Room euonymus

Room euonymus

The euonymus plant is a member of the euonymus family. In nature, some species can grow up to 6-7 meters in height, but the bush grown indoors is much shorter. This genus is represented by deciduous and evergreen trees, as well as shrubs.

Euonymus grows quite well at home. If transplants and pruning are carried out in a timely manner, then the plant does not get sick because of them. Such a shrub belongs to shade-loving plants, in this regard, it is quite possible to grow it on the northern windowsill. Indoor euonymus is cultivated by flower growers as an ornamental deciduous plant, moreover, at home, its flowering can be seen extremely rarely. It has a spectacular lush crown, and the color of the foliage may vary in different varieties.

This plant contains poison, but despite this, it is widely used in alternative medicine, while all its parts are considered healing, namely: bark, leaf plates, seeds and stems. This shrub has many beneficial properties, for example: diuretic, expectorant and anthelmintic. Shoots and roots of euonymus are used to obtain gutta-percha. In European countries, it is warty and European euonymus. Japanese euonymus is the most popular among flower growers.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... In the last spring or in the first summer weeks.
  2. Illumination... In the morning or in the evening, the bright light of the sun, and in the afternoon - a bright, but diffused light.
  3. Temperature regime... In the warm season - from 24 to 25 degrees, and in the autumn-winter period - no warmer than 10 degrees.
  4. Watering... During the growing season, water should be very abundant so that the potted soil is completely wet. Moisten the substrate only after it dries ½ part in depth. In the autumn-winter period, the soil mixture is moistened moderately.
  5. Air humidity... On hot days, it is recommended to moisten the bush from a spray bottle with warm water or regularly shower it.
  6. Fertilizer... In the spring-summer period, the bush is fed once every 30 days, for this they use a complex mineral fertilizer. In the autumn-winter time, the plant does not need feeding.
  7. Dormant period... It begins in late autumn and ends in the first days of spring.
  8. Transfer... Until the plant reaches the age of five, it is transplanted regularly once a year. An older euonymus is transplanted only if necessary, when its root system becomes cramped in the pot, approximately once every 2 or 3 years.
  9. Soil mixture... Sand, turf and peat (2: 6: 1). You can also use a substrate of the following composition: humus, leaf and sod soil, peat (1: 1: 2: 1).
  10. Reproduction... Cutting, seed method and dividing the rhizome.
  11. Pests... Spider mites and aphids.
  12. Diseases... Problems with euonymus can begin due to improper care, for example: too bright or very poor lighting, excessive watering and dry air in winter.
  13. Properties... The fruit contains poison!

JAPANESE BERESKLET ROOM PLANT From A to Z.

Spindle tree care at home

Illumination

The plant needs a lot of light throughout the year. However, it is quite possible to grow it on a north-facing windowsill, but it should be borne in mind that some species will grow there worse, while others will grow better. The bush needs a lot of sunlight, it will be better if in the evening or in the morning direct rays of the sun will fall on its foliage. When growing variegated forms, it is worth choosing the most illuminated place for them, since due to poor lighting they can lose their spectacular color.

Temperature regime

In order for the bush to grow and develop within normal limits, you should take care of a suitable air temperature. In the summertime, in the room where the plant stands, it is better to avoid heat (above 24-25 degrees). For wintering, the plant is removed to a cool place (from 8 to 10 degrees). When wintering in warmth, indoor spindle tree often sheds all its foliage. For the winter, it can be removed to an unheated balcony, but then make sure that the air temperature does not drop too low.

Watering

For irrigation, use water that has settled very well (at least 12-24 hours). During the growing season, which is observed in spring and summer, watering should be abundant so that the earthen lump in the container can get completely wet. However, euonymus is watered only after the soil mixture in the pot dries out to a depth of ½ part. In winter, watering should be more moderate and make sure that there is no stagnation of liquid in the root system.

Air humidity

Euonymus can grow normally at any level of air humidity, but on hot days it is still recommended to moisten it with a spray bottle. Among other things, regularly moisturizing the foliage will reduce the chances of harmful insects settling on the plant. In order to prevent the formation of a white bloom on the surface of the leaf plates, water to moisten the bush is taken previously boiled or passed through a filter. In the summer months, a warm shower will be useful for the shrub, however, during the procedure, it is recommended to cover the surface of the substrate in the container with a film.

