What do plants need?
Fertilizers are substances of organic and inorganic origin used to improve plant nutrition..
TO organic fertilizers include: manure, peat, composts, bird droppings, green fertilizers. Organic materials improve soil structure, physical ripeness, and water permeability. They supply the soil with organic matter, humus, make it friable, warm and reduce acidity, which increases as a result of the use of mineral fertilizers.
Inorganic or mineral, are divided into solid (powdery and granular) and liquid. Solid fertilizers include simple nitrogen (ammonium nitrate), phosphoric (phosphorus flour), potassium (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate) fertilizers. Currently, many complex mixed mineral fertilizers are produced. Microelements are introduced into them (ammophos, diammophos, potassium nitrate, nitrophos and ammonium phosphates with the addition of boron, manganese, zinc, simple and double superphosphate, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers containing molybdenum and boron, various fertilizer mixtures).
For the device of a reasonable system of fertilizers in gardens and vegetable gardens, one should know how great the need of plants for nutrients is. To calculate the doses, it is necessary to take into account the biological carryover, i.e. the amount of elements that the plant absorbs per year for the development of the entire plant. In addition to biological, it is necessary to take into account the actual removal - the alienation of nutrients from the garden. It occurs as a result of harvesting, pruning branches (in the garden).
The absorption of nutrients by a plant depends not only on the content of these substances in the soil, but also on the season of the year and the phase of plant development. So during flowering, it requires more nutrients. The nutrition of plants in the second half of summer is of great importance for the harvest of the next year, and phosphorus and potassium nutrition has a great influence on their winter hardiness.
Plants react weaker to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers than to the application of nitrogen and potassium. Therefore, potash fertilizers, excluding very potassium-rich soils (serozem), are applied in high doses, as a rule, in autumn. In the spring, they are introduced in relatively low doses.
Choosing the optimal methods and timing of fertilizing the soil, you need to strive to ensure that the plants are provided with the nutrients they need during the entire period of their growth and development. Only in this case it is possible to achieve high yields and quality products.
Fertilizers are embedded in the ground so that they are in a moist soil layer in the area of active activity of the root system of plants (15-20 cm). With a shallow incorporation of fertilizer or surface application without embedding (0-5 cm), useful substances are located in the dried layer and do not bring the desired result.
There is a spread method of applying mineral fertilizers with their subsequent incorporation into the soil using a mini-plow or a rake (for summer cottages) and a local method in which fertilizers are applied and embedded at a given depth in the form of ribbons, nests, and foci.
Applying fertilizers by spreading is not a very convenient method, since they are unevenly distributed over the site, they can remain on the surface in a dry soil layer and are not used by plant roots.
Local application of fertilizers allows fertilizers to be embedded at a given depth, as a result of which it becomes possible to place them within the soil layer where the roots are located, which facilitates the absorption of nutrients. With local application of the main fertilizer, nutrients do not mix with the soil, are closer to the feeding part of the root system and are used more efficiently. There is evidence that the local method of fertilization intensifies microbiological activity more than the method of spreading. Apply fertilizer locally economically and efficiently.
With local surface application, fertilizers are distributed over the soil surface in concentrated foci, mainly in the form of ribbons of various widths, after which they are embedded in the soil with various tillage implements.
Local intra-soil fertilization is divided into the following types: ordinary, main (tape), nesting, inter-row and root fertilization.
The increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the fertilizer belt slows down nitrification, helps to reduce nitrogen losses due to the washing out of nitrates from the root layer. With this method, the contact of fertilizers with the soil is reduced, which makes it difficult for the transition of phosphorus to a hard-to-reach state and contributes to its more complete assimilation by plants.
With local application of fertilizers, the utilization rate of nitrogen from fertilizers increases by 10-15%, phosphorus - by 5-10%, potassium - by 10-12% compared to spread application.
In areas enriched with nutrients, the root system of plants develops better. The positive effect of local fertilization on the dynamics of the accumulation of dry matter and the supply of nutrients to plants is noted, which contributes to their accelerated development. This is especially true for plants with a short growing season, such as root crops (beets, carrots, etc.).
