Experienced gardeners know that it will take a lot of effort to remove a good harvest of large tomatoes from greenhouse beds. In addition to timely watering and feeding, the plant needs to be helped to form correctly so that it does not waste energy on stepson's shoots. How to form tomatoes in two stems will be discussed in this article.
Why is it necessary to form a tomato in a polycarbonate greenhouse
During the growing season, many shoots can branch off from the main stem of the tomato, on which fruits will also be tied. It seems that the process itself should delight gardeners with a large number of ovaries, but in reality it looks completely different.
A mature bush with voluminous greenery and a small number of ovaries is not able to provide fruits with vitamins and minerals in the required amount, as a result of which some of them fall off, others are deprived of the opportunity to keep up completely.
The formation of bushes is required for almost all varieties of tomatoes. The only exceptions are standard crops (a variety of plants of the determinant type).
But how many stems should you leave on the bush? Depending on the chosen hybrid / variety and the characteristics of the development of the tops, gardeners form a bush in three ways:
- in 1 stem;
- in 2 stems;
- in 3 stems.
In a polycarbonate greenhouse, pinching is aimed at obtaining a high-quality harvest, which is ensured by redirecting food to the main stem and fruits. The stepchildren take away from the plant most of the micro and macro elements useful for the development, so it is advisable to remove them. It is important not to confuse the stepson with a fruiting branch during the procedure. You can determine the extra shoot by the place of its growth. This is the sinus of the leaf.
The advantage of pinching is to reduce the ripening time of the fruit, that is, you can pick tomatoes 1-2 weeks earlier. In addition, the yield increases due to the increase in the fruiting period. And yet, the main merit of the procedure is the receipt of high-quality tomatoes.
How to form two-stem bushes
Before proceeding with the removal of unnecessary shoots, you need to decide on the following questions:
- the frequency of the procedure (in greenhouses, tomatoes should be pinned once every 7-10 days);
- plant pinching technique using method two.
It is also worth considering that when a sprout breaks off, tomato juice can get on your hands. Moving from bush to bush, there is a high probability of contamination of other tomatoes with various diseases, if there is at least one affected tomato. Therefore, experts recommend wearing rubber gloves before the procedure and wiping them with an alcohol solution after each lash.
The essence of the technique of forming a bush is to isolate the main stem and the first stepson, since it is the strongest, capable of intensive development and fruiting. It is easy to define it, it is located under the first brush of inflorescences. The rest of the stepsons, who have reached a length of 4-7 cm, are boldly removed. You need to cut off the shoots sharply, grabbing them with your index and thumb. In order not to damage the main stem, the sprout should be pushed aside when jerking, and not away from yourself. Cutting with a tool with a sharp blade (knife) is also allowed.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, the bushes form into one or two stems. With a large number of branches, the plants are shaded and impede air circulation, so the 3-branch technique is not suitable.
How to correctly form determinant brushes
This group includes low-growing plants of early and medium ripening. In principle, they do not need to form a bush (on average, the height of the tops reaches 55-65 cm). But experienced gardeners still carry out the procedure to get an earlier harvest and increase fruiting.
In determinant tomatoes, after the formation of 3-4 leaves, the first flower cluster is laid on the main stem. After 2-3 leaves, a second appears, and all subsequent brushes are tied through the leaf. The last inflorescences that close the tomato growth are arranged in a row without an interval on the leaves. In southern countries, the culture is grown without removing stepchildren, which is facilitated by the climate and long daylight hours. In our regions, it is simply necessary to participate in the pinching process.
For the formation of tomatoes of the determinant type, in addition to the main stem, the first or second stepson is chosen. After the beginning of flowering, you need to install a support so that the branches do not break under the weight of the fruits. In the greenhouse, the plants are tied to a trellis.
Formation of indeterminate varieties
This type includes crops that do not have growth restrictions. Most often, these varieties are formed into one stem, less often with two. The use of these methods is explained by the ability of indeterminate tomatoes to form a large number of lateral shoots.