Fertilizer

The bush should be fed only during the spring-summer period, and they do it regularly once every 30 days. Before feeding, it must be watered. For this procedure, you can use a complex mineral fertilizer for ornamental deciduous plants in the concentration indicated by the manufacturer.

Forming and pruning a bush

To maintain a spectacular appearance, the bush should be pruned throughout the year. To do this, remove all injured and fading shoots. All weak branches are also cut out, as they take away strength and nutrients from the bush. Pinching of young shoots is carried out in March, thanks to this the crown will be more lush and beautiful. The euonymus can be shaped into almost any shape you wish. It can be formed like a shrub, in this case many branches will depart from its root, and the more there are, the more effective the plant looks. It can also be formed as a standard tree: in this case, the bush has 1 trunk bare from below, which is decorated with a lush crown on top. To make the crown effective, timely and correct pruning is used for this, and to awaken dormant buds that give new shoots, they carry out a systematic pinching. With proper shaping and certain knowledge, you can get a spectacular bonsai from the bush.

Spindle tree transplant

Until the plant is 5 years old, it is transplanted every year into a new container, which should be slightly larger than the old one. More mature bushes are transplanted 1 time in 2 or 3 years, but only when the root system becomes cramped in the pot. For transplantation, a soil mixture consisting of peat, sand and sod soil (1: 2: 6) is used. Also for this purpose, you can use a substrate, which includes leaf and sod soil, as well as humus and peat (1: 2: 1: 1). Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the container; broken brick or expanded clay is suitable for this. This is necessary in order to avoid stagnation of liquid in the root system, which can greatly harm the bush, especially in winter.

Properties

This plant contains poison! Or rather, it is contained in its fruits. But despite this, euonymus is very widely cultivated in indoor conditions. If there are small children in the house, then be sure to tell them that the fruits on the bush should never be eaten. To get poisoned by fruits, an adult healthy person will need to eat them in large quantities, but pets and a small child will need much less fruits for this.

Reproduction methods

Reproduction by division

An euonymus growing at home can be divided into several parts, but only if it has an overgrown root system. The rhizome is divided into several parts very carefully, trying not to injure the roots. Delenki are planted in individual flower pots, and they need to be looked after in the same way as for adult bushes.

Cuttings

For reproduction of the shrub, young shoots are used, cut in the first half of the summer period. For cutting cuttings, young, non-lignified shoots are used, each of them should have 1 or 2 knots, and in length they should reach about 60 mm. Take a low container and cover the bottom with a layer of sand. From above it is covered with a soil mixture consisting of leafy, soddy and humus soil, and also sand (1: 2: 1: 1). Rooting of cuttings takes about 2 months. All this time, they should be warm under a transparent cap, and do not forget to ventilate and moisten them in a timely manner from a spray bottle.

Cuttings of euonymus. How to propagate by cuttings.

Growing from seeds

If you have the time and desire, then indoor euonymus can be grown from seeds. Before sowing, the seed is stratified, as a result of this procedure, the seeds will be able to shed a very dense skin. The seeds are mixed with coarse sand and kept at an air temperature of 10 to 12 degrees for three to four months. But the stratification does not end there, there is also the second stage: all the opened peel is removed from the seed material, and then they are placed in a cold place (about 0 degrees, but not warmer than 4 degrees), where they will stay from 2 to 3 months. Further, the seed is disinfected, and experts advise, for this, use a solution of potassium manganese (5 grams per 1 liter of water). Fill a small container with a soil mixture consisting of sand, humus, sod and leafy soil (1: 2: 1: 4). Sow seeds into it.

If you decide to cultivate a shrub in the garden, then it can be transplanted to a permanent place only in the third year. Until this happens, in the autumn-winter period the seedlings must be mulched, and during the growing season they must be watered and fed on time. If the bush is cultivated at home, then the seedling will need annual transplants, and the pot is changed each time to a larger one (the old pot should be only slightly smaller than the new one).

