Soft white hands - Recipe by Caterina Sforza

Soft white hands - Recipe by Caterina Sforza

HOW THE WOMEN OF HISTORY MADE BEAUTIFUL WITH PLANTS

HANDLE AND SOFT
by Caterina Sforza

Caterina Sforza, could not forget the care of the hands. Here is a very simple recipe to make and highly effective for the well-being and beauty of every woman's hands:

«Boil water and wheat bran for a long time until the mixture thickens a little. Then let the water drip and still hot, put in it a pommel (an apple editor's note) cut into pieces and when the water is cold wash your hands which will remain white and soft and beautiful to look at ».


Soft white hands - Recipe by Caterina Sforza

The admiration for beauty, understood as perfection and harmony, brought back into vogue
the classic aesthetic canons and the need to search for remedies
to make perfect what is not.
Women were helped to achieve the perfection required of them,
as well as from the oral tradition that was handed down from mother to daughter,
also from the invention of printing which led to publication
of books containing beauty secrets and recipes.

Agnolo Fiorenzuola, monk of Vallombrosa, in his treatise
"Above the beauty of the woman"
tells us what were the canons of female beauty in the Renaissance:
"To be defined beautiful, a woman must have: thick hair,
long and a warm blond that is close to brown
the skin must be bright and clear, the eyes dark, large and expressive,
with a touch of blue in the white of the cornea the non-aquiline nose
small mouth, but fleshy round chin with dimple rounded and rather long neck
broad shoulders, turgid chest with delicate lines
big, plump hands and soft long legs and small feet ”.
Unfortunately, not all women could boast the indicated requirements:
blond hair was almost always a rarity and skin
almost never smooth and "shiny" due to a faulty power supply and poor cleaning.
In the 1400s, therefore, there was no lack of recipes for "miraculous" restorations,
it was enough to follow the advice of Caterina Sforza Riario.

This extraordinary woman, long countess of Imola and Forlм,
who ruled with a fist defined as "virile" by his contemporaries,
in fact he wrote a manuscript with 454 tested recipes
by herself, many with the words "it is proven".
The collection includes various categories of preparations,
including a series of beauty recipes.
There are recipes to "make your face very white and beautiful and colorful",
to "make your hair grow", to "make your hair stand on end",
to "make their hair blonde of the color of gold",
to "make your hands so white and beautiful that they will look like ivory".
The most famous of Caterina's recipes is Celestial Water which, as the author says,
"It is of so much virtue that the old make them become young and if they were of age
85 years will make him devenir de aparentia of 35 years
it is dead alive, that is, if you put a goiter in the mouth of the dying sick man
de dicta aqua, while swallowing, in the space of 3 pater noster,
he will recover strength and with the help of God he will heal ".
The celestial water was a kind of tonic that it contained
dozens of ingredients that were distilled and processed:
it also included sage, basil, rosemary,
carnation, mint, nutmeg, elderberry,
white and red roses, incense and anise.
It is not the first case of "miraculous water":
already at the end of the 14th century it had been distilled
that of Elizabeth Queen of Hungary who,
according to what she herself testifies, he healed her
from gout and caused her, at the ripe old age of 72,
a marriage request from the 25-year-old king of Poland.
Here are three beauty recipes from Caterina Riario:
"To make women look beautiful and clear"
Take root of yreos and root of donkey cucumeri, lupins,
white circer, broad bean, barley, melon seed, still pulverizes
thinly and knead with aqua de melone, or real aqua de orzo well done
and knead it in a small shape and place it to dry in the air,
or true to the wind and how dry dust is de novo
and takes from that powder and makes a liniment with egg white
over your face and lax stand for an hour and then wash it
with semolina and tepid aqua, which is marvelous. "
"To make their teeth very white, clean and beautiful and to consolidate gums perfectly"
Take osso de cuttlefish, white marble, passed by each of them
with a powder of corals 3 ounces. Alum de rocco brusato, mastic and cinnamon 1 ounces,
and make these things thinly powder slopes then compose with rosy apples
as for you, it is enough, let it be de ontion,
and with this you clean your teeth very well, which will venerate beautiful and excellent,
et if they embody et if it preserves the gums optimally.
"To make small and hard breasts for women"
Take so much zusverde that it makes a bowl of juice,
and white vinegar as strong as you can and make the juice with vinegar,
then he wets firm patches of cloth in aqua firm and they are wet goods
and place on the breast and have two small cups of glass on the pieces
that go over the tecte, and changes often then binds with a long band,
tighter than then to suffer, and so you will make small hardships
and the beautiful chest, while you do this dominates it, be chaste.
And again:
Do you have black or red hair and want to be stylish?
Here is the recipe:
“To turn your hair brown, wash it with ash water
or with cinnamon water, sulfur and boiled saffron "
Do you have rough and red skin? Here is the recipe:
"To heal the redness of the face, take cerusa (lead white lead),
violet oil and primer together and on the face.
To make a beautiful face, apply 24 ounces of baking soda
with as much potassium plus 5 ounces of sublimate
et silver powder combined with tragacanth.
Place in the belly of a pigeon of the Pisan breed, well boiled,
which will be cooked well covered in water.
Then distil the water and wash your face morning and evening ".

However, these miraculous ointments did not always produce the desired effects:
often the discoloration of the hair led to unstoppable baldness
and skin rejuvenation tricks made Castiglione say,
in his "Cortegiano":
"the woman stands still without grace, with her face smeared
which looks like a mask and does not dare to laugh so as not to let it die
in the day he shows himself by the light of a torch as they show
cautious merchants their clothes in a dark place ”.

In 1562, G. Mariniello wrote the first Western cosmetology treatise,
"The ornaments of women".
It is no coincidence that it was written by an Italian,
in fact, in Italy, a conception of life that he celebrated prevailed
the beauty of the body and Italians were the first perfumers.

Thanks to the Venetian and Florentine merchants, precious oriental substances
they were placed on the market to satisfy aspirations
of men and women eager to please and to please each other.
A real craze for make-up and perfumes spread
in the more affluent classes: vaporization of mercury
(of which they did not know the danger),
raw steaks on the skin, secretly prepared recipes
and reserved for a very select few, they allowed the ladies
of the stately courts to have that aspect that painters
as Botticelli or Tiziano have eternalized.

