Aspen, which is part of the Willow family, is very widespread in Russia, like poplar. Both aspen and poplar are distinguished by their vitality. They easily and quickly conquer all new territories, while getting rid of them is very problematic.
The aspen tree has a columnar trunk of regular shape, the diameter of which can reach 100 centimeters, and the height - up to 35 meters. The root system penetrates deep into the soil and forms many suckers. As a result, a whole aspen forest is formed very quickly near one tree.
While the plant is young, its bark is smooth and pale green. But over time, it becomes darker and cracks appear on it. However, in some cases, the bark, on the contrary, becomes lighter, almost white, which is why the tree can be confused with birch. Light, almost white, wood has a slight greenish tint. The average life span of an aspen is from 80 to 100 years. There are specimens that live up to 150-180 years. The annual growth of such a plant is from 20 to 40 centimeters.
The branches are decorated with alternately arranged foliage. The length of diamond-shaped or rounded foliage can vary from 30 to 70 mm. The leaf plate has a rounded base and a blunt or pointed top. The venation of the leaves is pinnate. As a rule, the foliage on the growth is longer (about 15 centimeters) and often has a heart-shaped shape. The petioles have a special shape due to which the foliage vibrates even from a slight breath of breeze. As a result, the effect of trembling of the crown appears, in connection with which this tree in the botanical classification is called "poplar trembling" (Populus tremula). In autumn, the foliage turns reddish-golden.
This tree belongs to dioecious. Its flowering is observed at the beginning of spring. At this time, very small, unattractive flowers are formed, which are part of drooping long inflorescences shaped like earrings. During flowering, aspen looks very impressive. There are no leaves on the branches yet, but they are decorated with inflorescences. Red male inflorescences reach about 15 centimeters in length, and female ones are thinner and are painted in a pale green hue. If pollination occurs, then in place of the flowers, very small bolls are formed, inside which seeds with puffs ripen. They are easily picked up by a gust of wind.
A characteristic feature of such a tree is the autumn branch fall. Being in a place where there are a large number of adult aspens, you can easily find many small branches on the ground. Live buds are located on such branches, but there is a scar in the area of the fracture. The fact is that the tree itself is freed from the excess crown.
OSINA (School of Herbal Science)
What is the difference between aspen and poplar
If necessary, it is quite possible to distinguish an aspen from a poplar by certain characteristics, for example:
- At the beginning of the autumn period, aspen and poplar are plucked on a branch with buds that have not yet matured. Their lower part must be immersed in water in a glass. Poplar will be the first to grow and open its sticky leaf plates. The aspen twig will start growing later, while its foliage does not have such a noticeable shine.
- The first aspen blooms, and the poplar - a little later. At the same time, a large amount of fluff will form only on the branches from the poplar.
- In poplar, leaf petioles are short, and in aspen, they are longer, and they can be easily tied into a knot.
- Poplar twigs are distinguished by their elasticity, which is why they are extremely difficult to break. Aspen branches are more fragile, and it will not be difficult to break them.
- The foliage of these trees has a lot of similarities. However, the shape of the poplar leaf plates is more elongated and more sharpened at the top.
How to distinguish aspen from birch by bark (school of herbalism - answers to questions
Aspen is most widely distributed in the wild in the forest-steppe, and also on the border between the forest zone and the tundra. Most often, this tree is found on the edges of the forest, in swampy and mountainous areas, along the banks of reservoirs, in ravines, and it can also be found even at the uppermost border of the forest zone. In the wild, this plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, but it grows best in areas with moist soil. However, aspen does not die in the arid steppe either. Only an acute lack of light can destroy the tree, which leads to the rapid withering of its crown.
Aspen easily gets along with a variety of nearby trees. It can be both deciduous and coniferous species. One aspen growing in the steppe zone can form a colony of root shoots in a relatively short time. In this case, the shoots can be located at a distance of 30–40 meters from the parent tree. Aspen groves are not afraid of fires, because the roots that have remained deep in the soil form young plants with the onset of the autumn period. Their annual growth in height can reach 100 cm.
In the southern regions, where there is a lot of moisture and light, aspen competes with other species that are characterized by slow growth (conifers and oak). Most often, dense aspen groves can be found in those territories where industrial deforestation took place. In this regard, the planting of replacement species is recommended to be carried out as quickly as possible, which prevents the uncontrolled spread of aspen.
Aspen has become widespread in the temperate climatic zone from China to Europe. It can be found in Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Korea, and it also grows in almost every region of Russia. At the same time, aspen was listed in the Red Book in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.
It takes only a few days for a sprout to appear from an aspen seed. However, most of the seeds, after falling out of the capsules, soon die. In this regard, only fresh seeds that have fallen into the nutrient soil this summer can germinate and form strong seedlings. In order for the seeds to hatch accurately, they need high humidity (rain) and bare soil. And since in the forest the surface of the earth is always covered with loose leaves and dried grass, seed germination is observed quite rarely.