Possible problems

If a spindle tree growing at home is not properly looked after or if it is not provided with optimal conditions for growth, then the following problems may arise with it:

  1. The variegated foliage has lost its pattern and turned green... This can happen due to overly poor lighting. Variegated varieties need a lot of bright diffused light, they can even be placed in direct sunlight for a short time (in the evening or in the morning).
  2. Yellowed and flying leaves... Most often, this problem arises if the shrub is watered very abundantly. This can cause rot on the root system. To remedy the situation, start watering the bush correctly.
  3. Folding and drying of the tops of the leaf plates... This is most often due to excessively bright lighting. Also, because of this, foliage often becomes dull and faded.
  4. Flying around foliage... This occurs in winter, when the room is too warm and the air is too dry.
  5. Pests... Most often, aphids settle on the euonymus, but spider mites can also harm it.

Types of euonymus with photos and names

Japanese spindle tree (Euonymus japonicus)

It is this species that is usually cultivated at home, while others are grown outdoors or in the garden. Japan is considered the birthplace of such a plant. Such a species, growing indoors, usually reaches a height of no more than 100 cm. The length of naked leathery dark green leaf plates is about 80 mm, their front surface can be shiny. The foliage is obovate, and the upper part is rounded. Greenish-yellow flowers are collected in 15-30 pieces in umbrellas. The length of each flower is about 10 mm. The bush blooms in the first summer weeks.

Thanks to the labor of breeders, a large number of forms of Japanese euonymus were born. If the bush hibernates in a room where there are working heating devices, then it must be systematically moistened from a spray bottle. For wintering, it is better to transfer it to an unheated room, which should be well lit. This species belongs to shade-tolerant plants.

Warty euonymus (Euonymus verrucosus)

In nature, the species can be found in the temperate latitudes of Europe and Asia. It is represented by trees (about 6 meters high) and shrubs (about 2 meters high). Brownish-black warts can be seen on the surface of the green stems. Flowering is observed only in the wild in the last spring or first summer weeks. The fruit is a pinkish-red boll, which ripens at the end of the summer or at the beginning of the fall. Inside the capsule are gray or black seeds, which are ½ part covered by an orange or pale red testis. In culture, this species is most popular, but it is grown most often in the open field. It is distinguished by its winter hardiness, shade tolerance and undemanding care. Cultivated either one bush at a time, or in groups.

European spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus)

This species is widespread in Europe. Most often it is represented by trees, but there are also shrubs, the plant height is about 6-7 meters. While the shoots are young, they are green, but over time their color changes to black. Cork growths form on the surface of the stems. Ovate leaf plates sometimes expand towards the apex, and sometimes towards the base. Leathery dense bare leaves are dark green in color, their length is about 10-11 centimeters. Flowering is observed in the last spring or first summer weeks. Greenish flowers are collected in several pieces in not very large inflorescences, peduncles are short. The bush blooms for about 20 days. The fruit is a four-leafed box of reddish or pink color, the seeds are covered with orange seedlings.

This species grows well in urban conditions and is distinguished by winter hardiness and drought resistance. It tolerates formative pruning and is often grown as a hedge. It is recommended to choose sunny places for this type. There are decorative forms that are more demanding in terms of care and growing conditions, in comparison with "wild" relatives.

Dwarf spindle tree (Euonymus nanus)

This species comes from the temperate latitudes of Europe and Asia. It is represented by an evergreen perennial shrub. The upwardly directed stems are about 100 cm long, while they are young, their color is green, but after some time it changes to gray. There are many warts on the surface of the shoots. The length of the narrow lanceolate leaf plates is about 40 mm, their seamy surface is pale gray, and the front surface is greenish. On peduncles 20 mm long, green or red flowers are formed, which can be single or collected in bunches of 2 or 3 pieces. The fruit is represented by a box, inside of which there are dark red seeds, covered by ½ part with orange seedlings. This very spectacular look is most often seen in parks and gardens.For its reproduction, they use the method of dividing the bush, cuttings, the seed method and rooting of shoots.

