MODERN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
PARVOVIRAL ENTERITIS Parvovirus enteritis (viral hemorrhagic enteritis of dogs) is an acute contagious disease caused by viruses from the parvovirus family and characterized by inflammation and necrosis of the intestinal mucosa and sometimes myocarditis. Two types of parvoviruses can infect dogs independently of each other: PVA-1 and PVA-2. These are small, DNA-containing viruses that do not have an outer envelope. The disease was first detected in the United States at the end of 1977. In our country, parvovirus enteritis was registered in 1980. Parvovirus enteritis occurs unexpectedly and progresses very rapidly. In some cases, the death of an animal is noted already on the 2-3rd day. Parvovirus enteritis affects dogs aged 2 months to 2 years, but most often puppies 2-2.5 months of age get sick. Infection often occurs through feces (parvoviruses are very resistant in the environment and in favorable conditions can be in feces for more than six months), but the transplacental route of infection is also shown. The incubation period is 3-10 days. With careful attention to the pet, the onset of the disease can be recognized in the first hours. Unfortunately, many amateurs seek help on the 2nd or 3rd day, when the animal's condition is approaching critical and any, even the most qualified, help does not give positive results. Currently, using the technology of monoclonal antibodies, the differential diagnosis of this most dangerous disease in laboratories equipped with the appropriate equipment can be carried out very quickly using the enzyme immunoassay, RTGA, as well as using electron microscopy. Symptoms: the onset of the disease is acute, severe vomiting with mucus, the feces become thin, yellow, then dark red, after 6-24 hours watery diarrhea develops, sometimes with blood; depression, fatigue, fever (not always), refusal to eat, apathy, thirst is characteristic, the puppy often comes up to a bowl of water, drinks greedily, vomiting appears after drinking. Rapid exhaustion and dehydration is observed. A blood test reveals leukopenia. If these symptoms appear, you must urgently call a veterinarian! On the 2-3rd day after the onset of clinical symptoms, the temperature drops to 37.5-38 ° C. Deafness may develop. After parvovirus enteritis in severe form, myocarditis can develop, the mortality rate from which in the fulminant course of the disease reaches 70%, and of the remaining 30%, many then die from acute or chronic heart failure. Mortality from parvovirus enteritis is about 50%, but among puppies it can reach 90%. First aid: in the first two days, the dog should only be given water, and it is preferable to replace the water with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or a solution of rehydron. Make an enema - 100-500 ml of water with the addition of polysorb, which relieves pain. Small puppies can use a syringe for this purpose, and medium and large puppies can use Esmarch's mug. Enemas are best done repeatedly until clean water flows from the anus. Pay attention to the presence of blood in the stool. If vomiting is repeated, do not expect improvement, but contact the nearest veterinary clinic as soon as possible - dehydration in puppies occurs very quickly, and therefore they urgently need the help of a specialist. From medicines: fosprenil - 3-4 times a day / m, then according to the scheme: antibiotics (with parvovirus enteritis, lesions of the intestinal mucosa develop), gamavit 3 times a day for 3-5 days (inclusion of gamavit in the treatment of viral enteritis etiology in puppies allows you to achieve a reduction in the treatment time and almost 100% therapeutic efficacy), lactoferon (to restore normal intestinal microflora), as an antiemetic - metoclopromide, orally or subcutaneously every 6-8 hours. If vomiting is repeated, do not expect improvement, but contact the nearest veterinary clinic as soon as possible. Vitakan is indicated in the initial stages of the disease. Serums and globulins "Vitakan" are injected s / c 3-4 times with an interval of 12-24 hours, depending on the severity of the disease. During the recovery period, vitamin and mineral supplements, for example, SA-37, are recommended. Remember that with parvovirus enteritis, the course of the disease can develop rapidly and the loss of every hour threatens the dog with death. The most effective method of preventing viral enteritis is timely and correct vaccination of an animal with mono- or polyvalent vaccines. Effective is Nobivac DHP, a live vaccine that contains an attenuated vaccine strain of parvovirus C154, domestic vaccines: Dipentavac, Biovac-DRA or RA, etc. HERPES Canine herpesvirus causes an acute infection in newborn puppies, respiratory disease (kennel, cough is also quite rare) abortion and / or stillbirth. The virus is usually transmitted transplacentally. Puppies over 2 weeks of age rarely get sick, but they may develop a characteristic cough. In adult dogs, herpesvirus infection is usually asymptomatic, the virus can go into a latent form, but later (after stress, immunosuppression, glucocorticoid use) can be activated. Symptoms: in puppies 7-10 days of age: lack of appetite, diarrhea, usually yellowish-green in color, whining, chills against the background of normal body temperature, vomiting, drooling, weak nasal discharge, painful