This long-known and nevertheless still popular drug has an interesting history. Once, French winemakers asked Joseph Louis Proust to come up with a safe for health remedy for poachers entering the vineyards. The scientist suggested that they treat the vine with a mixture of copper sulphate and lime: drying on bunches, the composition looked like a mold plaque, but it did not harm the plants and was easily washed off. The thieves stopped carrying the "moldy" berries, and after a while the botanist Pierre Marie Milliard noticed that rot does not develop on ripening bunches of grapes treated with the mixture, and recommended this drug for widespread use.
Appointment of Bordeaux mixture
In addition, this drug has pronounced insecticidal properties and is also used to destroy pests of garden and vegetable garden plants.
The action of Bordeaux liquid
The drug contains copper sulfate (copper sulfate), which destroys various types of fungi, and slaked lime (milk of lime), introduced into the composition so that the working solution does not drain from the leaves. That is why the drug ranks first among fungicides in terms of retention on the leaves.
The action on fungal organisms of copper sulfate has been known for a very long time, however, in addition to fungicidal, Bordeaux liquid also has insecticidal (repellent) properties, and this allows us to speak of the versatility of the drug.
The protective effect of Bordeaux liquid can last up to 1 month.
Substitutes for the drug can be considered Abiga-Peak, Cuproxat and Hom, as well as more advanced fungicides Polyhom and Oxykh.
How to make Bordeaux liquid yourself
Usually, one percent or three percent Bordeaux liquid is used to protect plants from fungi. You need to prepare a working solution immediately before use, but if for some reason you had to postpone the procedure to the next day, add 10 g of sugar to the bucket with the fungicide, and then the solution will remain until the next day.
To prepare the Bordeaux liquid, you will need two 10-liter containers, but they do not have to be metal. In one container, dissolve 100 g of copper sulfate in one and a half liters of hot (45 ºC) water, then pour 3.5 liters of cold water into the solution in a thin stream. In another bowl, pour 150 g of quicklime with one and a half liters of hot water, then gradually, while stirring, pour 3.5 liters of cold water into the solution. Both solutions must be mixed very thoroughly. Then pour a solution of copper sulfate (copper sulfate) into the milk of lime with a thin stream, but in no case vice versa! Mix the solution gently. It should be bright blue.
In the photo: Ready-made Bordeaux mixture solution
Now dip a nail into the liquid, hold it there and inspect: if a thin copper layer appears on the iron, you need to add a little lime mortar to the solution. This is how a one percent solution of Bordeaux liquid is prepared, and if you need a three percent solution, then take 300 g of copper sulfate and 450 g of lime for the same amount of water.
How to apply Bordeaux liquid
In early spring and autumn, a 3% composition is used for processing, and during the period of active growth, when the plants are already covered with leaves, a 1% solution is used, since a 3% solution can leave burns on the foliage. Spring treatment is carried out before the buds swell, and autumn - after leaf fall.
The procedure is carried out on a dry, windless evening after sunset. The solution should wet the terrestrial organs of the plant from all sides. You can eat berries sprayed with a fungicide only after a month, fruits - after two weeks, and vegetables - after three.
- Cucumbers and tomatoes are treated with a 1% solution: the first time - at the stage of formation of 2-3 leaves, and then several more times every two weeks. Seedlings of tomatoes with signs of fungal infection are sprayed with a 1% solution.
- Potato tubers are sprayed an hour and a half before planting with a 1% solution, then processing is carried out when the bushes reach a height of 15-20 cm, and the next time - two weeks later.
- The grapes are treated with a 3% composition until the buds open, and then, if necessary, only a 1% solution is used.
- Raspberries, gooseberries and currants are sprayed in order to prevent leaf spot: in early spring - with a three percent composition, and two subsequent sessions are carried out with one percent Bordeaux liquid.
- Strawberry bushes, as soon as the snow melts from the beds, are sprayed with a three percent composition, and when the flower buds begin to swell, the treatment is carried out with a one percent solution.
- Before the start of sap flow, fruit trees are treated with a three percent composition, in the green cone phase - with one percent, the third treatment is carried out after flowering, and then every two weeks, but no more than six times per season.
The last spraying with this fungicide should be done no later than three to four weeks before harvest.
Bordeaux liquid cannot be mixed with any of the drugs that decompose in an alkaline environment. Science does not stand still, and today you can buy other copper-containing preparations, the advantage of which over the Bordeaux mixture is that they can be mixed with other substances.
Bordeaux liquid belongs to the 2nd hazard class for humans and the 3rd hazard class for bees. This means that it is advisable to isolate the bees for the period of treatment of the territory with the drug and subsequent 5-6 hours after spraying. For warm-blooded animals and humans, Bordeaux liquid has an average level of danger.
It is necessary to work with the drug using protective equipment: in overalls, glasses, gloves and a respirator. During the procedure, you must not eat, drink or smoke. After finishing work, you need to change clothes, rinse your mouth, wash your face and wash your hands with soap and water, and put protective equipment in order.
The recommendations below are intended only for FIRST aid, after which you should immediately consult a doctor and follow his instructions! DO NOT TREAT YOURSELF!
