Piggy bank of life-giving power
Celery (Apium Graveolens L.) - a biennial vegetable plant of the Celery family (Umbrella), has three varieties: root, leaf and petiolate.
In the first year, the plant forms a root crop (root) or a root (leaf, petiolate) and a powerful rosette of leaves. In the second year, the plant forms a peduncle up to 1 m tall and a small-umbrella inflorescence. Seeds are small, almost round, 1.5-2.0 mm long. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4-0.6 g.
It would seem that this is a plant known to everyone. However, how often do you meet him in Russian gardens? At the same time, it is difficult to imagine French cuisine without this vegetable. And what would a Georgian hodgepodge be without him? Can't you imagine? Here I am too.
In fact, celery is the oldest plant originating from the Mediterranean, the North Caucasus, North Africa, Europe, spread all the way to Sweden. In Russia, it appeared in the 18th century, but never became widespread.
In our country, only the most trained, experienced gardeners grow the root variety of celery, others - leaf. In Europe, root crops are grown (in our grocery stores you can buy root crops from Holland), and more often - leaf and petiole celery. In our country, the petiolate variety of this valuable vegetable is little known, although in the USA, North Africa, India, China, Korea, Japan, this and other varieties are common favorite vegetables. In Russia, celery can be found more often in the fields of suburban farms, near canneries than in vegetable gardens. In the CIS, it is cultivated in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, as well as in the Baltic republics.
There are not many of them, but seeds are available. In the "State Register ... 2004" eight varieties of root celeryI. They are Albin, Diamant, Egor, Esaul, Kornevoy Gribovsky, President of the Republic of Zaporizhia, Yudinka, Apple. In addition to them, you can see the varieties Delikates, Berger White ball, Friga, Appia, Gribovets, Brilliant, Maxim, Monarch on sale. In vegetable farms, and sometimes in the retail network, there are Dutch hybrids and varieties Luna, Triumph, Ilona, Mentor, Pontor and others.
Far less varieties of leaf celery... These are primarily local forms and varieties of Georgia and Transcaucasia such as Kartuli. 2004 "5 new varieties of leaf celery: Athena, Zakhar, Tender, Parus, Samurai.
Petiolate celery varieties we cultivate unreasonably little. True, there are not enough seeds of this variety on sale. There are varieties of Utah, Golden Pen, Pascal, Florida, Malachite. 2004 "There is only one variety - Tango. In vegetable farms, and sometimes in small packaging, there are Dutch varieties Avalon, Bolivar, Daklet, Grinlet, Loret and others. Agricultural engineering.
Celery is a crop that is demanding on soil fertility: the best soils for it are loams, rich in organic matter, loose, deeply cultivated, moist, close to neutral (pH 6.0-7.0). He is not placed with relatives. It is better if the predecessors are cabbage, nightshade, onion, pumpkin crops.
In autumn, it is advisable to cultivate the soil deeply. For digging, a bucket of compost, humus, enriched peat, as well as phosphoric (about 40 g / m² superphosphate) and potassium (20 g / m² potassium chloride) fertilizers are applied per 1 m². Nitrogen is applied in spring (20 g / m² of urea or ammonium nitrate). Celery seeds are difficult to germinate, because they are soaked at room temperature in a solution of boric acid (0.2 g / liter) or in Zircon, Epin, in accordance with the recommendations. Then the seeds are dried and sown.
Root celery is grown only through seedlings, sowing in late February - early March in pots, boxes, special onion, celery cassettes (fine-mesh, deep). The seeds are practically not buried. Cover boxes, pots with foil. Fresh seeds germinate in 8-10 days at a temperature of about 25 ° C.
Old seeds (celery seeds are stored for 3-4 years, but usually in the second year their germination capacity sharply decreases) germinate in 3-4 weeks. After the emergence of seedlings, they are sprinkled with a layer of soil 0.5-1.0 cm. After a week or two, good seeds sprout, on the 30-40th day in a warm, bright place, the seedlings are already at the stage of two true leaves. At this time (mid-April), the crops in boxes are thinned out, leaving seedlings on an area of 5x5 cm.A third of the roots of the extracted seedlings are pinched and dived into pots - 5x5 cm.After that, the plants are watered, you can give them foliar top dressing with water-soluble fertilizers with microelements (Kemira -Lux, Solution) in a half dose. After a week, it is advisable to lower the temperature to 15-20 ° C.