Even in the Renaissance, in fact, white skin was ideal for every woman.
Among the most used remedies was that of applying in the evening to the face
a mask of lemon juice and egg white to be removed with cold water
the next morning, while his hands whitened as he rubbed them
with a mixture of breadcrumbs, egg white, tartar and calcined pumice stone.
Cosmetics, perfumes, powders and creams therefore became irreplaceable complements
and not always beneficial, if not harmful to health.
Despite the fact that at this time the make-up was regarded as an alteration
of the image of God and those who prepared the perfumes were often
accused of witchcraft, all the women who could do it, wore makeup.
Perhaps, at the root of all this mistrust, especially male,
in the use of cosmetics, there was the fear of being deceived by a make-up
that could make what really wasn't beautiful appear beautiful.

The paradox is that women no longer washed to avoid being
"contaminated" by water and get cholera and instead wore heavy make-up,
to hide the dirt, with products, such as white lead, which poisoned them.
In most of the texts on cosmetics, the parts of the body
on which attention was focused, were:
hair, face, neck, hands and breasts.
The skin had to be strictly creamy white, but white
it didn't have to be completely uniform, it had to be revived
in strategic points (cheeks, tips of the ears, chin, fingertips),
which had to convey a sense of well-being and attract the eye)
from pink shades, white was, in fact, considered the color of purity,
of chastity and femininity, as opposed to the dark tone
which characterized, even in the pictorial representations, the male complexion,
brown and therefore more masculine, strong and dark.
The eyebrows must have been dark, the lips and cheeks rosy.
The whiteness of the skin, an indication of a comfortable state, opposite
the tanned color of the peasants remained a foundation of fashion
for the following three centuries and was preserved by sheltering from the sun's rays.

The neck and hands had to be long and thin, the feet small,
her supple waist and her breasts had to be firm and round and above all very white.

In the ideal of each country, the color of the eyes was variable:
green in France, brown or black in Italy.
The hair also had to be well-groomed, it had to be
long and blond and then various methods of lightening them developed:
exposing them to the sun or washing them with lemon juice.
The forehead had to be very spacious, so the women
they depilated their hairline with creams or tweezers.

Men too, however, succumbed to coquetry, dyed their beards darkly,
they loved to wear long hair up to their ears,
cut across the forehead and combed smoothly with the parting in the middle.

In the second half of the fifteenth century, however, men's hairstyles
they became wavy and often also tinged with blond, like those of women.
Beards were uncommon, faces in fact all had to be shaved,
except for the religious, the pilgrims and the old commoners.
In the sixteenth century a full beard was granted only to nobles, to intellectuals
like Leonardo or the great artists, like Michelangelo.

In fifteenth-century Italy, a male hairstyle appeared
with medium length hair, smooth around the head
and with a straight fringe on the forehead.
Instead, long braids became popular among women
dropped on the back and adorned with ribbons.

Typically Italian was the hairstyle with the hair parted on the forehead,
collected on the nape and covered with a veil or a net with the addition
of a ribbon called fishing line, which held a pearl or a small jewel.

In the Renaissance, beauty was considered a guarantee
of moral virtue and source of inspiration for poets and artists.
In Europe, the demand for perfumes soon led, in 1508, to the manufacture
of natural perfumes by the Dominican Friars
in the monastery of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.
Later creams and toilet vinegars were produced and came
widely used by the ladies of the Tuscan courts.
Venice, in addition to becoming one of the most famous places for the development of perfumes,
became an important artistic center and the cousin of Titian,
Cesare Vercellio, describes a formula through which the ladies
they could get the beautiful hair dye called "file of hours hair":
"2 pounds of alum, 6 ounces of black sulfur, and 4 ounces of distilled honey with water."
After rinsing the hair with this preparation it was necessary
sit on the flat roof of the house and let the sun do its thing.
Iron oxide and sometimes mercury sulfide were used
to put on red make-up, while lead carbonate was needed
as a face powder (tinted base).
However, eye makeup was considered bad taste
in the western countries of the time.
When Catherine de Medici married Henry II of France in 1533
(at the age of 9), he brought to his court from Italy
his astrologer and alchemist Ruggiero, who soon made sure
a well-deserved reputation as a poisoner and his trusted perfumer,
Renato Bianco, known as René il Fiorentino.

It is said that Renato Bianco was a foundling
raised in the convent of Santa Maria Novella, where he was assigned,
towards the age of twelve, in the service of an old alchemist friar
who taught him the secrets of herbal distillation.
On the death of his Master, Renato found himself with a baggage
of knowledge superior to any other monk in the convent.
Ambitious and eager to achieve success with scented essences
which by now he was preparing with great skill, he managed to be received
by the very young Caterina de 'Medici who, enmeshed by perfumes
and by his eloquence, he admitted him to his entourage as a trusted perfumer.

In Paris he soon became very famous and opened a successful shop
in Pont Saint Michel, one of the most elegant streets of the capital,
where he sold perfumes, powders, ointments and cosmetics
for the ladies of the court and the wealthy aristocracy.
He was also a great poisoner and also in this activity he wanted to be unique.
It was the custom among the nobles to bring underwear to the Pont Saint Michel shop
so that the clerks perfumed it by impregnating the fabrics with odorous substances.
René studied a composition in which to dip the linen before perfuming it.
Nothing distinguished it from other fabrics differently treated,
but, once the clothing is worn, the inert substance reacts
with body heat or sweat, it became active and similar to
a powerful acid flayed and burned the flesh of the victim.
The wounds soon became gangrenous and the poor man died in excruciating suffering.
The nobility and the powerful, after several dramatic cases, intuited
that the advocate of that spell was Rene but, not being able to escape
to the obligation to perfume his underwear, he continued to "pass"
from the shop of Pont Saint Michel with the risk, by the noblemen,
to become victims of the compound of "le Florentin".
The only way to prolong life, besides forcing the servants
to wear their masters' shirts for a day,
was to fill the master with honors, award him with illustrious offices,
overwhelm him with money and lure him to your side.
In a short time, René le Florentin became the most loved and most hated man in Paris.

Mary, Queen of Scots, spent her adolescence at the French court,
and it was there that he learned a very simple recipe for facial beauty.
This recipe consisted of washing your face with boiling water
and then with wine to make it colorful.
It is also said that she used to bathe in milk.

