Zamioculcas (Zamioculcas), transplant, reproduction and cultivation on the windowsill
Zamioculcas zamiifolia got its name for its external resemblance to Zamia, a rare gymnospermous plant. Zamioculcas belongs to the aroid family and is a close relative of monstera, dieffenbachia, calla lilies, etc. It was first discovered around the 1830s on sun-scorched mountain plateaus in East Africa, and it is also found on the island of Madagascar. Zamioculcas came to flower shops in Europe relatively recently, 10-15 years ago, and is still a rare and expensive plant.
His appearance is somewhat unusual. The trunk of zamiokulkas is in the soil in the form of a large tuber with moisture reserves, and 4-6 feathery leaves rise above the ground. The leaf petioles in the lower part are highly developed and swollen, and they are often mistaken for trunks. The feathery leaves are closely spaced on a short, horizontal stem, giving the impression of a rosette. They reach 80-100 cm in length and are covered with dense dark green glossy leaf blades.
The climate of its native places has turned zamioculcas into a succulent, where it grows next to euphorbia in the conditions of the scorching sun and drought. The wax coating on the leaves avoids burns and excessive evaporation of moisture. Zamioculcas grows very slowly, and new leaves rarely appear. It blooms, like all aroids, with inflorescences consisting of an ear and a veil, which appear at the very base of the leaves at a very old age of the plant.
Conditions of detention... Zamioculcas is very unpretentious to the conditions of detention: he does not care about drought, dry air, poor lighting, pests, etc. It is just perfect as a houseplant. You can place it on a window of any orientation, but it is still better where there is enough light.
The temperature in the room does not play a special role, but it is desirable that it is not too cold. The optimum temperature is from 16 to 25 ° C.
Like any real succulent, you need to water the zamiokulkas abundantly, but only after the soil has completely dried out. In winter, watering is reduced to a minimum. You do not need to spray the plant. But periodically it is necessary to wipe the leaves with a soft cloth. This must be done carefully - they are very fragile. During the active growing season, it can occasionally be fed with mineral or organic fertilizers: in spring and summer, once every 3-4 weeks, in winter with a warm content - once every 5-6 weeks. Ready-made fertilizers for cacti and succulents are suitable for feeding.
Transplant and reproduction. The soil for zamiokulkas must be loose and permeable. It can be composed of equal parts of fertile land, peat and coarse sand. The pot must have a drainage and a drainage hole. Zamioculcas responds well to annual handling in a larger pot. The soil surface can be covered with gravel or expanded clay.
Since the plants grow slowly due to the small root system, young specimens should be transplanted no more than once a year, slightly increasing the volume of the pot, and adults no more than once every five years.
Zamioculcas easily propagates vegetatively. Most often, the lower leaf blades from mature mature leaves are used for this. Fresh sections are treated with activated carbon powder and dried for 2-3 days. Then it is buried about 1.5 cm in dry sand, which never needs to be moistened! After about six months, root tubers develop at the bottom of the leaves. Only then are the leaves carefully transplanted into the soil and very carefully watered until the first true leaf appears.
You can divide an old large plant so that there is one growth point in each new copy.
With improper care, the leaves fall off sharply. In addition, in older plants, the lower leaves also fall off, regardless of care.
Zamioculcas can be damaged by aphids and spider mites. But this happens only in case of gross violation of the elementary rules of content.
Attention! All parts of this plant contain a very poisonous sap! Therefore, care must be taken when caring for it.
Irina Lukyanchik, florist
Zamioculcas: growing and care at home. Sometimes in nature, zamioculcas grows in drought conditions, therefore it is often considered as a succulent and, accordingly, caring for it is akin to a succulent.
Watering is minimal - once every 3 weeks - this is normal. Excessive moisture in the earthen coma is harmful to the plant, watered as the top layer of the soil dries up. In winter, watering is reduced, avoiding overdrying, this can cause leaves to fall. But it requires regular spraying with water at room temperature (in winter, 2-3 sprays per week can be carried out).
You can determine the frequency of watering from how quickly the soil dries out in the pot, at a depth of about 2-3 centimeters. Any excess water that flows into the pan of the flower pot must be drained. Leaves should be periodically wiped gently with a cotton pad or piece of soft cloth.
Provide zamiokulkas with a bright place, without access to direct sunlight, or diffused light. Can tolerate north window conditions. The temperature throughout the year is in the range of 20-25 degrees, not lower than 16 degrees. The rest period at home is forced (from October to February) due to low light and humidity.
The plant quickly consumes nutrients, therefore, from spring to autumn, once a month, feed the indoor flower zamiokulkas with universal fertilizers. Frequent feeding of the flower is not required. You can use fertilizers for cacti and succulents.
The flowering of zamiokulkas is a rather rare phenomenon, especially in indoor conditions. The flower resembles an ear in which light, small, nondescript flowers are collected. The ear itself is formed in the lower part of the plant and is covered with a green veil, therefore it is hardly noticeable.