After 60-70 days (May 15-20, after the danger of frost has passed, otherwise the plants will shoot themselves), in the phase of 4-5 true leaves, the seedlings are ready for planting in the ground. Landing scheme: 30x30 cm, 40-60x20 cm, etc. When transplanting, it is advisable to shorten the roots by a third of their length, and the leaves by a quarter. Seedlings are planted so that the apical bud is not buried. Otherwise, you will not get a normal root crop. After 5-10 days (early June) after transplanting, the first root feeding is done with water-soluble complex fertilizers such as Solution, Kemira-Lux, or OMU, liquid organic fertilizers are applied superficially. Every 20 days, another 2-3 dressings are made. The soil is kept moist, free from weeds. Regular loosening of the soil is imperative.
To get large root crops somewhere in the beginning of August, the soil is removed from the plants, freeing the root crop by half. Break out old leaves around its perimeter. Throughout the summer, celery greens are used, breaking out the leaves. Plants of petiolate varieties are spud in early August. Their leaves can be tied with a bank rubber band for money. The bleached leaves are tender and do not have the characteristic harsh celery flavor. Leafy celery is used during the summer and harvested before frost.
Celery harvesting, celery storage
Root celery is harvested as late as possible, but before the onset of frost it is below -5 ...- 7 ° C. Root crops are worse stored after frost. In mid-September, they are dug up, freed from the soil with their hands, the leaves are cut off at an angle, leaving petioles 2-3 cm long without damaging the apical bud. Root crops are dried, placed in perforated plastic bags, or in boxes, dusting with chalk, or covered with dry peat. Some of the root crops are left to winter in the garden, cutting off the leaves.
After the onset of stable frosts, sprinkle with a layer of earth 8-10 cm, peat, sawdust, ground bark, etc. with a layer of 5-10 cm, or covered with a dense covering material such as spunbond. In the spring, fresh greens are obtained on them before shooting.
The dug roots of leafy, petiolate, or non-standard root crops of root celery are planted in pots, wooden or plastic boxes and are alternately placed on the windowsills all winter, expelling fresh herbs. For the same purposes, the July sowing is done, and in the fall, young plants are transplanted and exposed, without cutting, on the windowsill. Thus, the break in the consumption of greens is eliminated.
Useful properties of celery
Celery is the most valuable food product and remedy. Its roots contain 10-20%, in the leaves - 9-18% of dry matter, from 1.8-3.5 to 0.6-1.4%, respectively, of sugars, the most valuable amino acids asparagine, tyrosine, as well as vitamin C, carotene, nicotinic acid, B vitamins, trace elements, essential oils (up to 10 in roots, up to 30 mg /% in leaves). All parts of the plant stimulate the appetite.
Celery preparations are used to regulate the activity of the liver and kidneys, enhance sexual function. They are also used as hypnotics, analgesics, wound healing agents, a remedy for obesity, for the prevention of atherosclerosis, normalization of metabolism, as antiallergic.
Celery juice is used to treat urolithiasis, gastrointestinal diseases, as a remedy for allergies, diathesis, urticaria, etc. It is impossible for a modern person, who increasingly accepts refined food, to ignore the medicinal and dietary qualities of celery.
Celery in cooking
Since the 15th century, it has been widely used in cooking in Europe, both fresh and processed. In our country, it is still little grown and consumed, although there are quite a few varieties, seeds are available. The reason, in my opinion, is ignorance of the beneficial properties of this plant, agricultural technology, processing methods, and culinary recipes. The point is also in the mentality of Russians. For example, I even had to teach my relatives, friends and acquaintances to consume celery (as well as coriander, basil, etc.) by secretly adding it to salads.
Celery can be used as a gingerbread plant for preparing aromatic seasonings for salads, side dishes, soups, as a green edible table decoration.
Separate dishes are prepared from petioles and root vegetables: stewed celery with vegetables, baked celery.
Celery cutlets are prepared from a mixture of oatmeal and root vegetables.
It goes well with apples, especially sour ones, carrots, pineapples and in salads and stewed.
Celery salads can be mixed with potatoes and tomatoes, carrots and beans, green peas, corn, fruits, any herbs, meat, fish, etc.
Celery is used in the preparation of pickles and canned food.
Leaves and roots are salted, canned, dried, made special dressings and added to soups and main courses in winter.
Petiole celery, finely chopped, pickled.