The interest in perfumes reached England, moved there from Italy,
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, whom she encouraged among English women
the use of flowers and herbs to perfume homes and the use of perfumed lotions and ointments.
A preparation made with almond milk, lemon and honey was used
to protect and whiten hands a rosemary oil lotion,
chamomile, sorghum, thyme, southerwood and cloves,
instead it helped the hair to grow thick and shiny.
Towards the end of the century many of the large houses had a room
where the ladies prepared their own cosmetics.
Most people kept in their pockets or hung on their belts,
bags of colored silk or linen
richly scented with rose petals
mixed with musk, laudanum, benzoin and calamus.
Many recipes for whitening teeth were also developed
and hide or treat pimples.
There were also ways to keep breasts tall, young and firm.

In the absence of prostheses and whatever else, or we were satisfied with what Mother Nature did
he had more or less generously given or was acting to improve
the situation slightly, but without expecting miracles.
Unlike current fashion, which features huge breasts,
this was the trend for most of the Renaissance period
to show off rather small and chaste breasts, at least in certain environments
to try to reduce too bulky breasts judged to be inelegant and refined,
applications of hare offal and mutton leg pith were used,
ingredients which, if used consistently, apparently had the ability to reduce the volume of the breast.

In this period the concept of hygiene was different from ours.
It does not mean, however, that man did not take care of cleaning, only,
the toilet was conceived in another way:
dry and attentive above all to the most evident areas.
The latter were, of course, hands and face that were simply "wet".
Generally, however, you washed by brushing yourself with a dry cloth.
It was believed, in fact, that the water was harmful because it penetrates the holes
of the skin and broke the mood: the bathroom made you limp and weak
and therefore predisposed the body to contagion.
It was therefore impossible to think of the bathroom without adopting rigorous precautions:
rest, stay in bed, protect yourself with suitable clothing.
The accumulation of so many worries made it complex and therefore rare.
In the Renaissance, contact was seen as one of the greatest risks during the plague.
It was therefore recommended to avoid contact and expose the bodies to infected air
and the use of public toilets.
A fifteenth-century etiquette advised the children of nobles to accept parasites
as a natural thing but “not to scratch your head at the table, take it by the neck
and from the back lice, fleas or other parasites and kill them in the presence of other people ”.

The images and news are taken from the web
the copyright is of the respective authors


Soft white hands - Recipe by Caterina Sforza

  • Home
  • RSA Washington 2012
  • Why study cosmetics?
  • Cosmetics Study Event 17-18 March 2011
    • Cosmetics workshop
    • The Renaissance Makeover
    • What did we learn?
  • Cosmetics Recipes
    • Caterina Sforza's Experiments
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Teeth
  • Further reading

To make the hands and face white:
Take leaves and roots of nettle and boil them in water and with this water wash your hands and face and they will become white and soft.
To make the hand and face white

Take the leaves and the root of the urtica and make it boil in water and cum that water wash your hands and face and they will become white and soft.

To remove marks from the face:
Take iris [Iris florentina] roots and boil them in water until it is reduced by half, then purify and with this water wash the face and you will be free of blemishes
To send them signs of the face

Piglia, radicem Jazole
[Iris] and boil it in the water until you consume the half, then purge it and wash your face with that water and you will be freed

To make you beautiful:
Take iris roots and grind and make juice and put in a vial and leave it to settle. Then take the water from the top of this mixture, put it in fresh water and with this mixture wash the face, and it will be beautiful and have a notable color
To make it beautiful

Take the root yrios and track and make juice and place it in an ampoule and lay it from then pour the upper aqua, and place them of the clear aqua and with this composition wash the face and haver the beautiful and of a notable color

To make you beautiful:
Take bread crumbs and egg white and mix them together and put them in vinegar for two whole days, and then use it as you please.
To make it beautiful

Take the crumbs of the bread, egg white and mystical together and put it in vinegar for doi of natural and then use it as you like.

This is a model with this face whitener, using lead white replacement, plus the rouge (below) on lips and cheeks. Real lead white has a slightly yellowish tint.

To cure redness of the face:
Take white lead [ceruse], rose water and violet oil and mix together and anoint the face.
To heal the Roseza del Volto

Take Cerusa aqua pink oleo de violets et mestica together et ugne the face

Water to make you beautiful:
Take strong vinegar and lemons cut in pieces and put in a glass alembic and put in powdered cloves and whole cloves, a little of each, and put everything in the alembic and save the water which is perfect and use.
Aqua to make Bella

Take strong vinegar cut lemons into pieces and put the alanbic of glass and put them of carnations made into powder and carnations intact a little of one and the other and put everything alanbic and save the water that is perfect and uses.

A very light and and most excellent rouge
Take 1 on. red sandalwood, 3 on. acqua vita and grind the sandalwood finely and let it soak well in the acqua vita for two hours, then strain it and seal the strained liquid tightly in an glass ampule with no air. When you want to use it, first cleanse the face, then put on the rouge. And you only need to do this once each day, because this rouge is sufficient like that, and through these means: the more you wash, the more you will gain a magical vivacity, gracefulness, and beauty, so that it will easily last for this interval. The “Spanish Clout” [a painted cloth used for rouge], was used for this effect, but it happened that every time the face was washed, it spoiled the effect, and it only lasted for a day. But with this one, as I said, you need not avoid water for eight days in fact it will stay on the face with amazing beauty.
Very smooth and excellent lipstick

Piglia sciandoli red on. one, water life on three, et track subtly skimming them, and lax him to wet in firm water by spatio for two hours well then run and this pouring locks it in a vitreous ampoule that does not breathe and when you fly to use cleans the face. lipstick, and this is enough to do every day once, because this lipstick is enough and in this medium The more if it washes, so much de magio, ligiadry vivacity and beauty must be: so easily if it understands how long the piece of Levante interspersed in this segment whether that every time the face is wet if it disfigures and this age hardly lasts for a day and this, as I say, does not fear water for eight days intact even if it conserves with marvelous beauty.

For a beautiful and well colored complexion:
Take acqua vita and put it in an ampulla and leave it in the sun and clear weather and with some of it wash your face, making it colored and beautiful by using it
To make the face beautiful and colorful
Take the water of life and place it in an ampoule and leave it to the sun and to the serene and wash your face of it and make it colorful and beautiful using it.

To make a marvelous color for the face if you are yellow
Take marubio [Marriubium vulgare] and grind it and mix it with the best wine and honey and boil each one well. Apply evening and morning that will make you happy and of marvelous color.
To make a Mirabila color come To the face yes Bene was yellow

Take Marubio and track et mestica cum optimo wine and apples and boil ad inuicem et bene Evening and morning that will make you happy and most admirable color.


