The greenhouse is our nurse, especially in the harsh conditions of the Urals, Siberia and the North. The zealous owner cares about her no less than about his own house. Keeping the greenhouse clean and tidy allows you to get a good harvest and spend less effort and money on growing it. Spring is the time for pre-sowing cleaning and processing of a polycarbonate greenhouse.
Cleaning in autumn and spring - what's the difference
The end of the harvest does not mean the end of gardening work. An equally important part remains - cleaning and processing the greenhouse. What's the best thing to do in the fall? It is advisable that in the winter the greenhouse left as prepared as possible - with garbage removed, dug up and fertilized beds, etched earth from diseases and pests.
If in the summer in the greenhouse pests were thoroughly "housekeeping", in the fall, collect by hand the larvae of the wireworm, whitefly and May beetle. The autumn collection of larvae is necessary, because in the spring it is often necessary to deal with insects that have already emerged from them, and this is more difficult and more expensive.
Spring cleaning is a lighter version of autumn cleaning. It takes a long time to prepare the entire garden for sowing, so it is better to leave a minimum of work in the greenhouse.
If you've done a good job in the fall
After high-quality autumn cleaning, you just have to perform a few steps:
- carry out temperature processing of the soil;
- dismantle supporting winter structures;
- wash polycarbonate and process metal parts in the presence of corrosion;
- if necessary, repair the greenhouse damaged during the winter.
Preparation for planting includes loosening the soil and restoring beneficial bacterial microflora in the soil using biological products.
Full spring cleaning in the greenhouse
If for some reason you did not manage to put things in order in the greenhouse in the fall, you will have to devote time to this in the spring. Calculate the start of work depending on when planting begins in your region. Soil cultivation (and this is the last stage) should be completed no later than two weeks before planting the plants in the greenhouse.
Temperature treatment and soil moisture
Freezing is one of the cheapest ways to get rid of harmful bacteria and insect larvae. At the end of winter, when there is still little frost, open the doors of the greenhouse.
In this way, you can get rid of not only harmful insects and bacteria, but also from ice. From the equalization of the internal and external temperatures, the ice crust will simply lag behind the walls.
After freezing the ground, give it moisture.
The melted snow will provide good moisture for the soil in the greenhouse
Bring as much snow as possible to the beds. It will begin to melt and saturate the soil with soft water.
The next step is greenhouse cleaning. Remove all inventory and equipment from the greenhouse. Safety winter structures can also be dismantled. How to clean the greenhouse:
- Rake the stems and leaves of last year's plants.
- Dig up the ground and select the weeds and their roots.
- Remove all debris, including last year's garters, pegs, and trellises. Burn them along with plant residues. They can retain fungus and other bacteria that will infect young plants. This measure is especially relevant if there was an outbreak of late blight in the greenhouse last summer.
In order for young plantings to grow strong and healthy, the greenhouse structure must be washed and processed. The process includes three stages:
- removing dirt from polycarbonate;
- inspection and processing of metal or wooden frame parts;
- sanitizing surfaces.
Polycarbonate does not tolerate aggressive detergents. For cleaning, you will need soap containing no more than 3% alkali, a soft rag or foam sponge to gently remove dirt... The outside of the greenhouse can be cleaned with a hose. Use soapy water only in highly contaminated areas. Areas where mold has appeared (most often these are joints), wipe with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
It is necessary to wipe off strong external contaminants carefully so as not to damage the film that protects against ultraviolet radiation.
Video: how and what to wash the greenhouse
Frame treatment and surface sanitization
- Examine the frame for corrosion or rot. If rust is found on metal parts, wipe the area with a rust converter. Then treat the area with an antibacterial primer and paint.... There should be no black spots on wooden structures. All suspicious parts must be replaced, and the frame must be completely treated with an antiseptic and also painted.
- To be completely sure of the cleanliness of the greenhouse and the absence of pathogenic bacteria and fungi on its inner surfaces, spray them with a solution of Bordeaux liquid in a low concentration - 3-5%. So you will prevent further spread of rust and protect plantings from scab, rot and late blight.
It is convenient to use a hand-held garden sprayer for sanitizing the walls in the greenhouse.
However, spraying with Bordeaux liquid may not be enough if there were outbreaks of diseases or pests in the greenhouse in the previous season. In this case, you need to make fumigation with sulfur... This is a radical way of dealing with the enemies of planting, since as a result, not only the structural parts of the greenhouse are disinfected, but also the top layer of the soil.