- If the drug enters the body through the respiratory tract or signs of poisoning (metallic and astringent taste in the mouth, irritation of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, profuse salivation, nausea, chills), the victim must be taken to fresh air, forced to rinse his mouth with water, change his clothes, and then you should immediately consult a doctor and give him recommendations for use.
- If the drug comes into contact with the skin, rinse this area thoroughly under running water, and if burns occur, the lime residues should be removed with mineral or vegetable oil.
- If Bordeaux liquid gets into your eyes, rinse them abundantly with water, drip a 0.5% solution of dicaine into your eyes and consult an ophthalmologist immediately.
- If the composition has entered the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to rinse the stomach with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate, give the victim a saline laxative (1-2 tablespoons of magnesium sulfate) to drink, induce vomiting and give a diuretic.
- Timely first aid does not eliminate the need to see a doctor. Treatment of poisoning is symptomatic.
- If you feel unwell, consult a Poison Control Center.
Storage of Bordeaux liquid
The shelf life of the drug is 2 years. It should be stored at temperatures from -30 to +30 ºC in hermetically sealed original packaging with a label out of reach of children and animals. Keep food, drinking water and medicines away from the preparation.
Agafya: I use Bordeaux liquid not only in spring, but also at the end of summer, after harvest, when the susceptibility of plants to infections is especially high. I process currants, strawberries, grapes with the composition in September and October.
Sergey: Bordeaux liquid is not absorbed by plants and fruits, and this is its great advantage over other fungicides. But that is why it is necessary to process the plants by leaves especially carefully.
Alexander: I am a summer resident with experience, so I know the Bordeaux liquid firsthand: every spring, before the start of sap flow, I treat my orchard and berry bushes with this preparation. During the summer period, I can use other means, but before the rest period I carry out the treatment of the garden only with Bordeaux liquid. The drug is inexpensive, reliable and trouble-free.
Alla: You know, I have tried so many different remedies on my plants, but I came to the conclusion that a cheap drug does not mean bad, and with an expensive one you may not achieve success. I use Bordeaux mixture and always have it in stock.
Official website and manufacturer's recommendations: http://dacha.avgust.com/catalog/bordoskaya-zhidkost/
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Sections: Preparations Insecticides Fungicides
Bordeaux liquid, how to dilute, instructions for use
Bordeaux liquid for beginner gardeners seems like something incomprehensible and difficult to use. Experienced ones will say that there is nothing complicated here. And they will be right. Having cooked yourself for the first time according to these instructions, you will understand that everything is quite simple. The main thing is to properly prepare it so that the processing is beneficial.
How to dilute and prepare Bordeaux mixture
To prepare a 1% mixture, you must first extinguish 150 g of quicklime in a small amount of water, and then bring the total volume of the aqueous solution to 5 liters.
In a separate non-metallic container, 100 g of copper sulfate must be diluted in a small amount of hot water. After complete dissolution, the volume of the solution is brought to 5 liters. Both formulations are mixed in a third tank.
A 3% solution is prepared according to the following formula: 300 g of copper sulfate + 450 g of quicklime + 10 liters of water.
- Bordeaux liquid cannot be used simultaneously with organophosphorus preparations, as well as with those substances that are neutralized upon contact with an alkaline medium.
- The mistake of many beginners is that they mix 2 concentrated solutions at the initial stage, and then simply add water to the required volume. Bordeaux liquid in this case partially loses its effectiveness.
- The ready-made mixture is stored for no more than 1 day, it cannot be additionally diluted.
What is Bordeaux mixture for?
Bordeaux mixture is needed to fight fungi (as well as bacteria and viruses) that infect cultivated plants. Microorganisms cause many diseases, including moniliosis, late blight, various rust and rot, scab, coccomycosis, mildew, leaf curl, anthracnose, etc.
Also, Bordeaux is needed to prevent these diseases. The main damaging effect is exerted by copper compounds. They destroy pathogenic microorganisms at the cellular level.
Most often, fruit trees are treated with the mixture, but it can also be used to heal shrubs and herbaceous plants (tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, etc.).
Interestingly, plants treated with liquid are much less likely to become the objects of attention of parasitic insects. Therefore, we can say that to some extent the Bordeaux mixture prevents the appearance of pests.
How to dilute Bordeaux mixture
Preparation of Bordeaux mixture is carried out according to certain rules that cannot be violated so as not to harm the plants.
The correct dosage is important. Too strong a solution will damage the plants, and too weak a solution will not give the expected result.
The following is the technology for preparing 1% Bordeaux mixture per 10 liters of water:
- To dilute the solution, we will prepare a non-metallic container with a volume of more than 10 liters.
- Pour in some warm water.
- Gently pour out 100 g of copper sulfate and stir thoroughly.
- Next, add cold water so that the total volume is 5 liters.
- Pour 1 liter of water into a separate container and pour 100 g of slaked lime (if quicklime, then 150 g). In consistency, it should turn out like sour cream.
- Add water to the lime mortar so that the total volume is 5 liters and mix thoroughly.