Ferdinando Cimatti, Romagna photographer with broader views

The 180-degree image of the Rocca di Riolo Terme and those you find in the album below (and others that you will find in future reports on our Romagna) bear the signature of a wide-ranging Romagna photographer: Ferdinando Cimatti. He began to photograph in 1980 as a self-taught, expressing himself almost exclusively with works in black and white, personally taking care of the development and printing. Since 2005 he has started to devote himself to the new digital system where he intervenes on every operation, from shooting to printing, whether in color or black and white. During his thirty-year career as a photographer he has participated in many internships of international importance, exhibiting in solo and group exhibitions and obtaining prizes and awards. He is the author of monographic volumes on the cities of Romagna, in which he offers the observer new angles, on small villages, churches, monuments, landscapes, offering a very original perspective. Contact: [email protected].

  • Rocca of Bagnara di Romagna. It was built by families Riario is Sforza in the 15th century, on the ruins of the medieval castrum. On the death of Girolamo Riario, killed in a conspiracy in Forlì, his widow took over Caterina Sforza. Catherine ruthlessly avenged her husband and retained possession of all her lands. Catherine, on the other hand, could do nothing against the invasion of the French army of kings Charles VIII, who in 1494 went down to the peninsula to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Caterina met secretly, right in the fortress of Bagnara, with the Duke of Calabria, son of the king of Naples, to make an alliance (23 September 1494). But the outcome of the conflict was favorable to Charles VIII, who became the new master of the Italian peninsula. After the French, Bagnara also had to undergo the dominion of the duke Cesare Borgia, which at the end of 1499 conquered Imola and the other castles owned by Caterina up to Forlì. Son Ottaviano Riario, meanwhile, having come of age, he started a campaign for the reconquest of his territories, but turned out not to be up to the task. In the 1700s the fortress was converted from military use to civilian use, and after the unification of Italy it was purchased by the Municipality. Today it houses the Castle Museum. The male is considered by many scholars to be one of the best works of 15th century fortification art in Italy.

Rocca of Bagnara di Romagna.

Ravenna: the Rocca Brancaleone.

Fortress of Brisighella.

Rocca Estense of Lugo.

Lugo: castle of the Duchy of Fabriago.

Palazzo Grossi in Castiglione di Ravenna.

  • Serene lesson of ecology. Centuries before today's disasters, the doges had clear ideas about the defense of the lagoon, mountains and woods. This is proved by the documents collected in an exhibition organized in Venice in the State Archives and curated by a descendant of doges, from whom I personally collected this text for Heron which I propose again, given its relevance
  • It still seduces Puglia which amazed Frederick II. “The real holiday is to change the historical horizon”, said Cesare Zavattini. It is the land around Castel del Monte that saw the stops of the Swabian emperor, "puer Apuliae", with the ideal villages that still bear its traces, from ancient Daunia to Murgia up to Salento, in one of the largest castellane areas of 'Europe, is one of the best books for traveling through history, learning history, teaching history, living and savoring history at the table
  • The other side of Garibaldi, a hero of the agricultural world who dreamed of a Risorgimento for Italy in the United States of Europe
  • The childhood of adults. When Napoleon he played (and waved his hands) with toy soldiers. 2021 is not only Dante's year, it is also that of the French Emperor who as an adult will overturn Europe like a sock
  • Americans likeancient Salapia. And we like the archaeologists who are unearthing it in Puglia
  • Italians who changed the world: France. Alberto Toscano guides us on the paths of the Italian genius: starting from a book by the "most French of Italian journalists", we illuminate the stories of our compatriots, famous and not, who have contributed to the growth of the lands where they emigrated. In this first episode we tell, in the sign of the tricolor Eiffel Tower, the stories of musicians (Piccinni is Paisiello), painters (De Nittis), stylists (Ungaro) and other Italics who arrived from Puglia to Paris
  • Those treasures of Italy that intrigue Indiana Jones. The "epochal" discovery (copyright Minister Bonisoli) in Como of a vase with hundreds of Roman gold coins (congratulations to Barbara Grassi, head of the scientific direction and to her colleague Grazia Facchinetti, an expert in numismatics) relaunches the figure of our own gold diggers enlightened by me in 2015 in this investigation that I propose again. Armed with metal detectors, predators of ancient riches plumb land and explore fortresses from Piedmont to Sardinia. To experience the thrill of discovery


RICCIARELLI SENESI

Ricciarelli Senesi are a specialty with an elongated shape that resembles that of a grain of rice. The wrinkled and crunchy surface of this biscuit is soft and crumbly inside. The mixture, based on almonds, is similar to that of marzipan enriched with the scent of vanilla, citrus and sprinkled with plenty of icing sugar.

Ricciarelli from Siena according to tradition

The origin of the Senesi Ricciarelli is not very clear. It is plausible to believe that they are an elaboration of marzipan, known in Tuscany since the 15th century and also present on Caterina Sforza's table on her wedding day.
Since the fifteenth century there were similar sweets, called Morselletti, which means small bite. The name indicated a particularly delicate morsel. Morselletti were prepared with almonds, sugar, honey, eggs, cinnamon and nutmeg.

The role of the Tuscan convents

The Ricciarellis were worked in the past in the convents or in the shops of the apothecaries. These places had in the past the role of pharmacies. Only here could spices and aromas of ease be recovered. Even today, near Piazza del Campo di Siena, there are ancient apothecaries. If you look at the frescoed ceilings you will notice some writings. They are a hymn to Ricciarelli and other typical sweets of the area, such as Panforte.

The legend of Ricciardetto Della Gherardesca

Ricciardetto Della Gherardesca used to eat Ricciarellis in his castle near Volterra. The recipe is said to have brought it with him after returning from the Crusades.


Principles of Ayurveda

of Caterina Origlia

Ayurveda (from Sanskrit ayur, life and see, science) is the oldest and most widespread medicine of the Indian sub-continent. Born as an appendix of the fourth and last book of the Vedas, the Atharva Veda, in an unspecified period, but certainly before the fifth millennium BC, is traditionally considered eternal, originated directly from Brahma and disclosed to men thanks to the divine illumination of the Rishis. the ancient Indian sages, seers of truth. It has developed over time with its own rich and nourished complex of knowledge, both strictly medical, religious and philosophical, with numerous and different cultural stratifications, also steeped in myths and legends, sometimes in contradiction with each other. A noi giunge tramite le diverse scuole succedutesi nei millenni (dapprima in India, quindi nelle regioni asiatiche limitrofe ed infine in Occidente) e grazie ad alcuni trattati, quali, i più autorevoli, il Charaka Samhita ed il Sushruta Samhita del mille a.C., e l’ Astanga Hrdayam dell’VIII secolo d.C.

