Plant miscanthus (Latin Miscanthus), or fan, is a close relative of sugar cane and belongs to the genus of herbaceous perennials of the Bluegrass family (Cereals), common in the subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Australia and Africa. There are about 40 plant species in the genus.
In culture, miscanthus grass is one of the most popular ornamental grains. Miscanthus in landscape design is used to decorate ponds, lawns, as well as to create dry floristic compositions.
Planting and caring for miscanthus
- Landing: from late March to mid-May.
- Bloom: in the second half of summer.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: wet, fertile, near the reservoir. Miscanthus grows poorly on heavy clay and sand.
- Watering: regularly and abundantly, you can use a hose.
- Top dressing: regular and moderate, three times per season, starting from the second year: in mid-May - with urea solution, in the first half of summer - with humates, in the second - with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seeds, but more often by dividing the bush in the spring.
- Pests and diseases: the plant is extremely resistant to both diseases and pests.
Read more about growing miscanthus below.
Miscanthus flower is a perennial from 80 cm to 2 m in height with creeping rhizomes, which in search of food can reach a depth of 6 m, erect shoots, scaly leathery leaves 5 to 18 mm wide and fan-shaped panicles 10 to 30 cm long, consisting of spikelets ... Miscanthus is unpretentious, hardy and environmentally friendly, it is of interest not only for its decorative effect, but also as a fuel for power plants, since during its combustion a large amount of energy is released while forming a minimum amount of ash due to the low moisture content of the raw material.
When to plant
Planting miscanthus is carried out in the spring, when the soil warms up - from late March to mid-May. Miscanthuses are thermophilic, so they should be planted in well-lit and sun-warmed areas, protected from the cold wind. But even more than warmth, Miscanthuses love water, which is why they prefer moist, fertile coastal areas. The quality of the soil for miscanthus is not very important, but they grow worst of all on sands and heavy clays.
How to plant
If you decide to grow miscanthus on the plot, buy adult seedlings: this plant has a very long growing season, since the thermophilic miscanthus starts growing only when the air temperature reaches 25 ºC, so the young seedling simply will not have time to settle down and get stronger before the onset of cold weather.
An adult seedling has a greater margin of safety, and with good shelter it can painlessly survive even a cold winter. A layer of fertile soil is placed in the planting hole, which should be slightly larger in volume than the root system of the seedling, then the seedling is lowered into it and the voids are filled with earth, gradually tamping it. After planting, miscanthus is watered abundantly.
Caring for miscanthus in the garden
Plant lovers argue that there is no worse spectacle than drying up miscanthus, so do not forget to water it, especially during hot dry seasons. It is best to use a hose to water the miscanthus - the more abundant, the better. The cultivation of miscanthus also involves regular but moderate feeding, since an excess of nitrogen, for example, leads to lodging of the plant.
In the first year, miscanthus is not fed, and then fertilizers are applied twice a season: in mid-May, liquid fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, for example, a urea solution, will be required. In the first half of summer, the site is watered with humates, and in the second, potash-phosphorus fertilizers are applied. When starting to grow miscanthus, tune in to constant weed control, at least in the first two years of the plant's life. Then, when it gets stronger and grows, the weeds will no longer break through the intensively spreading roots of miscanthus. But, thanks to the roots of the plant, you do not have to loosen the soil on the site.
By the way, the growth of miscanthus in the garden will have to be limited, otherwise you, besides this picturesque reed, will not be able to grow anything else. This is done immediately after planting: the limits in which the plant should remain are outlined with a limiter. You can use pieces of iron or slate as a limiter. They need to be dug in along the entire perimeter of the site, without gaps or gaps, to a depth of at least 20 cm, and they should rise above the surface by at least 10 cm, so that the roots in search of food could not "jump" the line.
By the end of summer, some species of miscanthus lose their lower leaves, and this reduces the decorative effect of the plant. To disguise the lower thinning part of the bushes, it is best to plant a high hostu on the site - 50-60 cm in height, quietly growing in conditions of excessive soil moisture, without which miscanthus cannot do.
That is, perhaps, all that can be said about the cultivation of this cereal. Planting and caring for miscanthus in the open field is not laborious, and the beauty and effectiveness of this plant can hardly be overestimated.
Reproduction of miscanthus
Miscanthus does not like changing places, however, over time, the shoots in the center of the bush die off, so it becomes necessary to transplant a plant, which is combined with dividing the bush - one of the most reliable vegetative methods for propagating miscanthus. The bush is divided in spring or early summer, the procedure is carried out very carefully, since miscanthus recovers after injuries for a long time and painfully.