On a plant whose height exceeds 50-70 cm, in addition to the main stem, the first or second stepson is left (a stronger and more developed version is chosen). On each branch, leave 4-5 clusters of inflorescences. The shoots located on the sides and in the root zone are removed.
Morning hours are a good time for pruning the bush (the weather should be dry and sunny). During this period, the plant is filled with juice as much as possible, which facilitates the breaking process. During the day, the wound dries up, which reduces the risk of infection with a fungal disease.
What will happen if the cultivation of tomatoes is allowed to take its course
Removing useless sprouts promotes the ripening of large fruits, because the tomato does not waste energy and energy. If young seedlings are not subjected to such a procedure, then the bush turns out to be highly branched, and the fruits on it will be small. Many ovaries can fall off due to a lack of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the beds thicken and there is a problem with ventilation. With high humidity, various fungi are activated, which causes plant diseases.
Spontaneously forming tomatoes can reach a height of 1 m or more, which creates lighting problems in a polycarbonate greenhouse. And for normal vegetation, light is simply necessary, it promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, adjusting the growth of the bush is another advantage of pinching.
The beds without the formation of bushes look unkempt, it is extremely inconvenient to process them, you have to break through the thickets. By the end of the season, a lot of unripe fruits remain on the plant, which are unsuitable even for conservation due to their too dense structure and bitterness in taste.
Removing the stepchildren will not take much time, and the knowledge to perform pruning or pinching will require minimal knowledge. But the harvest will delight with large tomatoes that will correspond to the marketable and taste characteristics. The scheme of how to form bushes can also be used outdoors.
Forming a tomato into two stalks
In the spring, many gardeners have large plots, anyone seeks to plant more plants on them and get the maximum yield from them. Experienced gardeners understand that it takes a lot of effort and proper care for a decent amount of fruit from greenhouse beds.
In addition to watering and the necessary dressing for tomatoes, proper shaping is needed so that you do not have to waste energy on removing unnecessary stepsons.
How to properly form tomatoes into two stalks in order to get the maximum yield, and not the tops.
Usually large-fruited tall tomatoes lead to one stem. This is understandable: there is less load on the bush and shade, the plants are better ventilated. But sometimes you have to shape the tomato into two stalks.
At first glance, it seems that the easiest way is to leave the first lower stepson as the second stem. But this is a delusion. Which, moreover, left many gardeners without a crop.
The first stepson will build up greens and inhibit the development of the entire plant. And these are 5 - 6 true leaves. And only after that a flower brush will appear on the stepson. Until it picks up the buds, the main stem will develop very slowly. You will get a meager harvest from such a plant.
In tall tomatoes, the main stepson is always left as the second stem. Finding it is not difficult at all. This is the stepson who is under the first flower brush. He almost immediately, after a couple of leaves, throws out a flower brush. At the same time, fruiting will also move away, but not by much. Just 1 - 2 weeks.
Sometimes I, probably out of greed, even when keeping a tomato in one stalk, leave the first brush on the main stepson. Why?
The fact is that this stepson outgrows very quickly. You won't have time to look around, but he has already jumped 5 - 7 cm allowed for its removal. To remove an overgrown stepson - you will injure the plant, it will take a long time to recover. Therefore, I let the first brush develop, and after the formation of two leaves above it, I pinch the crown of the stepson. So the tomato does not suffer, and I get an additional crop.
This stepson has the most powerful growth energy. In addition, it does not slow down the development of the main stem and flowering on it. Sometimes the main stepson is so powerful that it is not so easy to distinguish it from the main stem. With the main stem, it forms a kind of fork.
How, then, to determine where the stepson is, and where is the stem? This is especially important if you plan to break this stepson. After all, it is the stepson that needs to be broken, and not the main stem.
Distinguishing the main stepson from the main stem is actually very simple. I will teach you.
Notice that there is a flower brush on the main stem right after the fork. And on the stepson there is a leaf. This distinction always shows up for all tomatoes. And it never let me down.