The age of the zamiokulkas can be determined by the number of leaves on the tuber. It grows rather slowly (1 leaf every 1-3 months), but an adult plant grows up to one meter in height, sometimes more, therefore it is more suitable for large rooms, although it can decorate any interior as a single plant. In winter, it practically does not grow.
Proper care is a guarantee of success
Scales can move from neighboring plants to zamioculcas, which can be easily removed with a wet sponge or destroyed with a solution of the Aktara drug. The simplest "bath" procedures, washing the leaves with soapy water and spraying with actellik solution, help against spider mites. Less often, aphids appear on the underside of the leaves and on the tops of the shoots. You can fight it with many means, for example, soapy water mixed with wood ash, or special preparations. The most dangerous disease for zamiokulkas is root rot. When it appears, you need to immediately reduce watering, and, if necessary, use a foundationol or oxykh.
There is no need to worry about the partial "baldness" of old plants, because this is a natural process. But the sudden fall of the leaves speaks of the unfavorable state of the zamiokulkas. In winter, with a lack of light, the leaves may fade, with waterlogging they turn yellow and fall off. Serious problems also arise when the plant is constantly kept in a cool room with an air temperature below 14 ° C.
In general, the plant is very stable, rarely gets sick. To grow a healthy, spectacular specimen, you only need to know the features of the zamiokulkas.
Zamioculcas pests and diseases: causes and treatment
The main sign of an unhealthy plant - zamioculcas turns yellow, there may be several reasons for this:
- improper watering - the main and most common reason. Frequent watering at low temperatures causes decay of the rhizome, as a result, yellowing of the foliage.
- sunburn - the plant is under the sun for too long, it is better to shade it in the summer from 11 to 15 hours
- over fertilization - Zamioculcas is a rather slow growing species, but you should not try to "disperse" its growth with enhanced feeding. Excess fertilization leads to the death of the roots, and then the whole plant.
Bright leaves are one of the signs of good plant care.
Improper watering may be indicated by the appearance of dark spots on the leaves or decay of the trunk - stem rot. Another reason why zamioculcas turns yellow is improperly selected soil, with insufficient water and air permeability. To save the plant, the rhizome is dug up and its affected, decaying parts are removed, the sections are treated (sprinkled) with crushed coal. In addition, the plant (both aboveground and underground) is treated with a systemic fungicide (foundationol, oxych) and transplanted, completely replacing the substrate
Zamioculcas is gaining more and more popularity
Zamioculcas is almost never affected by insects - thick glossy leaves are covered with thick skin, which acts as a reliable protection against pests. But still, sometimes there are:
- aphid - affects the plant in summer, if it is taken out into the fresh air. Signs - the affected leaves first curl up, then discolor, begin to turn yellow and fall off. It helps to treat the plant with ready-made products such as intavir, decis, phytoverm, etc.
- thyroid glands - uninvited guests from neighboring plants. At first, their presence is imperceptible, but then the leaves and stems begin to become covered with dark spots. Adults can be removed with a damp sponge, larvae are destroyed by spraying with soapy water or insecticides
- thrips - also fall from neighboring plants. Traces of their presence - affected areas of a silvery color appear on the leaves, the stems are bent, traces of excrement are noticeable. Pests are destroyed after repeated treatment (spraying) of the plant with insecticides
- spider mite - its appearance provokes excessively dry air. The main signs are the appearance of a white thin cobweb in the internodes, then the leaves begin to turn yellow, wither and fall off. To combat the pest, the leaves can be wiped with a soapy sponge or sprayed with a low concentration of tobacco solution, after which the plant is placed under a warm shower. If the operations did not work, then the zamioculcas is treated with insecticides
Zamioculcas - severity and nobility rolled into one
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature... In the summer - from 25 to 35 degrees, and in the winter - from 15 to 18 degrees.
- Air humidity... Should be increased, however, the foliage from the sprayer should not be moistened and washed. It is recommended to grow the shrub in a terrarium where high humidity is required.
- Illumination... Moderate, while the rays of the sun should be diffused. In the room, this flower feels fine both under artificial lighting and in a shaded place.
- Watering... In summer, it is moderate - once every 2 or 3 days, and in winter, not so often - once every 7 days.
- Soil mixture... Must be acidic and well-drained. For example, you can take a mixture of sand and peat, while sphagnum or vermiculite is poured into it for greater looseness.
- Fertilizer... Do not feed.
- Transfer... Young bushes - every year, and adults - once every couple of years.
- Reproduction... Leaf cuttings, seed method and division of rosettes.
- Possible problems... The bush reacts negatively to an overly tight container, it can hurt a lot because of this and not bloom. It is not recommended to disturb the plant by turning it with the pot relative to the light source.
What is a plant
Fatskhedera was obtained in the 20th century in a hybrid way.
It is an ivy that grows slowly and also has beautiful leaves and flowers. Over the years, the stems of the plant are covered with bark.
1. In order for the plant to remain as bright for many years, you need to place it in a bright room, at a distance of about a meter from the window, in order to protect it from direct sunlight.