abdomen. If untreated, death sometimes occurs within hours or days after the onset of symptoms. In the presence of these symptoms in small puppies, an urgent need to consult a veterinarian. Treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian. Antiviral drug fosprenil is effective (better - in combination with maxidin). To stimulate cellular immunity - immunofan, glycopin. As a supportive and strengthening agent - gamavit. For diarrhea - enemas with polysorb, diarcan. PARAGRIPP Parainfluenza is an acute contagious disease that is caused by the parainfluenza virus of dogs Paramixovirus canis and is accompanied by damage to the mucous membranes and inflammation of the respiratory tract. Antibodies to the parainfluenza virus are often detected not only in sick animals, but also in apparently healthy animals. Symptoms: the disease proceeds in the form of a catarrhal-mucous rhinitis, pharyngitis and tonsillitis, as a rule, without an increase in body temperature, although sometimes there is a short-term rise in body temperature to 40-40.5 ° C. Dry cough is characteristic. Less commonly, tracheitis and bronchitis develop. The general condition of the animals remains satisfactory. Treatment: fosprenil according to the "mild" disease scheme, 0.4% maxidine or immunofan. Bronholitin 2-6 ml 2-3 times a day after meals, gamavit. Warm drink and warm food. Prevention: vaccination with associated vaccines containing parainfluenza antigen, for example, Nobivac DHPPi and others. Used literature: 1. Belov A.D., Danilov E.P. and other Diseases of dogs. 2nd ed. M .: Kolos, 1995 2. Gaskell RM, Bennett M. Handbook of infectious diseases of dogs and cats. M. Aquarium, 1999. 3. Kravchik A.V., Spirin S.V., Sanin A.V. Independent veterinary aid to a dog. Minsk, Halton, 2001, 297 p. 4. Nimand H.G., Suter P.F. M., Aquarium, 2001, 806 p. 5. Sanin A.V., Lipin A.V., Zinchenko E.V. Traditional and non-traditional methods of treating dogs. Veterinary reference book. M., Tsentrpoligraf, 2002, 580 p. 6. Syurin V.N., Samuilenko A.Ya., Soloviev B.V., Fomina N.V. Viral diseases of animals. M., VNITIBP, 1998. 7. B.F. Shulyak. Viral infections of dogs. M., Olita, 2004, 566 p.
A.V. Sanin, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; S.V. Ozherelkov, Doctor of Biol. Sciences, I.K. Vasiliev, veterinarian, scientific. sotr. NIIEM them. N.F. Gamalei RAMS, Moscow
How can you prevent ear infections in dogs?
As with most diseases, prevention is always one of the best ways to avoid it. Proper care of your dog's ears will keep them healthy for a long time. Dry your ears thoroughly after bathing and do not allow water to enter them. The use of special cotton balls is useful enough for this purpose.
Clean the outside of your ear canals regularly, do not use paper towels, as they can leave fibers, causing irritation.
Cotton swabs can be used to clean the wrinkles in your dog's ear flap, but do not use them in the ear canal as it can inadvertently push debris into the canal and trigger an infection.
To find out the true reason why a dog shakes its head and scratches its ear, it is necessary to carefully monitor the daily behavior of the pet, providing it with careful care and providing timely assistance if necessary.
Infected? Put on your mask!
Olga Zakharova, AiF Health: Andrei Alekseevich, at the beginning of spring there is an exacerbation of seasonal SARS and influenza. Do all viral diseases cause cough and why?
Andrey Zaitsev: Yes, in the vast majority of cases, patients complain of coughing. A viral infection of the epithelium of the upper (ARVI) and lower (influenza) respiratory tract leads to the development of inflammation and irritation of the cough receptors.
So, with a "cold", on average, 10-12 hours after infection, there is a runny nose, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and then there is first a dry, and then an unproductive (wet) cough.
On the contrary, influenza infection, in addition to being manifested most often by a sharp rise in body temperature to 38-40 ° C, is also characterized by the appearance of a dry, hacking cough, indicating damage to the epithelium of the trachea and bronchi.
- In the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, people began to shun a person with a cough if he meets him in public. Do viruses really spread faster when you cough, or is this just a stereotype?
- Let's remember the main ways of transmission of a viral infection. Firstly, this is the contact path, i.e. through the hands in contact with secrets containing viral particles from an infected person or through the surrounding objects. The second way is airborne, through a fine aerosol containing viruses. Of course, when an infected person coughs up or sneezes, they are more likely to become infected.
By the way, with rhinovirus infection, infection occurs through the hands more often, while with influenza, the predominant route of infection is airborne. Therefore, an infected person must wear a mask when visiting a doctor or public places.
Rose viral wilting
With viral wilting, the rose bush degenerates. At first, the leaves are deformed: they become narrow and thin, and in the end they are generally filiform. Further, the sprouting of shoots occurs. Buds stop appearing on the bushes, which is one of the clear signs of this disease. A few months after the onset of the disease, the bush dries up.