All other stepchildren, except for the main one, are removed when forming a tomato into two stalks.
How to form tomatoes correctly. Stealing. Briefly and clearly.
Good afternoon, dear readers!
Today I will tell you about pinching tomatoes. This is a very important process, the quantity and quality of our harvest, as well as the timing of fruit ripening, depends on it.
Tomatoes are divided into tall and short. You must clearly know where your tomato is growing. For example, plant tall ones in one row in a greenhouse, and low-growing ones in another. Or plant undersized in open ground.
As soon as the first flower brush appeared on the tomato, stepchildren — additional stems — soon begin to grow from each axil of the leaf. And here it is very important to remove unnecessary stepsons and form a tomato.
And we delete the rest of the stepsons who are below this escape. These stepchildren are weak, develop slowly, their harvest will be small and late. If they are not removed, they will take food on themselves and the tomato will suffer from this.
Further, if you have a tall tomato, then it is advisable to keep it in 2 stems, that is, you have the main (main) stem plus 1 stepson under the first flower brush. Everything! The rest of the stepsons are mercilessly removed. If you want to lead in three stems, then leave one more stepson, which will grow over the first flower brush.
And if your tomato is undersized (determinant) or standard, then the stepsons are above the first flower brush and everything above is left. The growth of the main stem will end very quickly and we will harvest the entire crop from stepchildren that are higher than the first flower brush.
There is an exception - these are cherry tomatoes. It is better to drive them in 5 barrels. You will get one main stem, the second under the first flower brush, the third over the first flower brush, and plus two stepsons above. Not everyone succeeds in forming cherry blossoms during the formation, for many gardeners they grow in 6-7 stems. And including me)))
The more stems we leave on the tomato, the smaller the fruits grow. If you like large-fruited varieties, then it is better to keep them in one stem, that is, remove all stepchildren without exception.
How to shape tomatoes into 1 or more stems
So, if you read the previous paragraph, then you know that tomatoes, depending on their belonging to a certain type (determinant or indeterminate, because with limited or unlimited growth) and the method of growing (in open ground or greenhouse) can be formed in 1 , 2 or 3 stems.
Next, we will consider the nuances, advantages and disadvantages of the formation of determinant and indeterminate tomatoes in a greenhouse and open field in 1 or more stems.
Video: shaping a tomato in 1, 2 and 3 stalks
Formation into 1 stem
Features of the formation of tomatoes in 1 stem:
- The essence of the formation of tomatoes in 1 stem is the removal of all stepsons from the main trunk.
- As a rule, indeterminate tomatoes are formed in 1 stem in the open field and in the greenhouse, while limiting the number of flower brushes in different ways (for OG - 5, for the greenhouse - 7).
Although determinate tomatoes in the open field can also be formed into 1 stem.
- It is best to form tomatoes into 1 stem in a high greenhouse, which has a height of about 2.5-3 meters.
The main disadvantage of forming tomatoes into 1 stem is the fact that in this case you will need more seedlings than when forming into 2 stems.
Although outdoors, indeterminate tomatoes can only be grown in 1 stem.
Forming into 2 stems
The nuances of forming tomatoes in 2 stems:
- To form 2-stem tomato bushes, you need to leave a stepson under the first flower brush. It is usually the strongest and fastest growing. He will be your 2nd stem. All other side shoots (stepchildren) will need to continue to be regularly removed (pinned).
Interesting! Sometimes the plant bifurcates itself, in other words, it has a second strong shoot, and not necessarily just under the flower brush, maybe above it.
By the way! Including it is necessary to remove stepchildren, which will form on the 2nd stem.
- As a rule, indeterminate tomatoes are formed in 2 stems in the greenhouse, as well as determinant (especially superdeterminant) tomatoes in the open field and in the greenhouse.
- It is convenient to form indeterminate and determinant tomatoes into 2 stems in not very high greenhouses, 1.5-2.5 meters high.