2. Fatskhedera does not tolerate heat, so it is worth ventilating the room more often. Drafts can confuse the vines, so this should be avoided.
3. Water the plant with warm water and small portions. You need to spray it depending on the temperature in the room, the colder it is, the less often you need to do it.
The humidity in the room should be high - this is an important rule
5. The plant needs to be fed with mineral fertilizers.
6. To keep the crown beautiful, pruning is recommended.
7. If the leaves begin to fade, then the problem is a lack of sunlight.
If the edges of the leaves dry out, then the plant does not have enough moisture.
8. On the plant mites and aphids can form. In this case, you need to rinse it under a warm shower and wipe the leaves with soapy water. Fatskhedera is a beautiful plant that is not difficult to care for, but nevertheless very important. Compliance with the above rules will help keep him healthy.
Signs and superstitions
Fatshedera influences the atmosphere at home, helps people become calmer and understand each other.
It feeds on negative energy and can reduce conflicts between people. Also, this plant is able to calm down too active children.
If an unmarried girl starts Fatskhedera, then she will have a high chance of marriage. If a married woman takes care of the plant, then she can save herself from her husband's infidelity.
If Fatskhedera is put in his house by a shy person, then his self-confidence will grow significantly.
If a person came to the house with bad intentions, then this plant neutralizes the negative, and clears the space in the house.
Fatshedera is able to feed on the positive energy of the people in the home.
If a vine begins to fall away from him, then this may portend financial difficulties and loss of money in the family. The plant is even capable of depressing the nervous system and makes people more withdrawn and vulnerable.
If you take care of him poorly, then the negative impact greatly increases.
The most common problem when caring for zamioculcas is yellowing of leaves.
There are two reasons: if old leaves turn yellow, then this is a natural process of replacing with young leaves, and if new leaves begin to turn yellow, then the reason may be the constant waterlogging of the soil, which led to decay of the roots.
In some cases, if the process is not too started, then the plant can still be saved, for this it is necessary to pull it out of the pot, gently shake off the ground, examine the root system and cut off the decayed parts. Treat the cut points with charcoal and spray the entire plant, for example, with Fundazol, let it dry a little and plant in new soil and a pot.
- During prolonged periods of drought, leaves start to fall, but since the rhizome continues to develop, then, resuming watering, new leaves will appear.
- Parasites on zamioculcas rarely start, this is most likely due to the fact that they do not like the thick peel that protects the leaves. If a leaves discolor and curl - these are signs of aphid damage. You can destroy aphids with any means of plant parasites, if possible, after cleaning the leaves and stem with a damp sponge from aphids.
- If a dark spots appeared on the leaves - it means the temperature in the room is too low (below 15 ° С), drafts or frequent watering.
- Dark streaks and spots on the stem this is a normal feature of the plant, only if along with this there are no soft, wet areas - these are signs of rot.
- Dark spots on leaves and stem can also be evidence of a scabbard injury.
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How to care for a flower?
When growing this plant at home, it is necessary to create conditions similar to the climate of the African desert, since it was brought to us from those places. In other words, zamioculcas grows well in dry and warm conditions. Caring for this plant is quite simple, which makes it a favorite among many housewives.
A few tips for flower care:
- Good lighting is necessary for the growth of zamiokulkas, but a slight shade of the room will not greatly affect its growth.
- Moderate watering is not important for him, he loves dry soils more, close to deserts.
- Optimum temperatures for its growth are from fifteen to thirty with a plus sign. A decrease in the temperature background of the environment is unfavorable for the growth of zamiokulkas, especially if the plant is waterlogged.
- In the winter season, this plant is watered no more than twice a month, and in the summer months the plant is watered as the soil layer dries out.
- Zamioculcas is not at all picky about the level of fertility of the land on which it grows. However, clay soil should not be placed in containers for its cultivation, as it does not allow moisture and air to pass through, which will depress the growth of the plant.
- For zamioculcas, it is important to have a good drainage layer, due to which excess moisture will be removed.
At home, zamioculcas is best placed for growing on windowsills on the south side. It is here that he will receive the maximum light and moisture necessary for his growth. If the windows of your house face the north side, then the plant will be able to grow there, only a little slower. Watering in this case should be done as rarely as possible, and due to a lack of light, the plant may not form large leaves. With the onset of summer, the zamiokulkas plant can be placed on the balcony.
Often transplanting this plant is not recommended, since it already has very slow growth.
If the roots of the zamiokulkas fill the entire space of the container it occupies, transplanting into a larger dish is simply necessary. When planting zamiokulkas plants in another dish, you should not deeply deepen the tubers into the soil. This can negatively affect the growth of the plant. It is desirable that the tubers are slightly visible on the surface layer of the soil.
This plant should be fed with specially produced fertilizers, which are used for feeding succulents or cacti. It is necessary to carry out this event during the active growth of the plant, no more than once a month. In winter, it is not advisable to feed, since the zamiokulkas is at a dormant stage.