It is impossible to cure a plant from a virus. At the first signs of viral wilting, it is necessary to completely remove the affected shoot and observe the further state of the rose. If the virus has infected the entire bush, the flower must be dug up with the root system and burned. In no case should you leave the plant, hoping that healthy shoots will go from it. This will only increase the likelihood of infesting neighboring bushes.
A rose with viral wilting does not respond to treatment
Why do potato leaves curl: what to do, how to treat
Often, in summer cottages, growing potatoes begin to curl leaves. So that this situation does not confuse gardeners, you need to know the main reasons. In addition to phytophthora, potatoes can be exposed to various diseases. The use of herbicide preparations is advisable in the fall when preparing land for planting. With the growth of the culture, such drugs cannot be used.
Feline viral infections symptoms and treatment
How the virus is transmitted to cats
Typically, the virus is transmitted to a healthy cat from a sick animal. In addition, a healthy cat can become infected from a person who is simply a carrier. The process of transmission of herpes and calcivirus infections occurs by airborne droplets. Many people believe that a sick cat may pose any danger to them, and especially to children.
Feline viral infections symptoms
In the first few days after infection, it is difficult to determine that your pet is sick, but the incubation period for these viruses is no more than 3 days, so you can notice it very soon. First of all, the animal becomes lethargic and passive.
It often hides from the light and can lie curled up almost all day. The second sign that is necessarily present in these diseases is a deterioration in appetite, up to a complete refusal of food and water.
In this case, a significant increase in temperature occurs, and the eyes in the first week of the disease still remain clean, in most cases. Calcivirosis and herpes in cats are accompanied by ulcers on the nose and mouth. In addition, ulcers and redness may be present in the auricle.
How to treat viral infections in cats
Of course, first of all, rush to the veterinary clinic with the animal. Unfortunately, at the moment, veterinary medicine does not have effective equipment to determine the specific virus that triggered the development of the infection, but in this case, regardless of the name of the virus, the treatment is approximately the same.
The period of treatment for a viral infection of a cat is from 7 days. The veterinarian prescribes complex treatment in such cases. The complex, without fail, includes an antiviral drug (intramuscularly), as well as an immunostimulant and a complex of vitamins at the withers (such as "Gammavit").
In this case, it is imperative to knock down the temperature! Because drugs that stimulate the immune system can harm the cat's body. If you give injections during an elevated temperature. For this, many veterinarians recommend a common "human" medicine. For example, diphenhydramine with analgin. But only the dosages are very small, which the doctor must calculate based on the weight of the animal and its age.
But, despite this, antiviral drugs and other drugs are being developed for cats, taking into account the characteristics of their body. In many diseases, medications designed to treat humans are not only unhealthy for cats! But they can also cause harm, even death.
You do not need to visit a veterinary clinic every day to get the injections. By the way, you can ask your doctor to teach you how to do this. The hardest part about injecting cats is keeping the animal.
Cat food for infection
During the treatment period, the cat does not really want to eat. But she should not be allowed to starve or eat inadequately. On the contrary, during the period of illness, it is very important to strengthen nutrition and enrich it with animal fats and proteins. Due to the fact that viral infections are often accompanied by ulcers on the nose and mouth, you will need to make mashed potatoes for your pet, because they simply cannot eat food of a different consistency due to pain.
It is advisable to boil the meat to such a state that you can make a soft puree with broth from it. You can mix mashed potatoes with egg yolk, or add some vegetables - they are also needed. Take care to bring your cat's temperature down in time, as it is difficult to get the cat to eat at elevated temperatures.
How does a guide dog lead a blind man?
It is generally accepted that pets are color blind, that is, they do not distinguish some colors and their shades. This is only partly true.Cats, like humans, have three groups of opsins (light-sensitive receptors) that recognize red, green and blue colors. All other colors that we see are combinations of these three and their derivatives. However, cats have fewer of these receptors in the retina, so the color palette of the surrounding world seems to them more faded. Depending on the size of the object, this affects its color: the cat will see a tomato or a piece of meat red, and a small berry (currant or cranberry) may seem gray to it.
Dogs have only two groups of opsins, they are sensitive to the blue and red ranges of the spectrum. These animals do not recognize the green color, they see it as a combination of gray-blue tones. “How does a guide dog get a blind person across the road? - you ask. “He’s going to the green traffic light!” Here the fact is that the dog either monitors the switching of the light signal (this is fixed as a conditioned reflex), or is guided by other external factors: the flow of pedestrians, stopped cars, sound.
By the way, most mammals have only two types of visual receptors. And whales have one at all, so they see the world in black and white. This is due to the conditions of the habitat. There is little light in the depths of the sea, there is no time for color diversity. But human ancestors, highly developed primates, might need red opsin in order to distinguish ripe fruits from unripe ones.