Forming into 3 stems
- The essence of the formation of tomatoes in 3 stems is the same: as the 2nd stem, you need to leave a strong stepson under the first flower brush, and as the 3rd - either overfirst brush (undesirable)or below the 2nd stem (i.e. below it). And again, all the other stepsons will need to continue to be removed regularly.
Advice! Do not forget to remove stepchildren that will form on the 2nd and 3rd stem.
- As a rule, only determinant (undersized) tomatoes are formed in 3 stems in a greenhouse and open field.
Interesting! And you can also form initially in 2, and then in 3 stems, i.e. with the transfer of the growth point to the lateral shoot.
Little trick! In the case of determinant tomatoes, even if you form a bush of 3 stems, there can be only 3-4 brushes, although there should be 5-6 of them. Therefore, one more stepson should be left, i.e. shape into 4 stems.
Video: the formation of undersized (determinant) tomatoes
The main disadvantage of the formation of medium-sized and tall tomatoes in 3 stems is that there is a significant thickening, which means that it becomes more difficult to care for (tie, pinch), and also to harvest. Therefore, this number of stems is left only when growing undersized tomatoes.
Features of the formation of tomato bushes
All types of tomatoes, with the exception of standard tomatoes, give a large number of side shoots (stepchildren).If the stepchildren are not removed in time, then the green mass of the tomato bush grows, taking minerals from the soil, and there are not enough nutrients for the formation of fruits. The result is a lush bush with a minimum of fruit. Excessive thickening of the bushes interferes with good ventilation, and increases the risk of developing tomato diseases. Chopping off stepchildren, you get a neat, non-thickened bush that will direct all your forces to fruiting. You need to understand well where the leaf is, where the brush is, and where the stepson is, so as not to remove leaves or fruit brushes by mistake.
The leaf grows first, and almost from the same point, a lateral shoot (stepson) stretches, that is, you need to break off the upper sprout.
The most difficult thing is to distinguish between the stepson and the main stem at the first fork, it seems that the stem is simply bifurcating. Focus on the location of the flower brush. It is located above the stepson, emerging from his sinus, the main stem continues behind the brush. In the figure, the number 1 denotes the main stem, the number 2 for the leaf, the number 3 denotes the stepson, and the number 4 indicates the fruiting brush. The main rule for removing stepchildren is regularity. Inspect the plants every week - one and a half, do not let the side shoots grow more than 5 cm, otherwise they will draw off nutrients and their removal will be traumatic for the tomato bush.
Post-care of plants
For the correct development of plants and obtaining a decent harvest, it is necessary to follow a few simple but important rules:
- Water the tomatoes at least 2 times a week, and use only water preheated in the sun for this. Watering should be carried out without sprinkling the leaves, but directly under the bush (in the planting hole)
- As the green mass of the tomato grows, so that humid air does not collect under the bush, it is necessary to gradually cut off the old leaves (up to 1 brush). It is imperative to cut off all damaged and yellowed leaves (they may have the rudiments of infection)
- Tomato plants need to be fertilized regularly with complex fertilizers, this will help them develop correctly and form many high-quality fruits. Please note that phosphorus and fertilizers containing it affect fruit formation. Their introduction is very important during flowering and during the formation of the ovary.
The correct formation of tomatoes in two trunks allows them to develop better, receive enough sunlight and nutrients, which will definitely affect the final crop of plants.
Control the appearance of tomato bushes, they need enough nutrition (especially with a heavy load of fruits). Be sure to tie up both the main shoot and the overgrown branches, the tomatoes should not touch the soil, otherwise rot will appear on them. Examine tomato plants with fruits, cut off excess ovary and ugly fruits, normal, growing tomatoes should have enough nutrients. After the middle of summer, cut off the small tomato ovaries, if they can grow, they will not have time to fully ripen anyway, they will only take away the strength from the plant.
The formation of a tomato in two trunks will not cause big problems, do not be afraid to plant plants with different directions of growth, with the shape of bushes, and you will have enough tomatoes for the table.