is good to use a light substrate, consisting of peat, sand and soft soil.


The bacopa can be pruned in this way: cut it to three quarters of the height about half a centimeter after the pair of leaves, here two new shoots will develop, when they reach about three centimeters in length, the weaker one will be eliminated and kept the strongest one.

In this way it is possible to keep your plant also the following year, obviously taking care to repair the specimens grown in areas where winter temperatures are rigid.


If grown in the dry it develops white or lilac flowers during the summer period; they are made up of four or five petals and five sepals. They develop alone or in pairs and have a very delicate appearance.

They are very popular as they allow you to decorate flower beds and gardens, giving a touch of color even in rock gardens, where these plants are recommended for their hanging character.

Diseases and parasites

Bacopa is not subject to particular attacks of diseases or parasites; however, it will be advisable to carry out preventive treatments with insecticides and fungicides respectively with the arrival of summer (spring) and before the buds become too large.


This plant can be found for sale in nurseries in the most widespread species, while varieties such as bacopa Madagascarensis and bacopa Myriophylloides will be more difficult to find; choose the one that best suits your needs and your availability that you can offer.

Most common species

There are many species of bacopa, below we will illustrate the main ones and their characteristics.

Bacopa Caroliniana: is native to America, it can reach a very high height and, in nature, exceeds sixty centimeters. It can be easily grown inside aquariums. It has a fleshy stem about four to five millimeters wide, the leaves are small and lance-shaped, they too are fleshy and, at most, reach four centimeters in length. This type of bacopa needs a lot of light and tolerates temperatures up to around twenty-six degrees well, although it prefers to be grown in cold water. It prefers medium hard water.

Bacopa Monnieri: it is native to India and, unlike the Caroliniana, this bacopa has shorter and narrower leaves, is easy to cultivate and is suitable for both hard waters, with acid and alkaline pH. It needs lighting but not too much and needs a substrate made of sand or gravel. Like the bacopa Caroliniana, it prefers cold waters even if it can withstand temperatures of thirty degrees. It is considered an ornamental plant to be placed on the bottom, as it develops well in height and often comes out of the aquarium.

Bacopa Australis: it is native to South America, it can reach a height of about thirty centimeters, it needs good brightness. Withstands minimum temperatures no lower than fifteen and maximum temperatures no higher than thirty-two. It lends itself to being cultivated in very hard or not very hard waters. It has small green leaves.

Bacopa Crenata: this species originates from some areas of Africa such as Angola, Madagascar, Senegal and Tanzania. It can have drooping or erect stems and reach a height of about thirty centimeters. It has smooth leaves with a serrated edge. It prefers a cultivation in soft water and likes a medium brightness.

Bacopa Madagascariensis: as the name implies, it is the native species of Madagascar, it needs a lot of light and presents some cultivation difficulties. It is not very present on the market. The reproduction of this plant occurs by cuttings or lateral shoots.

Bacopa Myriophylloides: the cultivation of this species is very demanding. It needs a lot of light and fears the appearance of algae. It prefers a slightly hard and slightly acidic water, which also propagates by cuttings or lateral jets. It can reach a height of thirty centimeters.

Bacopa Rotundifolia: it is an aquatic plant native to the United States, as you can guess from the name, it has round-shaped leaves up to three centimeters wide. It develops white or yellow flowers.

Aquarium cultivation

As previously mentioned, bacopa can also be grown in the aquarium, below we will explain the main operations and stages of this type of cultivation.

As for the material to be placed on the bottom, it has the task of allowing the plants to fix their roots but not only that, some nutrients are deposited on it which, dissolving in the water, become a source of nourishment for some types of plants. aquarium. There are some plants that in the aquarium must be placed in groups (those of small size) or individually (those that reach considerable size); with regard to their positioning, the purely aesthetic aspect must also be evaluated. The plants grown in the aquarium need above all ferrous substances and other elements useful for their development; for this purpose a soil rich in mineral salts and, in fact, ferrous substances is used, mixing it with the sand placed on the bottom, this soil is very useful because it has the characteristic of gradually yielding the essential substances for the development of plants. Another very important element for the development of plants in the aquarium is carbon dioxide, it must be constantly supplied through specific devices because it is almost always insufficient in a normal aquarium; There are different types on the market and they will be chosen based on their experiences and the use that will be made of them. A piece of advice we can give you before buying these devices is to ask the shopkeeper whether or not he also carries out maintenance and if he has spare cylinders, which is very important.