You should not place fertilizers in the immediate vicinity of the seeds, but it is also not recommended to place fertilizers far from them. In this case, it is preferable to apply a belt application, which ensures a fixed arrangement of fertilizers near the planting rows and their uniform distribution over the feeding area of individual plants. The optimal placement of the main fertilizer tapes when planting root crops is 5-6 cm to the side and 2.5-7.5 cm deeper than the seeds.
In the practice of gardening, the following are distinguished fertilization methods: filling the soil, basic fertilization and top dressing.
• Refueling the soil implies deep embedding of fertilizers with a plow or digging to the depth of a shovel bayonet.
• Basic pre-sowing fertilization carried out before sowing or planting crops, and pre-sowing or simultaneously with planting seeds in the soil or when planting plants in holes, rows or nests.
• Top dressing are divided into root, with or without incorporation into the soil, followed by watering during active growth, and foliar, which implies spraying plants with weak fertilizer solutions during their growing season.
These techniques are interrelated, but do not completely replace each other. Only with a skillful combination of them can you achieve the best effect.
Gas station produced before planting. To ensure good nutrition for the long term, fertilizers are applied in increased doses to a greater depth. This is done in reserve, so that in the future, when it becomes impossible to cultivate the soil deeply, the plant can absorb a sufficient amount of nutrients from the previously created stock.
Fertilizer is applied to the dressing either throughout the entire site, or in separate foci. For the assimilation of nutrients by plants, direct contact of the fertilizer focus with the roots is necessary. In relation to annual plants, this issue is easy to solve. Fertilizer is usually spread over the surface of the plot and mixed with the topsoil. To provide food for the fruit tree, it is enough to fertilize the upper part of the root layer, up to about 40 cm.
The duration of the fertilizer action depends not only on the dose, but also on the properties of the soil and the mobility of substances in it. Of all the elements, nitrogen is the most mobile. Phosphoric acid, combining with the ions of calcium, iron, aluminum available in the soil water, transforms into insoluble salts. Therefore, acidic soils are limed before adding these elements. Potash fertilizers are fixed in the place where they were applied.
The movement of substances is also influenced by the properties of the soil itself. For example, on heavy clay soils, fertilizers pass much more slowly than on light sandy ones. But it should be borne in mind that the easier the fertilizers move along the soil, the greater the danger that they will be outside the root layer. Therefore, clay soils are fed less often than sandy ones, but the maximum allowable doses are used.
The main pre-sowing called those fertilizers, which are brought in annually, in autumn or early spring, for plowing or digging. These fertilizers are needed to improve the nutritional conditions of plants throughout the growing season. Pre-filling the soil is not enough. Basic fertilizers supply plants with nutrients for the period of their growth and development. They improve the top layer of the soil, domesticate it, especially if organic substances are used. For this, manure, compost or green fertilizer are applied. Potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers are also suitable as the main pre-sowing fertilizers. Nitrogen, which contain nitrogen in the ammonia form, are applied in spring and late autumn; nitrogen in the nitrate form (saltpeter) should be applied in the spring.
Preseeding fertilizer provides nutrition to young plants when they do not yet have a powerful root system, and therefore they are poorly assimilated nutrients. In this case, the smallest dose of fertilizer is usually used in order to avoid the accumulation of a large concentration of nutrient organic and inorganic elements in the soil, which can adversely affect the plants. Superphosphate or ammophos is usually used as a pre-sowing fertilizer.
Top dressing should be used if the crop has been growing in one place for several years, alienating nutrients from the soil, as well as in order to improve the nutrition of crops during certain periods of development or to replace the missing trace element in the soil. Thus, fertilizing plants is called an agrotechnical method, which provides for the application of fertilizers for agricultural crops during their growing season in order to improve nutrition and increase yields. Top dressing is a supplement to the basic fertilization of the soil.
