In the dacha economy, something always needs to be built, attached, repaired, or you just need a board. This means that there should be lumber at hand. How to choose them correctly will be discussed. And so that my advice does not look just like a listing of wood defects, I will give an example from life.
Board chalkboard discord
When my good friend, summer resident Alexander Rykov, and I arrived at the timber trade base, the seller, having found out what boards we needed, took us to a small package of boards and began to praise the goods:
“Just look at these wonderful boards,” he called, “one to one, it’s better. Only for you! Drive the car, we will load it in no time!
Probably, fascinated by such convincing eloquence, my companion reached into his pocket for money to pay off, but I stopped him:
- Wait, Sasha. Top boards are really excellent, but let's see what's inside this bag just in case.
- You will ruin the boards, and then I have to collect them again, - the seller said displeasedly.
“We will definitely buy boards,” I assured him. - But first we want to make sure that everything is as you tell us.
For some reason, the seller shook his head reproachfully, but said nothing. And we, without delay, proceeded to inspect the package.
And what? .. Of the sixty boards, nine were not the ones declared. Among them there were unedged boards, boards with wane (wane - the edge of a board, partially or completely remaining uncut (with bark); boards with rotten places. And even a slab! I knew that slabs on sawmills are often simply burned.
It is clear that, having hidden among the standard boards non-standard, which means much cheaper, the seller undoubtedly hoped that, having actually bought a "pig in a poke", we, like many others, having found defective boards at home, would curse, but of course, we won't take them back to the timber trade base. Like, is it necessary to breed a gimp because of several boards? And even with an unpredictable result? Because it's good if everything goes quietly and peacefully. But it is not at all excluded that the seller, in response to the claims, will make an innocent face and declare that they, they say, have never had anything like this. And what, they say, how does he know that you have not changed the boards? And it is quite reasonable to advise: "You should have looked at it right away. And after the fight, they don't wave their fists." And he will be right.
Therefore, I am sure: most summer residents would not get involved with deceivers of this kind. However, in our case, the seller miscalculated ...
- Do you have a conscience if you slip defective boards for the price of high-quality boards? - I asked the seller, pointing at the obviously substandard boards.
- I have everything except conscience and money, - he grinned and added with hostility: - My task is to sell the goods. And if you don’t like it, don’t take it ...
These words are the essence of today's trade: to deceive the buyer in any way. And therefore, in order not to get into a mess when choosing lumber, you need to arm yourself with knowledge. What I propose to do ...
Of course, Rykov and I bought the boards. But at our insistent demand, the seller, although very reluctant, nevertheless replaced not only the defective boards, but also those that seemed suspicious to us.
“This is the first time I have met such caustic clients,” he complained and, after a pause, concluded: “It's good that not everyone is like that.
How to choose round timber on a sawmill
Having bought logs in the forestry or from a private trader, before using them in business, be sure to carefully examine them. Always remember that by putting logs with defects in a log house or using for another purpose, you will inevitably create problems for yourself in the future. After all, such logs will last a much shorter period than others, and therefore they must be replaced. And this is not even an easy job. So, let's check ...
First tap each log with the butt of an ax. Healthy wood will respond with a booming sound, while those affected by insects or rot will sound deaf.
Then tackle the locations of the slices. One of the most common defects in logs is cracks. They are subdivided into metic, shallow and shrinkage cracks.
Metik (Figure 1) are radially directed internal cracks extending from the core. Such cracks are long in length, occur in a growing tree and grow in felled wood as it dries. There are good cracks in the logs only at the ends.
Stunning cracks (Figure 2) pass between annual rings and are, as a rule, of great length. These cracks, like methic ones, occur in the growing tree and enlarge in the felled wood as it dries.
Shrinkage cracks (Figure 3) are radially directed cracks that appear in felled wood under the action of internal forces during the drying process. All types of cracks, especially through cracks, severely violate the integrity of timber, and often reduce their mechanical strength.
Hence the conclusion - do not store logs (there is no need to talk about boards: this goes without saying) under the open sky. It is easy to understand that in this case precipitation falls on the logs - the wood is saturated with moisture, then dries up. Moreover, the logs dry out unevenly in different directions, and therefore cracks are formed. A similar phenomenon often occurs in logging and sawmills. Another fairly common defect in logs is roll (Figure 4). The roll can be seen at the ends in the form of arcuate, less often - annular sections of dark-colored wood. The roll increases the shrinkage along the grain, thereby causing cracking and warping.
Even when choosing logs, one should take into account such an important circumstance as damage to them by insects. They damage mainly unrooted freshly cut trees. Some of them make moves only in the bark (Figure 5), while many others go deeper into the wood (Figure 6). Both deep and superficial wormholes compromise the integrity of the wood and significantly reduce its strength and durability.
There are a few more defects of timber, but when using logs in a summer cottage, they are not significant, so it is not at all necessary to know them.
3. A quarter.
4. Two-edged bar.
5. Four-edged timber - a) Wrap.
6. Clean timber.
7. Semi-edged board - a) Wrap.
8. Edged board.
If you need lumber
I will not list all types of materials (Figure 7), but I will only talk about those that are mainly used by summer residents.
Naturally, the most popular material is boards. It is here that when buying them one should, as folk wisdom advises, "keep your ears open." You can easily miss here.
(The ending follows)
Alexander Nosov, shabashnik with many years of experience