Plant propagation by seed is also possible. Miscanthus seeds do not need pre-sowing treatment, but the generative method of reproduction will require patience and will take a lot of time, since a plant grown from seeds acquires attractiveness only in the third or fourth year. Seeds are germinated in peat pots, and with the onset of spring, after the soil has completely thawed, they are planted in open ground. We remind you that miscanthus does not retain varietal characteristics during seed propagation, therefore the overwhelming majority of gardeners prefer to propagate miscanthus vegetatively.
Pests and diseases
About diseases and pests that can infect miscanthus, nothing is known. It is a very healthy plant.
Miscanthus after flowering
Preparing for winter
There are types of miscanthus that are resistant to cold weather, and there are those that need mandatory shelter for the winter. Delicate varieties must be protected not only from frost, but also from sudden temperature changes. If the cold snap sets in gradually, then the plant has time to adapt to changes in nature, but if frosts broke out unexpectedly, it may die. To prevent this from happening, cover the miscanthus with a film hut so that air can flow under it from the sides, and on top of the film, also with a hut, install two wooden shields - this structure will protect the miscanthus from a sudden cold snap.
But do not forget to mulch the site before building the shelter and protect the roots from freezing with a thick layer of any loose soil.
Types and varieties
Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus)
Most likely, it is a complex hybrid, which has long been familiar to gardeners, but the origin of which can only be guessed at. Its erect stems reach a height of 3 m, weeping dark green leaves with a white stripe along the midrib, leaves up to 25 cm wide, extending from the stem in all directions, make the plant look like a large fountain. This species blooms in late summer with pinkish panicles, which eventually become silvery, and in areas with cold summers, the giant miscanthus may not bloom at all.
Most often, this view is used as an accent in the background. It requires masking the lower part of the stems due to the leaves dying off in the second half of summer.
Chinese Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis)
It grows naturally in China, Korea, Japan and Russia. It is a perennial grass with a loose bush, short rhizome and erect stems up to 3 m high. Its leaves are linear, tough and rough, up to 1.5 cm wide, with a rough rib along the median vein. It blooms with single-flowered spikelets up to 7 mm long, collected in loose panicles. In culture, the species has been since 1875, its winter hardiness is relative, therefore, dry shelter and mulching for the winter are required.
Chinese miscanthus is the most popular species in culture; today, more than a hundred of its varieties are known, which differ in color and shape of inflorescences, sizes and outlines of the bush. Among them there are both thermophilic plants and those that are safely grown in the middle lane. For example:
- Blondeau - bush height up to 2 m, cold-resistant - hibernates without shelter;
- Variegatus - a loose bush no more than one and a half meters high with white longitudinal stripes on the leaves;
- Miscanthus Zebrinus, sometimes they call him Miscanthus Zebrina - variegated plant with transverse yellow stripes over green leaves;
- Ferner Austin - up to one and a half meters high, on narrow graceful green leaves a white stripe along the middle vein, in autumn changing color to reddish-red. Fan-shaped, bright red panicles with white tops that bloom in August gradually become silvery-bronze;
- Morning light - a graceful low plant with narrow leaves with a white edging. Unfortunately, this variety blooms late and not every year;
- Strictus - Miscanthus up to 270 cm high with bright variegated leaves up to 1.5 cm wide, along which transverse bright white and green stripes alternate, and reddish single-flowered spikelets in loose panicles.
Sugar-flowered Miscanthus, or Sugar-flowered (Miscanthus sacchariflonis)
It grows in Russia in humid areas from the Amur Region to the south of the Primorsky Territory, as well as in Korea, China and Japan. This plant is up to 2 m high with bare stems, linear light green drooping leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, blooming with white or silvery pink panicles up to 25 cm long. Since this species is thermophilic, its development begins in late spring, but throughout the warm season, Miscanthus sucrose grows intensively. It blooms from July, retains its decorative effect until October.
It is cold-resistant, hibernates without shelter, but mulching the site in case of absence of snow is desirable. The most popular form is Robustus - a plant larger than the main species.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Cereals
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
Sections: Garden Plants Perennials Herbaceous Ornamental Deciduous Plants on M Cereals (Bluegrass, Cereals)
Miscanthus, fanny, or Chinese reed is an ornamental perennial plant that has recently become popular among gardeners. It is appreciated for its unusual color of leaves and beautiful ears that can decorate any flower garden.
Types and varieties of decorative onions with a photo
The variety of sizes, shapes and colors of alliums is impressive. Photos and names of the most popular types and varieties of decorative onions will be useful for selecting the most suitable for decorating a personal plot, creating a flower bed or flower garden.
Decorative bow blue
Blue onion, or royal blue (lat.Allium caeruleum), is one of the most beautiful types of decorative allium. In Western Europe, it has long been widespread as a garden plant, while in Russia it is not yet so popular.