Le basi filosofiche e religiose: la filosofia del Samkhya

Il principale riferimento culturale filosofico-religioso dell’Ayurveda è rappresentato dall’antica filosofia indù del Samkhya , (dal sanscrito sat , verità e khya , conoscenza), del Rishi Kapila, detta anche della manifestazione o della dualità, secondo la quale la creazione, eterna, continua, al di là del tempo e dello spazio e sempre presente nel tempo e nello spazio, deriva dall’unione dei due principi universali del non manifestato, o Avyakta , cioè di Purusha e Prakriti . Purusha , maschile, soggettivo, passivo, privo di qualsiasi attributo, atemporale ed aspaziale, è la pura coscienza, il principio dell’unità dell’universo. Prakriti , femminile, oggettivo, volitivo, pieno di tutti gli attributi possibili (forma, colore, qualità, etc…), è la materia primordiale, la consapevolezza attiva, l’uno che desidera manifestarsi e generare i molti, il principio della diversità dell’universo, la volontà divina, che ha in sè le tre energie primarie, denominate Guna , manifestazioni del suono cosmico primordiale Aum : Sattva , l’equilibrio ( Brahma ), Rayas , il dinamismo ( Vishnu ) e Tamas , l’inerzia ( Mahesha ).

Prakriti per sua stessa volontà origina il desideriodi manifestarsi e si unisce a Purusha , testimone passivo, creando Mahat , l’intelligenza cosmica, la facoltà di saggezza, la luminosità (fig. 1).

Mahat a sua volta genera Ahamkar , la memoria individuale cosmica lungo il percorso delle rinascite, il senso dell’individualità (caratterizzato dai Guna ereditati da Prakriti in qualità di ego soggettivo ( Sattva ), oggettivo ( Tamas ) e di correlazione tra il soggettivo e l’oggettivo ( Rayas ) responsabile della manifestazione conclusiva della creazione: l’individuo.

Mahat ed Ahamkar costituiscono insieme Antahkarana , lo strumento psichico dell’essere.

Anatomia e fisiologia energetica . Si distingue nell’individuo una complessa struttura generata dall’ Ahamkar tramite i Guna : Rajas si unisce a Sattva , originando Manas , la mente, gli organi motori e sensitivi, ed a Tamas , dando luogo ai cinque Bhuta , o elementi basilari della materia (fig. 1).

La mente . È denominata Manas , è una struttura ricettiva ed esecutiva allo stesso tempo, avente il compito di mediare le informazioni tra l’ Ahamkar e gli organi sensitivi e motori sotto l’illuminazione di Mahat .

Gli organi motori . Sono la bocca, le mani, i piedi, gli organi riproduttivi e quelli escretori.

Gli organi sensitivi . Sono le orecchie, la pelle, gli occhi, la lingua ed il naso.

I Bhuta

Sono, rispettivamente dal più sottile al più denso, l’ Etere , l’ Aria , il Fuoco , l’ Acqua e la Terra .

Si correlano tra di loro in un ciclo continuo di produzione e distruzione reciproca (fig. 2).

Sono rispettivamente collegati ai sensi udito, tatto, vista, gusto, olfatto, agli organi sensitivi orecchie, pelle, occhi, lingua, naso, ed agli organi motori corde vocali, mani, piedi, genitali, ano, ed infine alle funzioni parlare, manipolare, deambulare, procreare ed evacuare.

Si riuniscono tra di loro per originare i Dosha (fig. 1).

I Dosha

Sono in numero di tre, denominati rispettivamente Vata , Pitta , Kapha .

Sono presenti in qualsiasi organismo, anche se in preponderanza relativa differente, stabilita al concepimento dall’ Ahamkar a seconda dell’unicità dell’Essere.

Presentano le seguenti caratteristiche:

Vata : è prodotto dall’unione di Etere ed Aria è l’umore del movimento, della vitalità, dell’attivazione e del catabolismo è secco, freddo, umido, volatile, leggero, mobile, chiaro, sottile, dispersivo ha come sedi naturali la cavità pelvica, l’intestino crasso, le cosce, le ossa, la pelle e le orecchie controlla gli apparati respiratorio, circolatorio, locomotore, genitale, il sistema nervoso somatico e viscerale e gli organi escretori favorisce gli stati psico-emotivi di entusiasmo, attività, socievolezza, ansia, paura, ingenuità e nervosismo prevale nell’età senile la sua essenza viene denominata Prana

Pitta : deriva dall’unione di Fuoco ed Acqua è l’umore della trasformazione e del metabolismo è caldo, oleoso, leggero, mobile, penetrante, liquido, di odore acre si situa di norma nell’intestino tenue, nello stomaco, nel sangue, nel tessuto adiposo, nella pelle e nelle ghiandole sudoripare governa i processi digestivi, la termoregolazione, lo stato della pelle, la luminosità dello sguardo, la produzione di energia determina gli stati psico-emotivi di espansione interpersonale, socievolezza, audacia, coraggio, intraprendenza, creatività, odio, ira, gelosia, collera è preponderante nell’età adulta e la sua essenza è denominata Tejas

Kapha : origina dall’unione di Acqua e Terra è l’umore della coesione e dall’anabolismo è freddo, umido, oleoso, pesante, lento, viscoso, denso, morbido, statico occupa naturalmente lo stomaco, il torace, la gola, la testa, il naso, i seni paranasali, la bocca, le articolazioni costituisce il plasma, il citoplasma e le secrezioni è responsabile della resistenza, della crescita e dell’integrità corporea, della lubrificazione delle articolazioni, dell’immunità umorale e cellulare, della produzione delle secrezioni e dei processi mnesici determina gli stati psico-emotivi di staticità, stabilità, calma, perdono, distruttività, indolenza, volubilità, inerzia, codardia, avidità, attaccamento, invidia prevale nell’età infantile e la sua essenza è denominata Ojas .

I Dhatu

Sono i tessuti dei vari apparati dell’organismo. Si originano a cascata l’uno dall’altro a partire dal primo, denominato Rasa , derivato a sua volta dall’unione di tutti e cinque i Bhuta .