Bacopa Monnieri has several very important properties. It can be useful as an antioxidant and anti-aging and as an anti-inflammatory. It is widely used in cosmetics to prepare protective creams for face and body, and sun creams thanks to its calming and soothing properties. This plant is also recognized as having the property of increasing memory, many years ago it was recommended to students. Following the recommended doses, bacopa is not toxic. The sedative effect on animals has been found in particular studies and experiments. Combined with the extracts of other products such as ginseng, ginger, gotu kola, bacopa can amplify its already beneficial effects. Bacopa monnieri is widely used in medicine to treat asthma and epilepsy. Leaves and branches of this bacopa species are considered diuretics and aperitifs, while leaves and stems can help fight urinary blockages. Boiled, put in gauze and placed on the chest, it can help treat bronchitis and lung diseases especially in children. The leaves can also be very useful in case of asthenia and nervous exhaustion. It is an excellent remedy for lowering the voice and hoarseness. It is also used to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

Sutera cordata

Schneeflockenblume (Bacopa)

K (2) - Перовския лебедолистная 'Longin' / Perovskia atriplicifolia 'Longin' (USDA зоны 5-10) B (1) - Мискантус китайский 'Graziella' / Miscazianthus 'sinensis' 5-9 (sv) Chaenostoma cordatum (bg) Sutera cordata (nl) especie de planta (es) উদ্ভিদের প্রজাতি (bn) espècie de planta (ca) Zierstaude aus dem südlichen Afrika (de) lloj i bimëve ..

Sutera Species, Bacopa Sutera cordata

  1. I (5) - Лилейник ‘Eenie Weenie’ / Hemerocallis ‘Eenie Weenie’ (USDA зоны 3-9)
  2. F (1) - Хоста Зибольда ‘Elegans’ / Hosta sieboldiana ‘Elegans’ (USDA зоны 3-9)
  3. T (3) - Флокс метельчатый ‘Eva Cullum’ / Phlox paniculata ‘Eva Cullum’ (USDA зоны 4-8)
  4. H (4) - Лаванда черешчатая / Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata (USDA зоны 8-11)

I (1) - Мелколепестник ‘Pink Jewel’ / Erigeron ‘Pink Jewel’ (USDA зоны 5-8) B (2) - Боярышник петушья шпора ‘Cruzam’ / Crataegus crus-galli ‘am 4-7

Rose 'Violet Carson'

Rose 'Violet Carson' is a salmon-pink rose cultivar, an uncommon hybrid of the red hybrid tea 'Mme Léon Cuny' (Gaujard, 1955) and the orange floribunda 'Spartan' (Boerner, 1955), created by Samuel McGredy IV between 1963 and 1964. [ 3] It was named after the English actress Violet Carson (1898–1983), who played Ena Sharples in the British soap opera Coronation Street. [4]

Rose 'Violet Carson'
GenusRose hybrid
Hybrid parentage'Mme Leon Cuny' × 'Spartan'
Cultivar groupFloribunda
Cultivar'Violet Carson'
Marketing namesMACio
BreederSamuel Darragh McGredy IV
OriginNorthern Ireland, 1964. [1] [2]

The dense semi-double flowers reach an average diameter of 8 centimeters (3.1 in), with up to 35 petals, and appear in loose clusters of 3 to 15 in flushes throughout the season. They have a mild to strong, sweet musk fragrance and an elegant bloom form, with outer petals that bend decoratively outwards. [2] Their color ranges from a blush to strong pink with a cream center and a reverse described as lemony or silvery in young flowers that changes to pink and white in mature petals. [2] [5]

The compact bushy shrub grows 0.75 to 1.5 meters (2.5 to 5 feet) high and about 1 meter (3.3 ft) wide. The young shoots are crimson with reddish purple new foliage that turns to a glossy slightly blue dark green. 'Violet Carson' is (almost) thornless, rain tolerant and winter hardy down to −23 ° C (USDA zone 6). [1] [2] [5]

The flower has been notably featured in the graphic novel V for Vendetta, but in the movie version is renamed to the fictitious "Scarlet Carson", which Ruth grows for her partner (Valerie), and V grows during his imprisonment in the Larkhill Resettlement Camp. They were portrayed in the film by red 'Grand Prix' roses. [6]


The best position to place the Bacopa it is in bright partial shade, because in full sun it tends to dry out and blooms little in the shade. In winter it loses the aerial part, regenerating it in spring it tolerates cold up to 0 ° C, only if of short duration. To avoid freezing of the redices, it is advisable to protect the plants with a mulch, especially in areas with cold and humid winters.

It is necessary to supply water regularly in summer, keeping the soil always moist but not soggy. If it is not watered for a long time, the Bacopa it withers quickly, but regains its tone as soon as it gets wet. The potted plants can be watered by immersion, leaving them to soak for a few minutes in a basin full of water.

In spring and summer it is advisable to administer a liquid fertilizer for flowering plants every 10 days, diluted in irrigation water, to obtain more abundant flowering. There Bacopa it needs fertile soil, well fertilized and with excellent drainage.

Regular elimination of withered flowers makes flowering richer and longer.

How to use n

Khadi Rose Repair Hair Oil is traditionally applied before washing the hair, let's see how: n

Press the dispenser 2-3 times pouring the oil into the palm of your hand and massage the oil gently on lengths and ends. n

As an alternative, you can brush khadi Rose Repair Oil into your hair. n

Wrap your hair in a towel to keep it warm. Leave the oil to work for at least 30-60 minutes, then wash your hair with a khadi Shampoo. If you want a more intense action treatment, you can leave the pack with the oil to act even during the night. n

We recommend applying this natural hair treatment twice a week. Using a small amount, this oil can also be used as a leave-in treatment. n


In the 2007 edition of "Integrative Medicine," University of Wisconsin professor David Rakel claims that lysine, an amino acid found in foods, may reduce the frequency of herpes outbreaks, although it less effective at reducing the severity or duration of an outbreak that is already underway 2. According to Rakel, lysine works by opposing the growth stimulating effect of another amino acid, called arginine, on the herpes simplex virus 1. Lysine also competes with arginine for absorption by infected cells, limiting how much arginine reaches the virus in the first place, and triggers the production of an enzyme, arginase, that degrades arginine.