Usually, feeding is carried out in the stage of active plant growth; it is not recommended to carry it out at rest. The amount and time of top dressing depends on the fruiting plants, weather conditions and on the soil itself. So, phosphorus and potash fertilizers in lean and fruitful years are applied in the same way. Nitrogen - in different ways. In lean years, nitrogen fertilization is applied once - in the spring; in years with a high yield, the amount of nitrogen fertilization is almost doubled in spring and summer, with the June shedding of the ovaries.
When feeding, the required amount of mineral fertilizers, mainly nitrogenous, must be dissolved in a large volume of water and the area should be poured with the resulting solution. It should be borne in mind that the more water the fertilizer is dissolved in, the more evenly it will be distributed over the site.
It is necessary to mix fertilizers in accordance with the rules recommended in the instructions. Otherwise, in the resulting mixture, processes sometimes begin, leading to the loss of nutrients. For example, the release of ammonia, the transition of substances into an indigestible form, or an increase in hygroscopicity, in which the fertilizer quickly becomes unusable, may occur.
The intensity of plant growth and development and the ability of them to absorb other useful microelements depend on the presence of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the soil. An increase in the level of nitrogen nutrition contributes to a better assimilation of potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, zinc. Conversely, too high a concentration of phosphorus in the soil impairs the absorption of microelements by plants.
Distinguish between root and foliar feeding. When root dressing, fertilizers are placed in the soil, and nutrients are absorbed directly by the roots. Foliar dressing involves spraying plants with fertilizer solutions, while nutrients penetrate through the leaves and stems.
There are several ways of root feeding:
- Dry fertilizers are spread over the field without manually embedding into the soil.
- Dry fertilizers are scattered and embedded in the soil with any tools (rakes, harrows, etc.)
- Aqueous solutions of fertilizers are applied during irrigation.
The first two methods of root feeding are effective only in rainy years. The third is more effective and acts faster, especially in dry years.
Water-soluble fertilizers are usually used for feeding with water., such as the:
- nitrogen - ammonium nitrate (35% nitrogen), sodium (17% nitrogen), ammonium chloride (45-46% nitrogen), ammonium sulfate (20% nitrogen);
- potash - potassium salt (35% potassium oxide);
- phosphoric - superphosphate (from 16 to 20% of assimilated phosphoric acid).
Of organic fertilizers, slurry, bird droppings, mullein and others that are readily soluble in water are suitable for feeding.
Prepare fertilizers for liquid root feeding as follows. Ash, slurry, well-rotted manure and micronutrient fertilizers are placed in 1/3 volume containers and poured to the top with water. The resulting mass should be infused for 5-8 days, stirring daily until it begins to ferment. The resulting solution is diluted with water before feeding.
To prepare a mullein top dressing, you need to half-fill the tub with a mullein, pour water to the top and mix the contents of the tub as many times as possible. You will get a strong mullein solution, called a talker, which is then left in a fermentation tub for 1-2 weeks. Before applying to the soil, the mullein solution is usually diluted with water and the soil is watered.
First, a chatterbox is prepared from bird droppings, then it is diluted 3-4 times with water and the resulting solution is introduced into the soil.
Superphosphates are prepared in a different way. Pour half a bucket of water, pour 300-400 g of superphosphate (powder or granular) into it and mix well. Then the solution is insisted for some time. Then it is separated from the sediment. Then water is poured two more times in a quarter of a bucket, the solution is infused and separated from the sediment. Gypsum remains in the sediment, which is part of the simple superphosphate as an impurity. Double superphosphate does not contain gypsum, dissolves completely, without sediment.
It is recommended to apply liquid dressings in the grooves around the plants. Sometimes the grooves are made in a circle near the plant at the level of the crown border. For fruit trees, in addition to the annular groove, several more grooves are made under the crown.
Before applying top dressing, the soil should be watered (if it is not moist enough). After feeding, the plants must be sprayed to avoid burns to leaves and stems that have been accidentally hit with fertilizer. The procedure and time for introducing mineral dressings are described above.