Sono, considerati nella sequenza generatrice:

  • Rasa , la linfa ed il plasma
  • Rakta , la parte corpuscolata del sangue
  • Mamsa , il tessuto muscolare
  • Medo , il tessuto adiposo ed i visceri
  • Asthi , il tessuto osseo e cartilagineo
  • Madja , il midollo osseo ed il tessuto nervoso
  • Shukra , il tessuto riproduttivo.

Vengono prodotti nella vita intrauterina e successiva mente continuamente rigenerati grazie all’azione di enzimi denominati Dhatu- Agni .

Gli Agni

Sono indicati con il termine Agni gli enzimi dell’organismo. Prodotti dal Dosha Pitta , intervengono nei processi di digestione, assimilazione ed elaborazione metabolica. In numero complessivo di tredici sono collocati uno nello stomaco e nell’intestino tenue ( Jathara-Agni ), cinque nel fegato ( Pancha Bhuta-Agni ) e sette nella sequenza generatrice dei Dhatu ( Dhatu-Agni ).

Il loro funzionamento difettoso genera Aama , sostanza pesante, densa, appiccicaticcia, fredda, maleodorante, ostruente.

Il loro funzionamento in eccesso distrugge i tessuti e le sostanze nutritizie, indebolisce l’immunità e consuma l’organismo.

I Mala

Sono i prodotti di rifiuto elaborati durante la generazione e rigenerazione dei Dhatu .

Vengono in condizioni fisiologiche subito smaltiti all’esterno. I più importanti sono le feci, le urine ed il sudore.

Gli Srota

Sono i canali dell’organismo lungo i quali vengono veicolati i fluidi, quali le sostanze nutritizie, i Dosha , l’aria, i Mala , l’aria, le secrezioni, il sangue, il plasma, la linfa, il latte ed il sangue mestruale.

Di dimensione variabile a seconda della loro funzione, sono in numero di tredici nell’uomo e quindici nella donna (nella quale i due in più sono il canale mestruale e quello del latte).

Le Nadi

Sono sottilissimi canali lungo i quali circola il Prana . I principali sono Sushumma , Ida e Pingala .

I Marma

Sono i punti vitali della superficie dell’organismo, a livello dei quali avviene l’incrocio delle Nadi . Hanno una precisa disposizione topografica e svolgono anche il ruolo di zone riflesse. I più importanti sono in numero circa di 365. A scopo terapeutico ne vengono utilizzati solo 43.

Le costituzioni

Rappresentano l’insieme delle caratteristiche manifeste dell’individuo e sono pertanto indicate anch’esse con il termine Prakriti . Vengono determinate all’atto del concepimento e sono suscettibili di variazioni durante l’intero arco vitale.

Si distinguono in mentali e fisico-psichiche, stabilite, rispettivamente, dalla presenza quantitativa relativa dei Guna e dei Dosha .

Prendono il nome rispettivamente dal o dai Guna e Dosha preponderanti.

  • Rajasica : dinamismo, coraggio, audacia, produttività, invidia, gelosia, collera
  • Tamasica : stabilità, staticità, solidità, inerzia, indolenza, volubilità, codardia, distruttività
  • Sattvica : purezza d’animo, equilibrio psichico, amore per al verità, incorruttibilità, creatività:
  • Miste: per esempio rajasica-sattvika , sattvika-Tamasica-rajasica : presentano l’insieme delle caratteristiche di quelle pure in Base ai guna preponderanti

  • Vata : struttura fisica longilinea, irregolare, con tendenza a dismorfismi, cute e mucose secche, capelli sottili e radi, occhi piccoli o molto grandi, unghie fragili, irregolari o dure, labbra irregolari, lingua sottile, ruvida, scarso sviluppo muscolare, temperatura corporea bassa, difficoltà digestiva, facilità al dimagrimento ed all’affaticamento, escrezioni scarse, dense, instabilità emotiva
  • Pitta : struttura fisica normolinea con buon sviluppo muscolare, struttura scheletrica regolare, cute e mucose rosee, ben irrorate ed idratate, capelli ricci e folti, occhi di dimensioni medie, iperemici, con fotofobia, unghie forti, rosee, morbide, labbra rosee ben sviluppate, lingua muscolosa, rosea, temperatura corporea alta, escrezioni ben rappresentate, calde, brucianti, scure, maleodoranti, buona capacità metabolica, socievolezza, espansibilità sociale, collera, invidia
  • Kapha : struttura fisica brevilinea con apparato scheletrico pesante, scarso sviluppo muscolare, capelli forti, folti ed opachi, occhi grandi, umidi, con tendenza a secrezioni catarrali, unghie larghe, umide, morbide, labbra umide, pallide, molto sviluppate, lingua umida, grande, ricoperta da una patina biancastra, temperatura bassa, escrezioni discretamente rappresentate, dense, chiare, tendenza all’obesità, calma, inerzia, indolenza
  • Miste: per esempio Vata – Pitta – Kapha , Vata – Kapha , Pitta Kapha : insieme delle caratteristiche di quelle pure in vase ai Dosha prevalenti.

La patogenesi delle malattie

Lungo il percorso del suo ciclo vitale l’essere umano è in continua interazione dinamica con le sue parti e tutto ciò che lo circonda con sequenze e modalità determinate dalle caratteristiche del suo antahkarana e dalle leggi universali del Karma , dei Simili e dei Contrari :

  • Legge del Karma : ogni azione determina una reazione analoga e di verso contrario: ogni condizione dell’esistenza è conseguente alle azioni compiute nelle vite precedenti ed in quella presente: l’uso improprio della mente, degli organi sensitivi e motori, il non rispetto delle leggi della natura, provocano situazioni illusorie ed errate, con allontanamento dalla verità e dall’evoluzione.
  • Legge dei Simili : forze simili interagenti si potenziano reciprocamente: il calore estivo accentua Pitta , caldo, il movimento aggrava Rajas , il dinamismo, e Vata , l’attivazione, l’ira repressa aumenta rajas, l’irascibilità
  • Legge dei Contrari : forze contrarie interagenti si riducono reciprocamente: il calore estivo diminuisce Vata e Kapha , freddi, il movimento riduce Tamas , l’inerzia, e sattva, l’equilibrio.