Winged Euonymus (Euonymus alatus)

Or sacred euonymus (Euonymus sacrosanctus). This is a Far Eastern species, in nature it is found in China, Korea and Japan. The height of such a highly branching shrub varies from 2 to 2.5 meters. Also, the view is represented by trees, the height of which is about four meters. The tetrahedral winged branches are still young - green, but over time they turn gray. Leathery to the touch, dense, shiny leaf plates are painted in a dark green hue and have an ovoid shape, and they expand towards the top. Small flowers are collected in bunches of 3 pieces. The fruit is represented by a box deeply divided into four parts, which, when ripe, turns bright red, inside it are seeds.

This euonymus is characterized by slow growth, the bush growing in nature is shade-tolerant, but when grown in culture, it needs a lot of bright light. The species is cultivated both in groups and as a single plant.

Semenov's euonymus (Euonymus semenovii)

The genus is represented by creeping shrubs, the height of which is about 100 cm. Elongated ovate leathery to the touch, greenish-yellow leaf plates have petioles, their width is about 20 mm, and their length is up to 60 mm. The edges of the small purple flowers are green, and they are collected in small umbrellas on the top of the stems. The bush blooms in the first summer weeks, while the formed fruits ripen at the end of summer. This plant grows and develops normally in both shaded and sunny locations. Possesses good winter hardiness.

Fortune's spindle tree (Euonymus fortunei)

The species is native to China, it is cultivated in the temperate zone. This is a ground cover creeping shrub. The easily rooting stems are rather long. Leathery, shiny dark green leaf plates are about 40 mm long and elliptical in shape, their edge is uneven. The color of the foliage may vary depending on the variety. Small flowers are colored greenish-white. The fruit is a flattened small box with seeds inside.

Layers and cuttings are used for reproduction. Most forms differ in foliage color and growing conditions. This plant has the highest resistance to winter frosts, but still, the bush must be covered with a thick layer of snow or transferred to an unheated room until spring. During the period of active growth, it is recommended to keep the bush in a little shade.

Forchun's euonymus rooting (Euonymus fortunei var. Radicans)

Under natural conditions, the species can be found in Japan and in the south of Korea. The stems of such an evergreen shrub are creeping or climbing. The growth rate of the bush is average. The active growing season is observed from mid-spring to the first frost. As a rule, when grown in mid-latitudes, the bush does not bloom, but it can be easily propagated by cuttings. Differs in good winter hardiness, but needs good shelter.


Indoor jasmine

This beautiful flower has absolutely nothing in common with what grows in suburban areas and in flower beds. But still no, the home flower is rightfully called jasmine, but the bushes on the street, with fragrant flowers, are mock-orange (false jasmine). These plants are united only by the pleasant aroma that comes from the flowers.

Of the indoor species, two are most often found - Sambac (Arabian jasmine) and Holoflower. Arabian jasmine pleases with its flowering the whole summer and autumn, too, therefore, flower growers love it very much. Such a flower, due to its long stems, is often used as an ampelous plant. Jasmine woven into the arch looks very impressive, it is often sold just like that.

The process of caring for such a flower is not complicated at all. But, paradoxical as it may seem, its rich smell can be attributed to disadvantages. Sleeping next to a jasmine that has flowers is far from harmless, the next morning a terrible pain in the head may appear. So it is better not to place it in the bedroom, but in a spacious and fairly bright living room, the most passing place for such a plant, the office reception may also be suitable.


Transplanting container seedlings

Container seedlings can be planted throughout the growing season until the ground freezes. Their root ball is compact enough not to be damaged during transplantation. It is advisable to plant gymnosperm seedlings in the spring before the buds have blossomed. The ideal time is the first half of May or from mid-August to the second half of September. It is important that the transplanted tree has time to adapt in a permanent place before the dormant period begins. Conifers should be planted as deep as they were in containers. Thuja can be planted deeper, as it takes root from the trunk.


The most common types of Japanese euonymus

Only three species have most successfully adapted to garden and tub cultivation:

  • Pseudo-laurus, found in indoor and greenhouse floriculture. The plant is characterized by poor winter hardiness and a five-degree frost dies.
  • Dwarf euonymus, growing up to one meter in height. It stands out for its bright umbrella flowers.
  • Microphilus euonymus, distinguished by the feathery color of yellow-green leaves.

The cultivation of garden and tub plants has some differences.


Planting and care, types and varieties, photos.