Video: fumigating a greenhouse with sulfur - technology and safety measures
- The use of various drugs depends on the degree of contamination of the soil in the greenhouse and on what the plants were sick with in the previous summer. In case of severe infestation, it is better to treat the soil in autumn with aggressive chemicals. Bleach, formalin, Iprodion, copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture are used.
- In the spring, it is preferable to use biological methods of soil disinfection. To do this, use preparations containing useful fungi - "Fitosporin", "Trichodermin", "Baikal EM 1". They not only kill pathogenic microflora, but also populate the soil with beneficial bacteria.
- A time consuming and expensive method is replacing the topsoil. The old substrate is removed by 8–10 cm and replaced with a new one. It is not recommended to take it from the garden beds, it is better to buy a new one.
- Another way to cultivate the soil is to sow green manure. They will improve the structure of the soil, prevent weeds from growing and disinfect it from pathogenic microflora. Mustard, legumes, lupine, oil radish are used as green manure.
Photo gallery: ways to disinfect the ground in a greenhouse
Repair and strengthening of the frame
Inspect the greenhouse for damage.
- Sheets showing extensive cracks, bulging or cloudiness must be replaced. Small cracks in polycarbonate or gaps at the joints formed from deformation of the structure can be filled with silicone or roofing sealant.
- If the frame is skewed, you can simply bend the deformed parts. In case of severe curvature, it is better to replace them.
- The precariousness of the structure is eliminated by strengthening the self-tapping screws connecting the frame to the foundation. They need to be tightened well with a screwdriver.
Video: useful tips for spring greenhouse preparation
Take the time and effort to prepare the greenhouse in the spring. Your efforts will pay off a hundredfold - you make it easier for yourself to care for the plants and reap a good harvest.
How to prepare a greenhouse for winter
Daylight hours are getting shorter and colder, it is time to think about how to prepare the greenhouse for the winter months so that you can start the first sowing of flowers, vegetables and fruits in early spring. The essence of preparing the greenhouse for winter in the fall is so that in the spring you can do what the greenhouse is intended for, and not repair it.
Preparation is quite possible already from the beginning of March, even if there are snowdrifts all around. Provided, of course, that heating is installed in the greenhouse for such an early cultivation. The very first thing to do is to inspect the entire structure. Prepare and buy in advance all the elements that have become unusable during the winter or even earlier. The glass canvases of the roof and walls are thoroughly washed on both sides so that the light penetrates better. You can use any means for cleaning windows, then washing it off with a strong stream of water. Particular attention is paid to the joints - they accumulate dirt and microorganisms. It would also be nice to rinse the film, clean it, then the seedlings will be lighter and more comfortable.
If in the fall the roof was removed, then it is necessary, having cleared the inner territory of the bulk of the snow, return the old roof to its place or build a new one.
Now the next step is to prepare the soil, which was probably covered with a thick layer of fluffy (or quite the opposite) white snow. For a faster melting of what is still inside, you can sprinkle the area with something dark. The soil or peat prepared in advance is best suited. Even ash is used for these purposes, while it also fertilizes the soil. It is not necessary to sprinkle with a solid carpet, you can simply use a thin layer, only slightly covering the white snow, reflecting from itself the still faint warmth of the first spring rays of the sun. In parallel with this, heaters are turned on for speedy heating of the air and thawing of the earth layer.
By planting thermophilic varieties under a transparent dome, you will not be afraid of spring frosts and autumn fogs
How to prepare a greenhouse for planting in spring
1. Spring cleaning in the greenhouse
First of all, you need to clean up the greenhouse. Remove the "remnants" of the last season - pegs, twine scraps, etc. Remove the remnants of weeds and last year's tomato-cucumber leaves. Then you need to wash the greenhouse in the truest sense of the word. Dust and dirt darken the polycarbonate, which means they deprive plants of enough sunlight. Before that, you should definitely inspect the frame and coating for integrity. If there is damage, they should be repaired, or the greenhouse should be overhauled by replacing the damaged area.
Here are recommendations on how to wash a polycarbonate greenhouse in the spring in the country:
- Metal mesh, frame, various fixtures and garden tools are treated with anti-rust solutions. If you don't have factory remedies on hand, use a mixture of lemon juice and vinegar, a little soda diluted in water, sodas, and halved potatoes. A mixture of 100 ml of vinegar, a pinch of salt and flour will help remove rust from brass. Rub the metal with the resulting gruel, and then rinse with water. Rust is well removed from aluminum parts using Alka-Seltzer.