Celery can be harvested for future use to feast on delicious vitamin soups in winter. To do this, fresh celery is frozen in the freezer or, cut into one centimeter thin slices along with the roots, dried in the shade in a ventilated room.
Finely chop the herbs and roots of celery, parsley, carrots, leeks. Mix all components in one part (by weight) and 1 part of salt, put in jars, seal with plastic lids and store in the refrigerator until use.
Pickled celery root
Peel fresh, ripe celery, wash thoroughly and cut into cubes. Dip the chopped celery into boiling salted water for 2-3 minutes (30 g of salt and 3 g of citric acid per 1 liter of water). Then immediately transfer to cold water, remove, let the water drain and fill the jars with celery up to the shoulders. Pour in hot marinade and pasteurize at 95 ° C: half-liter jars - 20 minutes, liter jars - 25 minutes.
Celery (root), water - 4 cups, 9% vinegar - 1 cup, cloves - 3-4 buds.
Pickled celery leaves
Wash fresh healthy celery leaves thoroughly. Put garlic cloves and bay leaves at the bottom of the jars, and then the prepared celery leaves. Pour in hot marinade and sterilize in boiling water for 20-25 minutes.
Celery (leaves), water - 4 cups, 9% vinegar - 1 cup, salt - 40-80 g, sugar - 40-100 g. Per liter jar: garlic - 2-4 cloves, bay leaf - 2 pcs.
Canned petiole celery
Washed petioles blanch for 3-5 minutes. Spices (pepper, bay leaf, cinnamon) are placed on the bottom of the prepared jars, the petioles are placed there, poured with hot marinade and sterilized in boiling water (half-liter jars - 5 minutes).
For a half-liter jar, take 300-320 g of petioles, for the preparation of 1 liter of marinade, 50 g of sugar, 40 g of salt, 8 g of ice-cold 96% acetic acid are consumed.
Dried garlic with celery
The seasoning can be used to dress borscht, cabbage soup, vegetable soups.
Dry garlic - 1 part, celery (dry herbs) - 1 part.
General Director of Poisk-Petersburg LLC,
candidate of agricultural sciences
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Celery seeds germinate for a long time, and the plant itself develops slowly. Even in early maturing varieties, the period for cutting greens occurs, at best, 2.5 months after germination. To shorten outdoor growing times (or to get an early harvest), celery is grown through seedlings. The best time for sowing seeds is late February or early March.
Video: growing celery
Seed and soil preparation
Celery seeds intended for sowing are soaked in water at room temperature for 2-3 days. Before soaking, it is advisable to pickle them in a strong solution of potassium permanganate:
- The seeds are wrapped in a cotton napkin, placed on a saucer and poured over with a solution.
- Then the napkin is washed in clean water and left in a wet state for several days.
- It is advisable to cover the saucer with a plastic bag so that the water does not evaporate.
When soaking seeds, it is important to prevent moisture evaporation, so it is better to cover the container with polyethylene
Before sowing, the seeds must be well dried. For convenience, they are mixed with dry river sand.
You can prepare the soil yourself or buy ready-made soil for seedlings. It is important to consider that celery does not like an acidified environment, and the finished soil, most often, contains peat, that is, an acidic component. Therefore, it is advisable to add a deoxidizer to both the store and to the mixture of your own preparation - dolomite flour or ash in an amount of 20-30 g per 1 kg. When self-preparing the soil for 3 parts of garden soil, take 1 part of compost and sand, add 0.5 parts of vermiculite or coconut substrate - for friability.
You can sow celery seeds for seedlings in any plastic containers. It is important not to forget to make drainage holes in the bottom of the container so that excess water does not accumulate and sour.
Step-by-step process of sowing seeds:
- Fill the container with prepared soil.
- Sow seeds mixed with sand in rows at a distance of 5–6 cm from each other.
- Sprinkle them with a thin layer of soil and spray with water from a spray bottle.
- Cover the container with a plastic bag and place in a warm, bright place.
After 2-3 weeks, the first shoots will appear, and the bag can be removed. To prevent the seedlings from stretching, they are rearranged to a cooler place (with a temperature not higher than 18–20 o C). Growing plants must be sprayed on time, preventing the soil from drying out.
After the emergence of shoots, the containers are rearranged in a bright cool place.