The genus has 220 species, of which 130 are evergreen species. Many species of euonymus have been introduced into cultivation, and another part is being tested in botanical gardens. Euonymus is distributed in temperate and subtropical regions, singly in the tropics.

Evergreen or deciduous low trees or shrubs with rounded or tetrahedral shoots, along the ribs with cork outgrowths. Euonymus leaves are opposite, smooth.

Its inconspicuous flowers, collected in 5 axillary semi-umbrellas, bloom after the deployment of foliage, against which they are not very noticeable. The fruit of the euonymus is a leathery capsule, prickly or winged, which turns red or purple when fully ripe, which makes the shrub very elegant.

Despite the high decorativeness and unpretentiousness to growing conditions, a huge genus of euonymus has not yet deserved special attention from gardeners. A very important factor is that some species of euonymus are winter-hardy and their cultivation in Central Russia is quite possible.

In horticulture, euonymus is prized for a wide range of amazing properties. Firstly, it has a beautiful openwork crown. It is quite dense, especially if the shrub is exposed to light. The color of euonymus leaves during the summer is dark green, the flowers are small, with thin brownish or greenish-white petals.

Blossoming of euonymus cannot be called lush, but it begins in May, when the leaves are fully unfolded, so countless tassels of several flowers are perfectly visible against a dark background.

In autumn, the euonymus are completely transformed. Warm colors appear on a green background in September, and little by little the "autumn fire" engulfs the entire bush.

The color change is very bright and dynamic. For almost a week, yellow, white, orange, red, pink, purple and carmine colors flash on the euonymus. At the same time, in different parts of the crown of one bush, one or another color may prevail, and a single leaf can be painted in 5 colors.

By October, the number of red colors on the euonymus becomes more and more. And even when the foliage falls off, the euonymus still continues to decorate the garden with its colorful fruits until the onset of frost.

Euonymus fruit is a dry, leathery, usually four-part capsule containing red or white seeds covered with fleshy tissue. The seed plant in various species of euonymus is colored red or orange.

Immature pale green bolls are invisible in summer, but closer to September they have a bright color. Depending on the type, the box can be pink, yellow, scarlet, crimson, dark purple or burgundy.

Against the background of green leaves, the garlands of these bright fruits look amazing. From a distance, it seems that the euonymus is blooming. As for the toxicity of the fruits, they are not as dangerous as described in some publications. The fruits of spindle tree contain poisonous alkaloids, but in order to be poisoned by an adult, they will have to eat a lot.

The spindle trees are different in size, this must be taken into account when choosing a place for planting it. By constant pruning, large euonymus can form a shape with a graceful, umbrella-shaped crown.

Types and varieties of euonymus

A separate group is creeping species - Koopman and dwarf euonymus. These shrubs have practically no trunks, they have thin recumbent or slightly raised stems, densely covered with lanceolate evergreen leaves. If these "creepers" are helped, fed with fertilizers and weeds, you can create thick dark green carpets in the garden.

Fortune's eonymus

Under natural conditions, this species grows in China. In culture in the Caucasus and Ukraine. Today it is grown up to St. Petersburg. Fortune's euonymus is an irreplaceable ground cover plant.

This creeping shrub with long shoots is also an evergreen deciduous plant that can be grown in central Russia. In winter, thanks to its creeping shoots, Fortune's euonymus is completely covered with snow, this ensures its stability.

Fortune's spindle tree has many decorative forms, differing in different colors of foliage. They can be yellow or white edged, yellow or white spotted. Forms reproduce only vegetatively - by cuttings and layering. Forchun's euonymus flowers are small greenish-white. In the middle lane, only creeping forms are stable.

Fortune's eonymus 'Emerald Gaiety'... Slow-growing ground cover shrub 1 m wide, with white-bordered leaves. Evergreen, rounded leaves 5 cm long, in autumn they are red in color.

Fortune's spindle tree 'Emerald Gold'... It is a slow-growing evergreen shrub half a meter in height, up to 1.5 m in width, with yellow-variegated foliage.

Leaves 5 cm long, covered with yellow spots and stripes along the edge. In autumn, Fortune's euonymus 'Emerald Gold' becomes reddish in color.

Fortune's spindle tree 'Sunspot' - a ground cover plant, it cannot be planted in the shade, because the variegated color disappears.