- If your greenhouse has a heating system, then the paint on the pipes will need to be renewed.
- A soap solution will help get rid of dust and dirt. After processing, you need to rinse the entire frame with running water.
- Polycarbonate plates are washed with soapy water using a soft cotton cloth. The outside can be washed off with water, but inside it is better to remove it with a damp cloth. Soap should not get into fertile soil.
2. Treatment of the greenhouse in the spring from diseases and pests
Preparing the greenhouse for the new season in the spring must necessarily include disinfection. The main enemies of all garden plants are diseases and pests. Therefore, even before planting seedlings, you need to be as safe as possible from them. Namely - to disinfect the greenhouse. How to do this is up to you. Some gardeners use sulfur bombs to disinfect, although others do not approve of this method due to its toxicity and selectivity - it is not able to cope with all potential plant diseases. Others choose slaked lime for this purpose, which is used to treat the walls, ceiling and frame of the greenhouse. Advanced gardeners prefer to treat greenhouses in the spring against diseases and pests with modern drugs such as Fitosporin and copper sulfate.
Fitosporin for greenhouse treatment in the spring from diseases and pests they are used as follows:
- Dissolve a quarter of the package in 100 grams of water. Dissolve thoroughly, stirring the product, so that there are no lumps.
- Then dilute 1 tablespoon of the solution in 10 liters of water.
- Pour the resulting solution over 2 square meters of soil.
- Sprinkle wet soil with dry soil on top and cover with foil.
- After a few days, you can land.
Greenhouse processing with copper sulfate in spring
Disinfection of the greenhouse in the spring with the help of copper sulfate is carried out by many gardeners. This drug works well against pathogens of powdery mildew, late blight, various rot, scab, curl and bacteriosis. Treatment of greenhouses from late blight in spring with copper sulfate gives good results.
Prepare a ten percent solution of copper sulfate, and wipe the walls and roof of the greenhouse with it. The greenhouse is treated with copper sulfate in the spring before planting. This will help protect vegetables and greens from various microorganisms and bacteria.
Disinfection of a polycarbonate greenhouse in spring using folk methods:
- Broth of pine needles. Half a bucket of tamped pine branches are poured with boiling water and infused. You can boil for 20 minutes and cool - it will be faster.
- Nettle decoction. Pour half a bucket of dry nettle with boiling water, let it brew, strain.
- Pine extract from the pharmacy - 200 grams. Dilute this product in a bucket of cold water.
Wipe the polycarbonate sheets with any of these solutions. However, if your greenhouse is infected with fungal diseases, then these solutions will not help and you will need to use stronger means to treat the greenhouse in the spring.
How to treat a greenhouse from late blight in spring.
From late blight, treatment with the following drugs will help you:
- Fitosporin-M, Radiance, Baikal EM Are microbiological preparations that help to cope with the life cycle of a microorganism.
- A solution of garlic and water. Pour 40 grams of chopped garlic in a bucket of water and leave for 24 hours. Plants are sprayed with this solution, garden tools and greenhouse walls are washed.
- Periodic pest control- steam room... This microorganism dies at temperatures above +30 degrees Celsius. Therefore, you need to close the doors and windows in the greenhouse on a sunny day, and ventilate well in the evening.
3. Preparing the soil in the greenhouse in spring
Since the same plants grow in the greenhouse every year - usually cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants and greens - there is a great risk of soil "fatigue". It needs to be healed, enriched with nutrients. To do this, for example, you can replace the top layer of soil: remove 10 - 20 cm of soil and add purchased soil for seedlings or a mixture of soil, river sand, peat, lime and humus to this place.
You can also plant siderates in the greenhouse - plants that improve the structure of the soil, enriching it with nitrogen and fighting weeds. Excellent greenhouse greenhouse greenhouse crops - white mustard, vetch, rye, oats, phacelia, watercress. But such preparation of the greenhouse for the new season in the spring is carried out before planting seedlings, it is best to plant siderates in August, when the harvest is harvested. And then dig green fertilizers into the soil in the fall.
4. How to warm up the ground in a greenhouse in spring
After winter, you can warm up the soil in the greenhouse in two ways - natural and artificial.
- When heating the greenhouse naturally in spring, simply open all windows and doors on a sunny day. The sun's rays will warm the air and ground inside the greenhouse.This heating system is simple. For this method to work, the greenhouse must be properly installed. The sun's rays must directly enter the room.