It does not matter where the aspen will grow, in the steppe or in the forest, you can always see a large number of low young growth around it. If you dig a deep hole near a young aspen, you can find a powerful root that extends from the mother tree almost horizontally. Such a plant forms abundant shoots, because on each root from 10 shoots are formed, which are located at a decent distance from each other. In the wild, aspen propagates with seeds very rarely, mainly only by root shoots.
Application and meaning of aspen
In the forest zone, both beavers and elks willingly feast on aspen foliage and its young branches. Often, rot is formed inside its trunk in the core, in which, as a rule, a variety of pests live. They are then used by woodpeckers as food. If necessary, a woodpecker can gouge a hollow in the trunk of an aspen, where he then lives. Old tree hollows can be used by various forest inhabitants to equip their nest, for example: starlings, bats, owls and tits.
The opening of aspen flowers is observed in April. They attract a large number of bees. The fact is that a large amount of pollen is formed on the inflorescences, which is processed into bee bread. Also, bees collect glue from the expanding buds, which they use to produce propolis.
In ancient times in Russia, such a tree was widely used in everyday life. Its wood was appreciated for the fact that it did not swell and rot in dampness, therefore it was often used for the manufacture of well log cabins, cellar walls and various outbuildings. Lumps were used to make matches and wood chips. The bark was used to isolate tannins, and also to obtain tar and vinegar. The ash remaining from the burnt bark was used to color the canvas, while the wood was used to obtain green and yellow colors.
Aspen wood lends itself well to carpentry, while the lumber practically does not crack and splits easily. Products made from it are resistant to abrasion. Also, high-strength shavings are obtained from aspen, characterized by excellent flexibility, which are used for a wide variety of weaving. The hardness of such a tree is 1.86 Brinell, and the density is about 490 kg / m3... Aspen is also used for preparing firewood, while it is valued in the same way as oak or birch. Its calorific value is approximately 1700 kcal / m3.
Traditional Khokhloma products are dishes made from aspen wood. It was also used to make flat planks, which were used to create the outer cladding of residential buildings and church domes. If untreated aspen wood will be outdoors for only 2 or 3 years, then this time will be enough for it to acquire a pale bluish tint naturally. In addition, such a tree is used to obtain cellulose, plastic, methyl alcohol, viscose fiber, plywood, acetone, etc.
Aspen. Useful properties of aspen bark.
Application in landscape design
In urban conditions, aspen is usually used for landscaping squares and parks. The seedlings of such a tree are fast-growing and viable. And such a culture is also appreciated for the fact that with the onset of autumn, its foliage is painted in a spectacular red hue. In nurseries, you can find aspen seedlings of decorative forms, for example, the crown can be weeping or pyramidal.
In forest-park zones, aspen not only decorates them, but also increases the fertility of the soil, thanks to the rotting of foliage that has flown around in autumn. Not far from such a tree, the soil is nutritious and loose. In this regard, boletus boletus can often be found under it. Aspen foliage is used to make compost, which is used to fertilize the soil of the garden, vegetable garden and flower garden.
A well-developed root system is formed around one plant, which forms a "circle" in diameter reaching about 40 meters. It firmly holds the soil, preventing it from spreading, while over the years its size increases due to actively growing young aspen trees. Thanks to this, the plant is widely used to strengthen the banks of rivers, ravines and lakes. Aspen grows well near any fresh water reservoir.
The crown of the aspen is quite lush, but at the same time, the foliage allows such an amount of sunlight to pass through, which allows you to grow various low-growing plants near the tree, for example: roses, barberries, rose hips, currants, etc. In the city, aspen alleys are distinguished by a high dust and noise protection ability, therefore they are surrounded by sleeping areas, recreational areas and parks. The crown of an adult aspen reaches the level of the eighth floor in a standard high-rise.
Since young trees are characterized by relatively fast growth (about 100 cm per year), it takes quite a bit of time to plant greenery in squares and parks. Aspen is also distinguished by its high frost resistance. All this favorably distinguishes it against the background of demanding conifers, which are characterized by slow growth and have a rather dense crown. Aspen is planted both in groups and singly. It is also used to form hedges.
Alder (Alnus) is a deciduous tree or shrub belonging to the Birch family. Grows in the forest belt of temperate climatic latitudes. A large concentration of wild plantings of alder trees is located in the northern regions, however, some of the species forms also grow in the territory of South American and Asian countries.