Root celery - "saving from ailments, adding strength"
The ancient Greeks believed that celery is a lunar plant that is the source of a drink that kindles love. A magic drink with celery juice was drunk by Tristan and Isolde, whose love is captured in legends. Wild forms of celery grow on the Mediterranean coast. They became the basis for the breeding by the Greeks of the first cultivated forms of this plant, which belonged to two groups at once - spicy-flavoring and vegetable crops. He came to Russia during the time of Catherine II and today there is no such courtyard where at least one of the types of celery is grown in the garden: leaf, petiole or root.
Celery root. © Juris Epicurus
Root celery varieties: Russian size (weight up to 1.5 kg), Esaul, Prague giant (up to 800 g), Egor, Anita (the pulp does not darken during heat treatment), Albin, Diamant, Maxim, Yudinka, Makar, Royal Night.
It is better to choose petiolate varieties of "self-bleaching" varieties.
Fig. 4. Most often these are varieties of foreign breeders. Photo irusik322.
The varieties of turf that grow in my garden
The first one is well known to many dogwood, or male (Cornus mas).A tree or shrub that is one of the first to bloom. The branches are literally covered with bright yellow flowers, which looks decorative and fresh in early spring.
Of course, we value dogwood, first of all, for the berries that ripen in autumn. There are many varieties - with large, small, oblong, pear-shaped and even yellow fruits. They are of interest to both culinary specialists and traditional medicine.
Believe it or not, if you eat a certain amount of dogwood fruits together with seeds during the season, you can get rid of such a scourge as hemorrhoids for a long time.
In autumn, the leaves of the red turf (Cornus sanguinea) turn red, and black peas of berries hang on the branches. © flamedance
I just dug my second dogwood with a small sapling in the local forest belt, most likely it is dogwood red (Cornus sanguinea) ... What is it for me? It is a shrub with a very dense crown, capable of growing up to four meters in height and width. A magnificent screen that hides the neighbor's toilet.
At the same time, in autumn, its leaves turn blood-red, and black peas of berries hang on the branches. Lovely, not a bush! It is absolutely unpretentious and tolerates shade well, because it grows in the forest under the cover of tall trees.
White dogwood (Cornus alba) ‘Sibirica Variegata’ in the center and ‘Aurea Elegantissima’ dogwood on the sides. © lacroixx
The third is my favorite - dogwood white (Cornus alba), sort ‘Sibirica variegata‘. Everything is fine here! A spreading shrub that can grow up to 2 m tall. In summer, light green leaves with a wide white border and pattern turn red noticeably by autumn. And throughout the winter - bright red (coral) colored twigs of young shoots.
Dogwood ‘Aurea Elegantissima’
My fourth dog is very similar to him, this is a grade ‘Aurea elegantissima‘. But he has a white edging and stains on the leaves changed to yellow, this, as they say, is a yellow-variegated form.
Well, and a recent acquisition - dogwood offspring (Cornus sericea), sort ‘Flaviramea '... Its peculiarity is in bright green leaves in summer, which acquire a beautiful red hue in autumn, and, of course, in young shoots of bright yellow, actually lemon color.
If the first two varieties (common dogwood and red dogwood) carry a purely functional load in my garden, cover and feed (cure), then the last three perform an aesthetic task - pleasing my eyes. This is worth talking about in more detail.
I have two more turfs in my plans, this is luxuriously blooming dogwood kousa (Cornus kousa) and dogwood red grade ‘Midwinter fire‘. The shoots of the latter, indeed, like fire, change color from yellow at the bottom to bright red at the tips.
The 'Aurea Elegantissima' turf has yellow edging and streaks on the leaves. © Baumschule Horstmann One of the features of the ‘Flaviramea’ scrub turf is that young shoots are bright yellow, actually lemon in color. © Plantaholic Sheila Luxuriously blooming kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa). © Liliana Puyo
These varieties do not have a massive root crop or thick petioles. Their value is in the vitamin-rich, fragrant leaves saturated with volatile oils. The leaves are constantly renewing - from spring to autumn. Read more about leaf celery here.
Mid-season Georgian variety. Leaf rosette of medium size, semi-spreading. The color of the leaves is rich dark green. Leaves with a strong spicy aroma. The ripening period is 60-70 days. Consumed fresh and processed. Leaves are dried in shaded places so that essential oils do not evaporate in the sun. Fresh leaves can also be stored in the freezer.
Standard care - loosening, watering and feeding. Harvest - 3 kg / sq. m. High resistance to diseases and shooting. Sowing in the ground in the month of May. The planting depth is up to 1.5 cm. A wide-row planting method is used - a row spacing of 60 cm is left. The interval between plants is 10-15 cm. The crop is harvested in mid-July, when the leaves are massively ripening. After 30 days - cut again. The leaves are cut for the last time in mid-October.