In nature, blue onions can be found in southeastern Europe, southern Siberia and Central Asia. The favorite habitats of this type of allium are the mountain slopes strewn with rubble and alkaline meadows in the foothills. He is extremely photophilous and does not tolerate waterlogging.
Blue onions usually grow by the end of April. The height of its stems is about 80-100 cm, the diameter of the spherical inflorescences is up to 7 cm. The small flowers of this allium resemble wide bells of a characteristic dark blue color. Each inflorescence combines from 200 to 250 pieces.
Flowering occurs in May-June and lasts approximately 20-25 days.
Blue onion is otherwise called royal
Decorative giant bow
Allium giant (Latin Allium giganteum) boasts the largest inflorescences of all types of ornamental onions. In the wild, it can be found in the subtropics of Iran and southern Central Asia, under the shade of pistachio and walnut forests, as well as in the mountains.
The height of the peduncles of the giant allium reaches 120-150 cm, and the diameter of the dense inflorescences, consisting of lilac-purple flowers, is up to 30 cm.The leaves are green or bluish-green in color, the plates are long, belt-like, up to 10 cm wide.
Flowering occurs in mid-May or early June, lasting about 30 days.
Giant allium balls sometimes reach 30 cm in diameter
The decorative round-headed onion, or ball-headed (Latin Allium sphaerocephalon), is widespread throughout Europe, in the north of Asia and in West Africa. This type of allium is most often found in the steppe and hilly areas.
In height, its arrows reach 40-60 cm. Inflorescences resemble loose cones, combining small flowers of pink, purple or burgundy-red shades. They have a pleasant aroma and attract bees.
Flowering lasts 2-3 weeks. It begins in late spring.
Fragrant flowers of allium round-headed are loved by pollinating insects
Allium bulgarian (lat.Allium bulgaricum) is one of the most unusual and valuable types of decorative onions. In the wild, it grows in the west of the European continent.
The height of the bush of this allium can reach 80-110 cm. The original inflorescences, similar to shuttlecocks for playing badminton, combine 20-30 flowers in the form of bells. Their petals are painted in burgundy or light pink with a delicate white border along the edge.
Allium bulgarian blooms in early summer.
Bulgarian onion flowers resemble miniature bells
The decorative Neapolitan onion (lat.Allium neapolitanum) is also called forest garlic, white garlic or the Star of Bethlehem.
It can be found growing in the plains of North Africa and the European Mediterranean, as well as in Asia Minor. It is low - only 25-35 cm. The flowers are broadly bell-shaped, snow-white or pink, with yellow anthers. They are united in flat or slightly convex umbellate inflorescences up to 25 pcs. in everyone.
You can admire the blooming of the Neapolitan allium in June.
The delicate beauty of the Neapolitan bow is revealed in June
Schubert's onion (lat.Allium Schubertii) is found naturally in Western Asia, on mountain slopes covered with rubble and sand. This is a stunted species of allium up to 30 cm tall. It is distinguished by an inflorescence of an unusual shape, reminiscent of a volley of fireworks. Each of the purple flowers is formed from 5 cm carpels and stamens up to 20 cm long. As a result, the volume of "asteroid" inflorescences often reaches 40 cm.
Flowering begins in June and lasts more than 15 days.
Unusual inflorescences of Schubert onions resemble a volley of fireworks
The habitat of the decorative bow of Christophe, or Christoph (Latin Allium Сhristophii), in the wild are the mountainous regions of Turkmenistan, northern Iran and the center of Turkey.
Each of the inflorescences of this allium unites about 100 star-shaped flowers. Umbrella diameter up to 20 cm, color - pink-purple, with a metallic sheen.The length of straight, ribbed stems is 50-70 cm.
Flowering occurs in June. This type of allium is ideal for cutting.
Allium Christoph's stars look charming when cut
Miniature decorative single-leaved onion (Latin Allium unifolium) is also called American garlic. Its homeland is the coastal mountainous regions of North America.
The shoots of the allium Unifolium stretch upward by only 20-25 cm.The inflorescences are not spherical, but rather look like loose umbrellas about 15 cm wide.Unusual flowers of this allium will help to present a photo: they are bright pink, less often white, up to 2 cm in size. They can be seen in early to mid-May.
Allium Unifolium inflorescences in shape do not resemble a sphere, but an umbrella
Onion Mola, or Moli (lat.Allium moly), otherwise known as golden onion, golden garlic or lily onion. In nature, it can be found in Spain and the south of France.
Allium Moll's umbrellas are usually flat or hemispherical, small (up to 7 cm in diameter). They consist of relatively large, star-shaped flowers of a bright yellow color with a greenish tint. The latter appear in May-June and remain at the peak of decorativeness for 2-3 weeks.