Dry organic feeding is humus, peat, leafy soil, bird droppings. When fertilizing the soil, first remove the top layer of the earth by 1-2 cm, then the nutrients are evenly distributed over the site and cover the top with a layer of the soil removed before.
Foliar dressing differs from root dressing in that the nutrients of the applied fertilizers reach the plant much faster. However, foliar feeding does not last long and cannot be used often and in high concentrations. For foliar feeding, the leaves are sprayed with nutrient solutions. Spraying can be carried out early in the morning, in the evening or in the afternoon in cloudy, but not rainy, weather. It is necessary to correctly determine the concentration of the solution.When spraying young plants, use weaker solutions, preference is given to urea (see table)
Fertilizer doses for summer foliar dressing (for 1 bucket)
There are general provisions for feeding, which must be taken into account when applying fertilizers:
- when root feeding, fertilizer is applied in the immediate vicinity of the plant root system (in the grooves along the crop row or around it);
- when spraying, the concentration of the fertilizer solution should not exceed 1%, otherwise leaf burns may appear. In addition, fertilizers must have good water solubility.
When feeding plants, the biological characteristics of their development should be taken into account. First you need to add nitrogen-containing substances. During the budding period - phosphorus-containing elements; when fruits, tubers, bulbs appear - potassium. Plants with slow development are fertilized once every three months, large plants - 3 times every three months.
If chlorosis is found in a plant, it should be fed with iron sulfate at the rate of 2 g per 1 liter of water. Four such dressings should be carried out once a week.
Foliar dressing should be carried out for indoor plants in the summer 4-5 times. For the prevention of diseases, it is useful to water them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate three times a year. It is not recommended to water freshly transplanted or dormant plants with nutrient solutions.
When carrying out dressings, it should be remembered that fertilizers should not be overused, since in large quantities they can be detrimental to the plant.
L. Timeiko, E. Kholoptseva, candidates of biological sciences
Essential substances for the pear
You need to fertilize the tree in a complex way. It is required to add all the substances missing to the plant. The most important are the mineral components.
Mineral dressing includes potassium. It is produced in the form of light crystals.
Potassium is essential for growth and normal development. The component helps to increase the protective functions of the planting and to survive the hot summer. Fertilizers can be applied when planting pears in the fall using the root method. This will allow the component to completely decompose.
Fertilizers with phosphorus include simple and double superphosphate. They are used on any soil. The structure of the substance is crystalline.
With a lack of phosphorus, the plant absorbs nitrogen poorly and further growth is impossible.
Contained in amide and salts of inorganic acids. Substance - white crystals. You can choose the composition for different types of soil.
Nitrogen helps to obtain good green mass. During the development of the ovary, it is also used. Lack of nitrogen leads to yellowing of the wood. Pear ammonium nitrate is one of the best nitrogen replenishment options.
The concentrated top dressing is urea.
When and how to fertilize
Applying fertilizer to potatoes is an important part of growing. To get a good harvest, you need to adhere to the timing and dosage of their introduction. The land on the site, which has been used for more than two years for planting potatoes, is considered depleted. You can enrich it with fertilizers.
Autumn is the best time to prepare the soil for spring planting. The combination of organic and mineral fertilizing is ideal. For 1 sq. m take up to 7 buckets of manure. At the same time, mineral compounds are introduced into the soil, for example, superphosphate (30 g), potassium sulfate (15 g) and phosphorus (15 g). If the land is contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and pests, only agrochemicals can be used. The combination of superphosphate and potassium sulfate (1: 2) will be especially effective.
In the autumn, acidic soil requires restoration. To do this, it is fertilized with ash, lime or dolomite flour. On the site, you can also plant siderates, for example, white mustard. In 3-4 weeks, the plant will gain the desired height. In the spring, the soil is dug up together with mustard.
Top dressing, which is applied individually to the planting hole or under each bush, is especially good for potatoes. From mineral fertilizers, nitrophoska is used (1 tablespoon), from organic matter - bone meal (100 g), ash (5 tablespoons) or dry humus.