- In case of artificial heating, use technical methods: a special "wind blower" device, an electric heating cable, infrared heaters, heating with pipes, various stoves.
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Greenhouse processing in spring
Spring and autumn processing is practically the same. In the spring, plant residues are removed, if they were not removed in the fall, and disinfection is performed.
Disinfection in spring will reduce the likelihood of pest spores and larvae appearing in the soil. In the summer period, pests will have a peak of activity and this will negatively affect productivity.
Polycarbonate is also given a treatment to improve light transmittance. Before cleaning, it is necessary to repair damaged structural elements.
The final stage includes soil treatment for further planting. It happens that the soil needs to be changed, and this is done in such cases:
- the occurrence of plant diseases that grew in the greenhouse
- the soil was depleted due to lack of agronomic crop rotation
- when creating warm and high beds.
In addition to these methods, there are traditional ones - adding organic matter, fluffing and loosening the soil.
Six stages of spring processing:
- freeing up space - containers for seedlings, racks are taken out, supports are removed to strengthen the roof, which were installed in winter
- replacement or repair of damaged frame elements (if any). Repaired items must be whitewashed with paint glue
- inspection of equipment for heating and irrigation. If necessary, the damaged pipes are repaired and painted
- inspection of polycarbonate and replacement of sheets if necessary
- garbage collection
- disinfection. Cleaning polycarbonate and internal frame elements by means of wet cleaning. The entire room is fumigated.
Soil preparation includes the addition of fertilizers, additives and disinfection. It is advisable not to use chemical additives. Replace soil if necessary.
Watch the video! Greenhouse processing in spring from pests and diseases
Features of processing a greenhouse in which perennial plants grow
If perennial plants grow in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it must be processed in the spring. For this purpose, it is necessary to use special products that will not harm the plants themselves and the soil in which they grow. You need to pick them up in a specialized store, adhering to the concentration depending on the type and condition of the plant.
In addition to pest control in a greenhouse with perennial crops, mechanical cleaning can be carried out: cleaning, minor repairs, digging free areas, cleaning the structure with soft agents. To do this, unnecessary items and small structures are taken out of the greenhouse, after which they are cleaned individually.
Then the inner surfaces of the greenhouse and structures are cleaned, which cannot be taken out for processing. Cleaning ends by flushing the outside of the structure. This is necessary both for the aesthetic appearance in the garden and for stopping hypothetical insect infestations.
In spring, the shoots of perennial greenhouse plants are partially cut off, and the weeds around are removed.
Treatment of trees with urea and copper sulfate from pests and diseases
In order for the shrubs to look well-groomed, and the fruit trees to be healthy, and so that they please summer residents with a good harvest, it is necessary to properly prepare for the season. In addition to whitewashing and pruning, spraying of trees is considered an important activity. The most effective way to combat pests and plant diseases is to spray fruit trees and berry bushes with urea with copper sulfate.
Every gardener should sanitize their garden in the spring in order to get a healthy harvest in the fall, and not beetle-eaten fruits. It is the early treatment in the form of spraying that successfully helps to fight pests and plant diseases.
To start spraying, it is important for the gardener to determine which drugs to use: chemical, combined or biological. A feature of chemical preparations is good solubility in water and a fast disintegration period from two to three weeks. Biological products are made from various microorganisms that fight plant pests. Combined products already have in their composition both chemical and biological components that destroy not one, but several types of pests, so re-processing can be avoided.
For early spring treatment, chemicals are used in the garden, since there are no leaves on the trees and no buds have blossomed. At the same time, the larvae of pests are immediately destroyed. It is especially useful to use preparations with which you can additionally process and fertilize the soil around the tree. The most popular, proven and cheap remedies are copper sulfate and urea.
To carry out the spring treatment of trees with a mixture of urea and copper sulfate, it is necessary to properly prepare the garden. For this you need:
- prune dry branches
- remove dead bark from a tree trunk
- grease the places of cuts and cleanings
- remove and burn last year's foliage.
All protected areas are treated with a 5% solution of copper sulfate, cuts - with garden putty. Plants are sprayed in the morning or evening, in dry weather with an average daily temperature of at least 5 degrees Celsius.