Ne consegue, pertanto, che lo stato di salute contingente, denominato Vikriti , è ampiamente variabile con oscillazioni possibili comprese, in relazione alla risultante delle azioni e delle interazioni delle forze, tra due estremi: l’equilibrio armonico, cioè la salute e la longevità, e lo squilibrio disarmonico, ovvero la malattia, con una gradualità di lesione rilevabile fino a quella estrema della morte, relativamente alla struttura ed al livello interessato. Per esempio, nel caso il danno riguardi i Dosha , determinandone un aumento, vengono distinte sei fasi progressive:

  1. accumulazione: iniziale aumento del Dosha nelle sue sedi
  2. aggravamento: ulteriore aumento del Dosha
  3. inondazione: il Dosha continua ad aumentare fino a straripare dalle sue sedi
  4. localizzazione: il Dosha occupa parti del corpo diverse dalle sue sedi
  5. manifestazione: il Dosha continua ad aumentare provocando sintomi clinici aspecifici
  6. specializzazione: il Dosha localizzato si aggrava determinando sintomi e segni clinici specifici di malattia: è solo in questa fase e, talora, nella precedente, che il soggetto avverte il suo stato di malessere e richiede un intervento terapeutico

La diagnostica delle Mala ttie

La Vikriti viene valutata mediante tre metodiche diagnostiche fondamentali: Prashna pariksha , Pratyaksha e Jyotisha .

Prashna pariksha è l’interrogazione diretta del paziente, che può essere estesa all’occorrenza ai parenti ed agli amici equivale alla nostra anamnesi.

Pratyaksha è la percezione diretta, tramite atman, Manas e gli organi sensitivi dell’esaminatore, dei parametri oggettivi del paziente: l’aspetto generale, il viso, gli occhi, la lingua, le orecchie, le labbra, la temperatura corporea, le escrezioni ed il polso. Fra tutti i parametri il più specifico, sensibile e precoce è il polso: è di norma apprezzato a livello delle arterie radiali del paziente mediante le dita in dice, medio ed anulare della mano destra dell’esaminatore, eseguendo una palpazione sia superficiale ( polso superficiale ) che profonda ( polso profondo ) (fig 3). Fornisce informazioni sullo stato dei Dosha e dei principali organi, anche in condizioni clinicamente silenti.

Jyotisha è l’esame astrologico vedico fornisce dati sulla storia presente, passata e futura e sulle caratteristiche del paziente tramite lo studio del tema natale secondo le conoscenze vediche.

Tutte e tre le metodiche diagnostiche forniscono in formazioni che, filtrate da eventuali interferenze dell’esaminatore, consentono di rilevare la sede, il livello, il grado e la prognosi dell’eventuale danno presente e della predisposizione o meno a subirlo.

La terapeutica

È la disciplina che si occupa del potenziamento del lo stato di salute e del trattamento delle malattie per il bene e la felicità degli esseri viventi.

È suddivisa in tre branche principali:

  • la medicina interna
  • la medicina esterna
  • la chirurgia.

Comprende numerose pratiche terapeutiche, utilizzate di volta in volta, a seconda delle caratteristiche del paziente, in accordo alle leggi dei Simili e dei Contrari .

Regole comportamentali: allontanamento dei sentimenti negativi, rispetto delle leggi divine.

Regole igieniche giornaliere: al mattino: svegliarsi al sorgere del sole, evacuare l’alvo e la vescica, fare un bagno o una doccia, fare una colazione leggera, compiere dopo alcuni minuti una breve passeggiata a metà giornata: pranzare presto, fare dopo alcuni minuti un’altra breve passeggiata la sera: fare una cena leggera, dopo alcuni minuti fare una breve passeggiata e coricarsi dopo aver fatto trascorrere almeno tre ore dalla cena.

Digiuno : assoluto o parziale, breve o prolungato: riduce Aama e aumenta Pitta .

Dietetica : alimentazione a base dei prodotti più indicati per la propria costituzione.

Abluzioni : locali o generali, da eseguire in particolari momenti della giornata: hanno effetto purificatorio.

Massaggio : trattamento locale di superfici più o meno estese mediante l’uso di oli semplici o medicati, di polveri o farine, con digitopressione a livello dei Marma : riduce Vata .

Fomentazione : sudorazione provocata mediante calore esterno (per esempio tramite una capanna sudatoria) o stimolata dall’interno con la somministrazione di preparati medicati: riduce Kapha .

Essiccazione interna : somministrazione di sostanze essiccanti: riduce Kapha .

Essiccazione esterna : trattamento esterno della cute e delle mucose mediante polveri essiccanti: riduce Kapha .

Oleazione interna : somministrazione di preparati oleosi medicati: riduce Vata e Pitta .

Oleazione esterna : unzione della cute e delle mucose che si aprono all’esterno con olii semplici o medicati: riduce Vata e Kapha .

Purificazione : detta Pancha Karma , consiste nell’associazione di più pratiche da eseguire separatamente e successivamente in diversi giorni: emesi provocata, somministrazione di sostanze purganti, esecuzione di clisteri oleosi o medicati, insufflazione medicamentosa nasale, e, per taluni autori, salasso: riduce tutti i Dosha in eccesso.

Irrigazione : introduzione nelle vie genitali femminili o maschili o lungo un tragitto fistoloso di preparati liquidi medicati: effetto differente a seconda del preparato utilizzato .

Cromoterapia : utilizzo dei colori per via locale o generale (somministrazione di acqua tenuta almeno per quattro ore in un contenitore rivestito del colore indicato e lasciato alla luce dei raggi solari): p.e. il giallo è calmante e riduce Pitta , il rosso attiva la circolazione e aumenta Pitta .

Cristalloterapia : utilizzo di pietre e gemme per via locale o generale (somministrazione di acqua lasciata a riposare per una notte intera in un recipiente, insieme alla pietra o gemma prescelta): p.e. l’ametista equilibra Pitta , il rubino è cardiotonico.

Metalloterapia : utilizzo dei metalli per uso locale o per via generale (quest’ultima mediante la preparazione di prodotti medicati privi di alcuna tossicità): p.e. l’argento è antinfiammatorio, l’oro è stimolante.

Aromatoterapia : utilizzo degli olii essenziali per via locale o generale.