What fertilizers can be used to feed strawberries
For this garden culture, all the same fertilizers are usually used by gardeners for their beds.
Feeding garden strawberries is easiest to carry out with the help of mineral fertilizers. They are convenient to use, solutions are easy to prepare, knowing how much to dissolve substances in water, which is usually indicated in the instructions. Before flowering, saltpeter, carbamide from nitrogen fertilizers, superphosphates from phosphoric fertilizers, potassium sulfate, potassium sulfate, potassium sulfate from potassium and others (except for chlorine) are used for cultivation.
In addition, mixed fertilizers are used like nitroammofoska, as well as complex fertilizers containing microelements (for example, specially made for this culture "Crystalon", "Garden and Vegetable Garden" from Fertika, "Krepysh" from Fasco (with humates) and others) ...
The most common ash, a universal fertilizer for garden crops, is also used for strawberries. Ashes from burning plant waste from a vegetable garden and orchard are suitable. To obtain a good harvest in spring, strawberries are fed with ash in the calculation of up to 0.5 kg per 1 sq. m of beds.
For those who prefer to grow vegetables and berries without chemicals, it is better to use organic matter. Moreover, it is considered more preferable for growing strawberries than mineral mixtures.
As with other garden crops, humus from livestock manure, poultry droppings or compost is applied under strawberries. Fresh manure is not suitable, it not only contains a lot of nitrogen, but also contains weed seeds, harmful microorganisms, larvae of insect pests. Fresh manure can be applied only in autumn, until spring it will have time to decompose, and at the same time it will heat the ground and plant roots.
Another popular organic fertilizer - compost - is very easy to apply in spring: it must be spread around the bushes, slightly stepping back from the center, in a layer of 5 cm.
Nitroammophos is a quick way to replenish phosphorus reserves in the soil
Under natural conditions, phosphorus belongs to the slowly and insufficiently renewable reserves in the soil. In traditional agriculture, the soil gradually (in the absence of replenishment of the removed nutrients) is depleted, reducing its ability to sufficiently provide plants with the necessary nutrients. One of the methods of renewing soil fertility is considered to be the replenishment of nutrients taken out by the crop in the form of organic matter and mineral fertilizers.
In order not to lose the harvest and preserve the fertility of the soil, each summer resident in his farm has a kind of "pharmacy" (a separate closed building, inaccessible to children and animals), in which he stores the necessary substances to replenish the used soil reserves. Nitroammophos, or nitrophosphate, occupies a very important place in this "first aid kit".
Remember! In organic farming, the macro- and microelements necessary for plants are not removed from the soil, respectively, there is no need for the use of mineral fertilizers, including nitroammophos.
What and when is it better to feed cucumbers? Secrets of a rich harvest
When planting cucumbers, most summer residents think that they do not require fertilizers.
The opinion has long been formed that cucumbers do not grow from manure, and other fertilizers can be harmful.
There is some sense in this, because cucumbers absorb the minimum amount of nutrients from the soil. And if at the time of planting there is an excess of fertilizers, the crop will receive more damage. However, fertilizers are necessary for cucumbers, but it is important to remember which ones are best to use and strictly observe the deadlines.
Autumn is the right one when it is necessary to apply phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphorus develops a strong root system of plants, thereby increasing their winter hardiness and resistance to adverse conditions.
In addition, phosphorus is involved in the absorption of other nutrients, such as nitrogen.
Mineral phosphorus fertilizers include: superphosphate and phosphate rock.
Superphosphate - the best mineral fertilizer for vegetables and apply it when digging the soil both in spring and in autumn at 50 g per m2.
Phosphorite flour suitable for highly acidic soils (peat bogs) and lasts a long time. It is necessary to bring in for digging in the fall at 100-300 g per m2.
An alternative to this mineral fertilizer is bone flour.
Bone flour - natural organic fertilizer, works better than phosphate rock. It is also suitable for application in autumn to acidic and slightly acidic soils at the rate of 200 g per m2.