Aquarium plants grown in the pond outside

7/2/2019 - After talking about tropical fish found in Italy and some aquarium plants found in nature in Italy, now I want to open an equally interesting topic.
Many aquarists do not know that many plants that are normally grown in an aquarium actually live in a climate rather similar to that of central-southern Italy and then they are not always totally underwater but only partially depending on the seasonal cycle, sometimes remaining for short periods completely out of the water or completely submerged. Basically for most of the year the root system and the lower part of the plant remain under water while the leaves emerge thus accessing the carbon dioxide (Co2) which is very important for the growth of plants since under water it is definitely lacking and often insufficient (this is why many aquariums are equipped with Co2 cylinders). We are obviously talking about the marsh plants which in nature generally stay on the banks or on the edges of water courses.

Among the marsh plants that are normally used in the aquarium we mention the Echinodorus, various species of Cryptocoryne, Ludwigia, Bacopa, Hydrocotyle and Rotala (but they are only a few!). Also in Italy in ponds and generally outdoors we can find marsh plants such as False papyrus (Cyperus alternifolius), Rush or Iris but in this article I want to talk about the possibility of transferring aquarium plants to theexternal in the fountain or in the pond home.
In recent times, among other things, the paludarium, where in this case the aquarist gives much more importance to plants than to fish, thus setting up the aquarium with a few cm of water and maintaining a high level of humidity inside, simulating a small course in nature without adding of carbon dioxide. Clearly in this way the plants have an easier life and usually do not have particular problems in growth.
As for me, last summer I moved some plants from the aquarium to the fountain in the garden, where I breed some goldfish and gambusias, placing them in pots with normal soil covered with sand.
Mine is more a curiosity to see how these plants behave outside but also a way to purify and oxygenate the water of the fountain in addition to their known ability to eliminate organic waste.
In this way it is also easy to see the emerged form of these plants which can radically change the shape of the leaves depending on whether the plant is emerged or submerged and even assist in flowering.

I had excellent responses from Myriophyllum which in a few days literally invaded the fountain (unfortunately I had to carry out a drastic pruning as it had covered the entire surface) but also with Ludwigia and Rotala Rotundifolia I had a good growth rate with frequent blooms in Ludwigia (the yellow flowers are very beautiful!). I also tried Bacopa Monnieri in the fountain which gave me continuous blooms and vigorous growth. I have successfully cultivated Bacopa and Echinodorus even as simple ornamental plants in pots but in this case the plant must be watered well every day in summer or, even better, you can leave a few centimeters of water covering the collar. The Echinodorus also in the water in the fountain grew well so much that it often emitted floriferous scapes.
Clearly then with the arrival of autumn and especially of winter with the gradual lowering of temperatures, the plants began to struggle, to be less green and to lose leaves but despite this the Myriophyllum did not dry out even under the ice and indeed in at this time (early February) new green leaves have emerged on the tips above.
Then once spring arrives and as temperatures increase, the plants will slowly begin to grow back and new leaves will sprout even if they may initially seem dry from the winter cold. Although for the most part they are tropical or subtropical plants, many of them resist very well to our winter especially in central-southern Italy.
In the north they could suffer the winter but from the experiences that are read it seems that they do not have particular problems even in these areas, as long as the pot in the pond remains at a certain depth so that it does not freeze.
Next summer I will try to grow other plants outdoors such as Vallisneria Spiralis, Vallisneria Gigantea, Cryptocoryne and Hydrocotyle Leucocephala. I will keep this page updated as I experiment with new horizons.

- Text and photos by Luca Viviani -

Blooming Ludwigia in the pond

Bacopa Monnieri grown in pots with various inflorescences

Fountain outside where Myriophyllum, Ludwigia, Bacopa Monnieri and Rotala Rotundifolia can be seen

Echinodorus with flowering scapes grown outdoors in a bucket with soil

Echinodorus grown in pots in fountains

Echinodorus seedling born on the flowering stem of the mother plant

Ludwigia (Porracchia) in a fountain outside. After the winter lull, with the arrival of summer, it started growing again.

Rotala Rotundifolia in emerged form in the pond

Cryptocoryne Wendtii grown in pots in the pond

Vallisneria Spiralis grown in pots outside. Note the reddish color due to the strong sunlight.

Vallisneria Gigantea (V. americana) grown in my pond. Note the much larger leaves than the "sister" Spiralis.

Alisma Plantago Aquatica (Mestolaccia) with inflorescence

Potamogeton Nodosus flower (Brasca nodosa)

Planorbarius Corneus taken from a pond. This snail can spend the winter outside.

Gambusie and goldfish in my pond

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Video: Bacopa Monnieri with Dr. Ramon Velazquez,. Mind Lab Pro