Farmacoterapia : utilizzo di preparati più o meno complessi sotto forma di compresse, tavolette, polveri, decotti, oli, collirii e soluzioni a base di vegetali, minerali, metalli, preparati alchemici, derivati animali (tutti opportunamente trattati). Per esempio: piante quali l’aloe con effetto purgativo, emmenagogo e tonico generale, il calamo come decongestionante, il piper nigrum come espettorante, il triphala (miscela di amalaki , haritaki e bibhitaki ) come disintossicante minerali quali il sale marino come antiedemigeno ed antidolorifico, il ferro come antianemico ed astringente metalli come l’oro e l’argento (vedi metalloterapia) preparati alchemici quale quello a base di mercurio, rigenerante derivati animali come la cenere delle zanne di elefante come antiitterico, il grasso di pavone per la cura delle paralisi.

Musicoterapia : utilizzo di suoni o musiche.

Agopuntura : trattamento dei Marma mediante infissione superficiale di piccoli aghi.

Tecniche di ringiovanimento : insieme di metodiche per il ringiovanimento ed il prolungamento delladurata della vita: norme dietetiche e comportamentali, somministrazione di preparati a base di piante come il calamo, chyavana prash , pippali .

Tecniche di virilizzazione : insieme di metodiche per il potenziamento della forza sessuale: norme dietetiche e comportamentali, somministrazione di prodotti a base di piante quali shatavari , ashvagandha , zafferano.

Tecniche chirurgiche : particolarmente avanzate nel campo dell’ostetricia e della chirurgia plastica, sono attualmente desuete ma costituiscono un notevole riferimento storico-culturale.

Tutte le metodiche terapeutiche trovano il loro completamento e potenziamento naturale nelle pratiche filosofico-religiose, le Sadhana , del Pranayama , dello Yoga , della recitazione dei Mantra , dell’utilizzo degli Yantra , del Tantra e della meditazione, per favorire ed accellerare il cammino dell’essere umano nel perfezionamento evolutivo.

La valutazione del polso

Modalità d’esecuzione: l’esaminatore posiziona l’indice, il medio e l’anulare della sua mano destra in senso disto-prossimale sull’arteria radiale del paziente, bilateralmente.

Polso destro Superficiale Profondo
Indice Vata intestino crasso Vata polmoni
Medio Pitta colecisti Fegato
Anulare Kapha pericardio Kapha equilibrio tra Vata – Pitta – Kapha
Polso sinistro Superficiale Profondo
Indice Vata intestino tenue Vata cuore
Medio Pitta stomaco Pitta milza
Anulare Kapha vescica Kapha reni

Caratteristiche del polso

  • Vata : frequenza > 80/m irregolare, veloce, serpeggiante, debole, sinuoso, tiepido e sottile.
  • Pitta : frequenza 70-80/m regolare, frequente, forte, veloce, saltellante, caldo, eccitato.
  • Kapha : frequenza Vata – Pitta – Kapha

Vata Pitta Kapha
derivati del latte derivati del latte tranne quelli acidi derivati magri del latte
miele, zucchero di canna zucchero di canna miele
frumento, riso frumento, orzo, avena, riso riso, orzo, segale, grano saraceno
fagioli, lenticchie rosse, ceci piselli freschi, fagioli, ceci, fagiolini verdi, soia tutti i legumi tranne fagioli e soia
carni bianche, pesce, uova pollame e selvaggina, bianco d’uovo tutti i tipi di carne tranne pesce, manzo, agnello, maiale
verdure cotte tranne broccoli, cavoli, peperoni, funghi e germogli verdure crude e cotte tranne pomodori, peperoni piccanti, melanzane, carote verdure crude tranne pomodori, patate dolci, zucca e zucchine
frutta dolce e matura frutta matura e dolce tranne quella acida frutta secca, melograni, mele, pere, fichi
oli da tavola oli di semi di oliva, di soia, di girasole olio di girasole, di mais

Bibliography

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Articolo riprodotto per gentile concessione dell’autrice, che ne detiene i diritti. Riproduzione vietata con qualsiasi mezzo.


Tonico Coreano e Tonico Occidentale: Le differenze

Il tonico coreano “idrata”: pone le basi insieme all’essenza per creare la giusta umidità sulla pelle in modo che possa assorbire al meglio i trattamenti successivi della routine coreana.

La ricerca costante e quasi maniacale di una pelle dewy and glowy (rugiadosa e radiosa) tra le donne coreane, ha rivoluzionato il tonico: la concentrazione si è spostata sull’idratazione, ecco che i tonici coreani prendono il nome di “freshner”, rinfrescanti, si trasformano in “Mist” acque idratanti e profumate da spruzzare sul viso a qualsiasi ora del giorno, per rinfrescarlo, idratarlo e fissare il makeup.

La ricerca costante di idratazione perfetta, porta in Corea alla formulazione del “7 Skin Method” dove Skin non significa pelle, ma è il termine con cui viene chiamato il tonico in Corea, e sette sta per il numero di volte con cui viene applicato picchiettandolo sul viso, attraverso la tecnica del “Lyering” (stratificazione) utilizzata nella skincare coreana.

Molte le formulazioni di tonici viso esfolianti, a base di acidi BHA (acido salicinico) o acidi AHA (acido glicolico o lattico) occorre sottolineare che, come per l’utilizzo degli esfolianti, sarebbe preferibile il loro utilizzo serale, in caso di utilizzo la mattina è necessario proteggere la pelle dai raggi solari in quanto resta più sensibile.

Un formato molto utilizzato in Corea, sono i "toner pads" dischetti di cotone imbevuti di tonico viso idratante o soluzione esfoliante. Qui è premiata la praticità di poter avere a disposizione un tonico viso che pulisca e idrati la pelle anche fuori casa o in viaggio.

Per sapere scegliere un tonico viso in base al proprio tipo di pelle diamo indicazioni delle piante funzionali che potete trovare tra gli ingredienti:

Quali sono i tonici viso per la pelle grassa o mista?

Sono i tonici che contengono Hamamelis, acidi della frutta, Salice, Tè Verde, Centella Asiatica, Menta, Salvia, Bardana (Arctium Lappa in INCI), Lavanda, Tea Tree, Rosmarino, Aloe Vera.

Quali sono i tonici per la pelle secca o sensibile?

Sono i tonici che contengono acqua di Rosa, Camomilla, Arginina, Allantoina, Altea, Portulaca, Liquirizia, Aloe Vera, Centella Asiatica.

Ricordiamo che è meglio evitare l’utilizzo di tonici a base di alcol, per chi soffre di pelle secca.


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