The alder tree prefers to inhabit mixed forests, where moist nutrient substrate predominates. Safely neighbors with oaks, beech. In scientific sources, the plant is designated "Alnus", and translated - "near the coast." It is not for nothing that many species of alder grow along the shores of various reservoirs. The popular names of alder are "leshinnik", "olekh" and "elshina". The tree is highly valued for wood and has a number of medicinal properties. The cultivated species of this representative of the Berezovs will be an excellent addition to other inhabitants of the garden. Alder has found application in the woodworking industry and folk medicine.
Description of the plant
Viburnum red (lat.Viburnum opulus) is a deciduous shrub, less often a tree belonging to the genus Kalina (Viburnum) of the Adox family. The most popular cultivar is Viburnum opulus f. roseum L known as Boule de Neige. The name Roseum appeared several decades ago. Previously, this variety was called in French: Boule de Neige. It is a special variety, planted exclusively for decoration in palace gardens since the 17th century.
On the basis of buldenezh, other decorative flowering varieties have also been bred.
- Boule de Neige (translated from French - snow globe).
- Double viburnum.
The main characteristics of the variety
|Height||Reaches 3-4 m. Buldenezh is growing rapidly. It tolerates cropping well, so its size is easy to adjust.|
|Flowers||White, gathered in globular inflorescences, like pompons, reminiscent of hydrangea inflorescences. The diameter of the inflorescence is about 10 cm. The flower buds are green at first. As it blooms, the flowers gradually turn white. The faded flowers change color to light pink.|
|Fruit||None. The flowers are sterile, the bulldog never bears fruit.|
|Leaves||In summer, light green with coarse blotches. In autumn, viburnum leaves acquire a decorative red-pink color.|
|Frost resistance||Buldenezh endures long-term frosts down to -30-35 ° C|
|Sustainability||Resistant to urban conditions, exhaust gases, dust, shade tolerant.|
|Application||They are planted singly in open places, near a fence, on the banks of ponds. Buldenezh used to be planted in villages, in courtyards - always from the facades of houses, usually in front gardens. Traditionally planted near street fences|
Photo. Buldenezh in full bloom
Aspen care is not at all problematic and consists only in regular moistening of the soil for seedlings and young trees (up to 4 years old). Fertilize aspen only when planting and transplanting, mullein (1 kg per 20 liters of water) and superphosphate (20 grams per 20 liters of water). An adult tree does not need to be fertilized. Thanks to its powerful, widely spread root system, the aspen will find water and food for itself))
Trees that are more than 50 years old are usually cut down to avoid falling from strong winds. But young growth quickly forms around the stumps, from which a new hedge or aspen grove can be formed.
Possible tree diseases and treatments
If the thuja brabant is not properly looked after, the tree is susceptible to attacks by pests and diseases. Let's start with the latter and tell you what they are fraught with.
Thuja western brabant diseases:
With this fungal disease, the root system of the tree is completely destroyed. The needles turn gray and wither, and the trunk rots at the base. All this can happen with thuja as a result of lack of drainage. As a result, water stagnates at the roots of the tree. It will no longer be possible to save the affected plant. Such a thuja should be dug out, and an earthen lump should be replaced at the place of its planting. The only salvation from late blight can be prevention. Periodically, the brabant should be watered with fungicides.
If in early spring you see yellowed scales on your thuja, this may be a sign of another disease - a brown fungus. The cause of the disease is the lack of minerals in the soil. Simply put, you were “giving” the tree less fertilizer than it needed. An urgent need to take action, otherwise the plant will die. First, cut off any affected shoots. After that, do not forget to feed the thuja with fertilizers, and also spray the plant with a 2% solution of Fundozol every 2 weeks.
Most often, this fungus affects young thuja. The needles darken, and then completely fall off. To avoid such consequences, every spring you need to treat the thuja brabant with "Bordeaux liquid". If you forgot to do this, and the tree began to fade, treat it with Fundozol.
Often, the result of a wilted plant species is an attack of parasites. Your evergreen tree can be attacked by:
- Thuya false shield
It is very easy to recognize it - yellow-brown "ulcers" appear on the bark of the tree. Gradually, this insect spreads throughout the trunk and eats away at the bark. If you notice signs of a parasite on your thuja brabant, act immediately. First, try to get rid of the pest mechanically. Just scrape off the scabs with a knife or brush. Then treat the plant with insecticides. There is also a folk remedy - a soap-alcohol solution.
- Thuvaya speckled moth
This small butterfly affects the thuja needles, it begins to turn brown. Insects gnaw through passages in scales. At the same time, the tops of the shoots of the tree die off. If you notice these signs of illness on a thuja, treat the tree with pyrethroids.
These small insects are covered in gray dust. They live in colonies and suck all the juices from the tree. To get rid of the pest, spray the tree with Corbafos.
This pest gnaws through the bark of a tree and lays eggs under it. A bast beetle can destroy your tree in a month. How to deal with it, gardeners do not know. It is only known about preventive measures - this is treatment with insecticides.