Urea (urea) is a nitrogenous fertilizer with a content of 46% nitrogen. Normal growth and nutrition of plants depends on the full saturation of the soil with fertilizers. Plant nutrition comes from the soil, if the soil is sandy or podzolic, then there is little nitrogen in it. Lack of nitrogen in plants is manifested in the quantity and quality of the crop, the viability of seeds. Therefore, for a good harvest, plants must be provided with sufficient nitrogen nutrition.
￼ Copper sulfate is used in high concentrations in the spring, since the plants do not have leaves, the bark can withstand the effects of the chemical and at the same time get rid of pests. Then the concentration of the solution should be high - 300 grams of copper sulfate per bucket of water. For the best effect, add 25 grams of laundry soap to the solution.
Important! Copper sulfate must be diluted with hot water in advance. The solution must be filtered before using in a nebulizer. A mixture of urea and copper sulfate is used to destroy the spores of fungi, viruses and various insects.
A solution for treating trees and shrubs, which includes copper sulfate and urea, is made as follows:
- 1. Take 700 grams of carbamide on a bucket of water and dilute with water until completely dissolved.
- 2. Dilute 50 grams of copper sulfate in a separate container with hot water.
- 3. Well-diluted vitriol is added to the urea and mixed well again.
- 4. Urea and copper sulfate are diluted in glass, plastic containers, which are not used in the future for food.
- 5. The prepared solution is abundantly moistened with the trunk and branches, as well as the ground around the trunk of the tree.
Before you start spraying your garden, you need to take care of your safety by using protective equipment such as a respirator, goggles and rubber gloves.
Timely spring treatment of plants is a guarantee that the garden will be healthy and will enjoy a rich early harvest. Plants need various fertilizers and protection from pests throughout the year.
Spraying trees and shrubs early in the spring helps keep pests and diseases away from the crop. Features of processing plants:
- At an average daily temperature above 5 degrees Celsius, the soil is watered with a 0.5% solution. This solution is used in the fight against diseases of tomatoes, cabbage and root crops.
- Fruit trees and shrubs are sprayed with a 1% solution against pests (copperheads, aphids) and diseases (black cancer and fruit rot) before bud break.
- Disinfect the roots of seedlings with a 1% solution. To do this, they are immersed in the solution for 3 minutes, after which they are rinsed abundantly with water.
- Before planting potatoes, the tubers are treated with a 0.2% solution against late blight.
- To get early shoots, seeds are soaked in a 0.2% solution: cucumbers for 8-10 hours, the rest of the seeds for a day.
- The seed is etched for suspicious and hereditary diseases, pumpkin seeds and tomatoes - with a solution at the rate of 1 gram of copper sulfate, 2 grams of boric acid and 10 grams of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water. In a solution of room temperature, the seeds are soaked for 15 minutes, and then washed with running water several times.
The weather plays a big role in the treatment of plants with copper sulfate. The solution begins to act a few hours after spraying and continues for 7-12 days at a temperature of +15 degrees Celsius at night and +25 degrees Celsius in the daytime. If it rains suddenly, the effect disappears, re-treatment cannot be carried out due to excess copper in the soil ...
Under perennial shrubs and fruit trees, carbamide is applied in the form of a concentrated solution. For apples and pears, a solution is used at a concentration of 200 grams per bucket of water, and for cherries, plums and apricots - in a proportion of 120 grams per bucket of water.
Plants are fertilized with a liquid composition in moist soil. In dry form, urea is applied to prepared areas intended for digging or deep loosening. However, digging must be carried out in a short time, otherwise the fertilizer will evaporate, turning into ammonia.
The decomposition time of urea is only two to four days.
Saving time and effort, some summer residents scatter carbamide in the garden and in the garden on the snow in the spring. This method is completely ineffective, because the fertilizer is quickly washed off, evaporates, and the nitrogen does not have time to reach the root system of the plant. As a result, unnecessary expenditure of time, effort and money, and plants - nitrogen starvation and poor harvest. Signs of nitrogen starvation: plant growth slows down, leaves turn yellow. Urea is applied as a fertilizer for trees and shrubs with colorless and small leaves, short and thin branches. Early shedding of foliage indicates a lack of nitrogen, this usually manifests itself in the spring, when underdeveloped buds form on the trees.
A solution of urea is used for fruit, berry crops and perennial plantations. Having previously dug holes or trenches around the plant, fertilizing is added to them and immediately poured into it, this will prevent the evaporation of substances. Timely treatment from pests and top dressing ensures soil fertility, a healthy garden and a rich harvest.