- We filter the solution through cheesecloth to remove lime particles.
Important! Do not confuse what and where to pour! Gently pour the solution of copper sulfate into the milk of lime, stirring constantly with a wooden spatula.
- Everything mixes well. It is advisable to do everything at the same time: pour in copper sulfate and mix and lime.
You can prepare a 3% solution according to the scheme described above. Only for this, it is necessary to take more components for 10 liters of water: 300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of slaked lime / 450 of quicklime.
After preparing the solution, it is necessary to check the acid reaction. To do this, a metal wire or a nail is dipped into the mixture. If the metal turns red, then more lime must be added to the solution in order to lower the acidity.
Remember that it is necessary to prepare the Bordeaux mixture according to the scheme described above. The main thing is to do everything consistently and not change the cooking stages.
What not to do
- Pour the milk of lime into the copper sulfate solution. This will significantly degrade the quality of the solution.
- Mix warm ingredients with cold ones.
- Combine dry components.
- Add water to the prepared solution.
- Add dry copper sulfate to the milk of lime.
Preparation of the solution
For 10 liters of such a chemical preparation you need:
- Pour 100 g of crushed copper sulfate with a small amount of warm water (no more than 50 ° C).
- Bring the resulting volume to 9 liters.
- In the second container, it is necessary to dilute 100 g of lime with water at room temperature. Take a small amount of liquid. This water is topped up in small portions. You need to get a creamy liquid. Add enough water to get 1 liter of this solution.
- The resulting lime "milk" is filtered.
- A solution of copper sulfate is gradually poured into limestone while constantly stirring. The injection jet must be very thin. The operation must be carried out when both liquids are at room temperature.
- The color of the prepared liquid indicates correct preparation. Additionally, you need to determine its reaction: acidic or slightly alkaline. Better if this is the second option. The drug, which has an acidic reaction, is very phytotoxic (inhibits the growth and development of plants). Slightly alkaline adheres very well to the treated plant surface.
The whole technological process is the same as discussed earlier. The difference is that in this case, 300 g is used. vitriol and 300 gr. lime. Each of these powders is gradually dissolved in 5 liters of water (vitriol in warm, lime at room temperature). All technology is similar to the previous instructions.
Instructions for use
In spring Bordeaux mixture is used for preventive spraying. This is done during swelling or after bud break, and a 3% solution is used. During the active growing season, 1% Bordeaux mixture is used so as not to damage the leaves.
Important! Antifungal liquid must not be mixed or used at the same time with other drugs or fungicides.
In autumn apply a concentrated 3% solution, since the plants no longer have foliage. Autumn processing is carried out to protect against fungal diseases of stone fruit (cherry, apricot, plum) and pome fruit (pear, quince, apple) trees.
Tomatoes and cucumbers are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux mixture at the rate of 1.5-2 liters per 10 sq.m.
- Primary processing is carried out when 2-3 true leaves appear on the plant.
- Then the procedure is repeated 2-3 times every 10-12 days.
- The final treatment with the solution is carried out 20-25 days before harvesting.
- The primary processing of potatoes is carried out 1-1.5 hours before planting: the tubers are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- The next spraying is done after the bushes grow up to 15-20 cm in height. Apply 0.5-1 l of the mixture per 10 sq.m.
- Then the procedure is repeated every 12-15 days.
Watch the video! How to prepare Bordeaux liquid
The grape bushes are sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid when the green tip has just appeared from the bud, but it has not yet blossomed.
Important! During the growing season, only 1% solution is used for spraying.
The leaves of the grapes are sprayed from both the outside and the inside.
Currant, gooseberry and raspberry bushes are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture to reduce the risk of spotting.
- Primary treatment is carried out in early spring with a 3% solution.
- The next 2-3 sprays are carried out using a 1% solution.
- Tomato seedlings are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture from a spray bottle if gray, brown or black spots appear on the leaves.
- As a prophylaxis of late blight and other diseases, tomatoes are sprayed with this agent 2 weeks after planting the seedlings in a permanent place. Use 1.5-2 liters of solution per 10 sq. M.
- During the season, the bushes are treated with the drug 3-4 times with an interval of 10-14 days.
The first treatment of strawberry bushes or garden strawberries is carried out after the snow melts. To do this, 10 sq. meters use 0.5-1 l of 3% mixture.
The second spraying is carried out when leaves appear on the plant. At the same time, the concentration of the solution is reduced to 1%.
Further, the bushes are treated with a 1% solution at the beginning of the appearance of buds and after harvesting.
Trees are treated with a 3% mixture before bud break in early spring at the rate of:
- 10-15 l for 1 adult plant
- 2-3 l - for a young tree.
The second treatment is carried out with a 1% solution, when the green tip of the leaf begins to appear from the bud (in the "green cone" phase).
The next spraying is carried out after flowering trees. During the season, trees can be sprayed with the Bordeaux mixture no more than 6 times, maintaining the interval between procedures as 10-15 days.
Watch the video! Bordeaux mixture - application for tomatoes, strawberries, grapes and other plants