Fortune's spindle tree 'Silver Queen'... Shrub 0.8 m high with light yellow foliage, then they turn grayish green.

Fortune's spindle tree 'Variegatus' ('Gracilis'). Bush width 1 m, height 0.3 m, with green leaves bordered by a white stripe. It grows wide to the sides.

This is just a small part of the variegated varieties belonging to this species.

Fortune's euonymus needs to be loosened. Delivers pruning and shearing. You can prune at any time, usually pruning interfering shoots. In variegated forms, green shoots must be removed, since they differ from the bulk. Fortune's euonymus is rarely affected by disease. It propagates by cuttings.

Used for curbs, balcony landscaping or rocky gardens. Can be used in indoor conditions.

European spindle tree

In natural conditions, it grows in Russia, Asia Minor and Western Europe. Found in many reserves.

A tree, up to 6 m, growing bushy. Young shoots of European spindle tree are green. Leaves are ovate or obovate, about 11 cm long, glabrous, slightly leathery in autumn - of various red tones. The flowers of the European spindle tree are inexpressive, greenish-white, bloom for 25 days.

The four-leafed fruits are boxes, the bush is made very elegant at the time of fruiting, when ripe they are pink or dark red. The entire seed of the European spindle tree is covered with orange seedlings.

European spindle tree is distinguished by its high winter hardiness, photophilia. Carries a haircut, suitable not only for single plantings, but also for hedges. Looks great against a background of greenery with golden yellow foliage.

Winged euonymus

Grows on rocky slopes, along mountain rivers in South Sakhalin, in China, Japan, Korea.

Winged spindle tree, about 2 m high, strongly branched shrub, or a tree 4 m, with tetrahedral, winged branches, dressed with gray bark. Young shoots of winged spindle tree are reddish. Leaves obovate, sometimes rhombic, dark green shiny.

Greenish flowers of winged euonymus are collected in three-flowered inflorescences. When ripe, the capsules are bright red, four-celled. Winged euonymus is decorative not only with fruits, but also with its original winged branches.

Under natural conditions, it grows well in shady and lighted places, on dry and wet soil. In culture, it develops best in illuminated places. Winter-hardy, growing slowly.

Looks great in single and group lawn plantings. More than 20 varieties and forms of that euonymus are known.

Winged spindle tree "Compactus" - shrub, about 2 and dome-shaped in width and height, compact. Slow growing, flowers are invisible. The fruits are poisonous, reddish with an orange pericarp, light green, elliptical leaves. Amazing autumn color, red spots. Winged euonymus "Compactus" is winter-hardy, sensitive to drought. Prefers fertile soils, acidic or alkaline.

Warty or few-flowered euonymus

Grows in the mountains of Central, Southern and Southeastern Europe. Available in reserves of the European part of the Caucasus, Russia, the Baltic states. Grows in the undergrowth of deciduous and coniferous forests. Prefers fertile soils.

Shrub 2 m tall, less often a tree 6 m. Green shoots and branches are covered with brown warts, for which it got its name. The brown flowers of the warty euonymus are hardly noticeable, but at the time of abundant flowering they give the bush a peculiar flavor.

Its pinkish fruit seeds are beautiful on a green background of foliage. The warty euonymus is especially beautiful in autumn, when its bright green shoots are dressed in a pink outfit of autumn leaves.

This euonymus is unpretentious, shade-tolerant, winter-hardy, used to create groups and single plantings.

Dwarf euonymus

Dwarf euonymus grows on the slopes, in the river valleys of Moldova, Crimea, Romania, the Caucasus, Northwest China.

Dwarf euonymus is a low-growing shrub 1 m high. Its stems take root easily, giving a huge number of shoots. Young branches are green, longitudinally furrowed, with warts, annual branches are grayish-brown.

The leaves of the dwarf euonymus are very peculiar - oblong or narrow-lanceolate, 4 cm, with a pointed apex and a bent edge on top, they are green, glaucous below.

The flowers of the dwarf euonymus are small, solitary, on long, thin peduncles about 2 cm long, red-brown or greenish. The fruit is 1 cm, pink or yellowish when ripe, but in the middle lane fruiting is very rare.


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