From the mid-season category. The foliage has an intense, spicy aroma. It takes 70 days from germination to harvest. The plant has a powerful rosette with strongly dissected smooth leaves. Over the summer, the cut is carried out several times. Leaves are universal - eaten fresh and processed, dried, frozen.
The variety is resistant to drought and cold. Productivity - 2.4 kg / sq. m. One plant weighs approximately 0.2-0.3 kg. Seeds for seedlings are sown in March, in the second half. The seeds are deepened by 0.3-0.5 cm. The seedlings are planted - 40x50 cm. It needs generous watering. During the season, the plant is fed 3-4 times.
From the mid-season group of varieties. The foliage is ready in 90 days from the moment of germination. Rosette with half-raised foliage. It differs in the narrowness of the petioles, their length is medium. Excellent taste and high aroma. Cut leaves grow back quickly. Consumed fresh, canned, used in cooking.
High yield - 2.4 kg / sq. m. Grown by sowing in the ground. The seeds are buried by 0.5 cm. They are sown according to the scheme: 25 × 10 cm. After forcing the leaves, the seedlings break through. 30 days after the appearance of the first leaves, the planting is "flavored" with table salt - 2-3 g per 1 sq. m.
From the mid-season category of varieties. Possesses high productivity. Vegetation - 100 days. Lots of side shoots. Leaves are dark green, slightly glossy, medium length. High aromaticity. Used fresh and dried.
Productivity at "Nezhny" is 3.2-3.5 kg / sq. m. Differs in the accelerated growth of greenery after each harvest. Sowing - directly into unprotected soil. A necessary measure is to thin out the plantings in time. The maximum depth of seeds is 0.5 cm. The seeding pattern is 25x10 cm.
Mid-season variety with high cold resistance. It takes about 80 days from germination to cutting. The height of the rosette is up to 65 cm. One plant weighs 0.65 kg. The leaves have a spicy aroma and good taste. Eaten fresh and dried.
3.8-4.0 kg / sq. Are removed from one square meter. m. Seeds are sown for seedlings, deepening by 1 cm. Seedlings are thinned out in the phase of 2-3 true leaves. The crop is cut several times per season, each time fertilizing the plants. If you sow seeds at the end of October, then super-early greens are provided.
From mid-season varieties. Ready in 80 days. The foliage is green, medium glossy. The petioles are long, hollow, slightly curved, with a weak vein relief. Good taste and aroma. Used fresh and dried.
The yield of greens is 3.3-4.9 kg. Color resistance. Growing - seedlings and direct sowing into the ground. The sowing scheme for growing in open ground is 25x10 cm. Greens retain their presentation for a long time.
The exactingness of celery to care is more than offset by high yields. By planting this crop in your personal plot, you will enrich your table with a valuable vitamin vegetable. Celery growing can also become a profitable business - its agricultural technology is simple and affordable even for novice farmers and gardeners.
Growing and care
Astrantia belongs to the plants naturally occurring in our country, so it does not cause serious problems when growing. These are flowers pollinated by insects, mainly beetles.
Care activities include:
- Watering is necessary. The plant will be grateful for mulching the soil with peat or bark, which will reduce the evaporation of water, the development of weeds.
- Top dressing. Young Astrantia at the initial stage of growth should be fed with complex fertilizers in small doses, later the amount of fertilizers is increased. Too high doses of nitrogen cause a lightening of the color of the flower. Fertilization of Astrantia with nitrogen-containing preparations should be completed no later than mid-July.
- Pruning... After flowering, the plants need to be pruned close to the ground, then they will not lose their beauty and create new, fresh leaves. If you need to get seeds, flowers are left.
- Removal of faded inflorescences... When growing astrantia, it is worth remembering that the plant loves to produce abundant self-seeding, so it can become invasive under favorable conditions. To avoid its uncontrolled spread throughout the garden, you need to cut off the flowering inflorescences before the seeds are tied. This will help to reduce self-seeding and will promote the resumption of flowering in the second half of summer.
- Wintering. Astrantia in our climate is quite frost-resistant, therefore it does not require winter shelter, except for young plants, which need to be covered with branches in the first winter.
- Diseases, pests. The plant rarely becomes a victim of diseases and pests, so it does not need chemical protection.