Allium Mola will help you recognize bright yellow flowers
Globemaster Ornamental Bow
The heroic growth of the handsome Globemaster allows him to be considered one of the largest representatives of the Allium genus. This is a hybrid obtained by crossing two types of ornamental onions - McLean and Christophe.
Each ball of this allium, about 20 cm in diameter, consists of more than 1500 purple-purple flowers. They bloom in early summer and last until early autumn. The height of the peduncles reaches 90 cm. They are durable and extremely well tolerate adverse conditions - wind or heavy rain.
A tall hybrid Globemaster obtained by crossing the alliums of McLean and Christoph
Decorative bow Purpl Senseishen
A hybrid of Aflatun onion (Latin Allium aflatunense) Purple Sensation, or Purple Sensation, lives up to its name. Its dark purple globular inflorescences reach 12 cm in diameter. The height of the dense, slightly ribbed stems of this decorative allium is about 70 (there is information that 120-150) cm. The basal leaves have a linear shape and are painted in a salad color.
You can observe the flowering of the allium Purpl Senseishen in May-June. During this period, the whole plant exudes a light onion scent.
Purpl Senseishen is one of the most famous ornamental onions
The decorative allium variety Ivory Queen (Ivory Queen, Ivory Queen) is considered a karatavian onion (lat.Allium karataviense), the name of which, in turn, comes from the Karatau mountain range in the southern part of Kazakhstan.
It is distinguished by a low peduncle, as a rule, not exceeding 20 cm, and fluffy balls of 10 cm inflorescences, painted in ivory. The leaves of this allium are wide, lingual in shape. After flowering, lasting from the end of May for about a month, they remain green and fresh, so Ivory Queen's onions can be safely planted in the foreground in a landscape composition. Another characteristic feature of this alium is its pleasant aroma.
Ivory Queen's delicate flowers are ivory-colored
The giant onion hybrid under the sonorous name Gladiator is known in ornamental gardening for very large inflorescences, their diameter is 20-25 cm. Its flowers resemble small 6-petal purple stars. Impressive flower stalks can grow up to 125-140 cm in height. Among the strengths of the decorative Gladiator bow is its high resistance to diseases and pests.
This hybrid allium is also often used as an edible plant: its leaves have a pleasant taste and a strong garlic aroma. Its flowering period is from May to July.
Handsome Gladiator is famous for his high growth and large inflorescences
Allium White Cloud, which means "White Cloud" in English, is a hybrid of grape onion (Latin Allium ampeloprasum) of Dutch origin. It is also popularly known as summer leek or field garlic. As a rule, the arrows of this allium grow up to 0.8-1 m in height. Its globular inflorescences are very dense, consisting of many snow-white flowers with a pink tint. The diameter of each umbrella is 6-8 cm.
The White Cloud ornamental onion blooms from May to June. He prefers sunny places, but grows well in partial shade.
The lush heads of Allium White Cloud really look like snow-white clouds
It is quite easy to grow a lipstick, as it is a relatively unpretentious plant. To make the bushes more lush, young plants must be pinched.
This plant is very fond of moisture, in this regard, it needs to be provided with frequent and systematic watering, especially in summer. It should be noted that the soil near the bushes should always be slightly damp. If small holes appear on the surface of the leaf plates, this indicates that watering must be reduced. After each watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil surface near the plants, while pulling out the weeds.
Top dressing is done once every 4 weeks. To do this, use a solution of a mineral complex fertilizer (15 ml for 10 liters of water).
Throughout the growing season, the lipstick blooms 2 times: in spring and autumn. The duration of the first stage of flowering is several weeks. After its completion, it is necessary to trim the bushes as short as possible and feed them. After a short time, they will grow new stems, and the plants will bloom even more luxuriantly than before. In order to preserve the high decorativeness of Mimulus during the flowering period, it is necessary to promptly cut off the flowers and inflorescences that have begun to fade.
Diseases and pests
Grown in the garden, the lipstick is very resistant to diseases and pests. However, the seedlings of such a plant can get sick with powdery mildew or black leg. Infected seedlings must be sprayed with a fungicide solution. In hot weather, there is a high probability of infection of the plant with gray rot. The affected specimens will need to be dug up and burned, because this disease has not yet been effectively treated.
If you water the bushes very abundantly, then gastropods can settle on them. For prevention purposes, the regime and abundance of watering should be reviewed, and the surface of the site should be covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust). Also, these flowers can be chosen by whiteflies and aphids, in this case they will need to be treated with a solution of acaricide, for example, Aktara or Aktellik.
Mimulus are perennial plants, but they are thermophilic. If desired, the bushes can be saved if they are cut off in autumn, carefully removed from the ground and planted in pots that need to be brought into the house. For planting, a not very large container is chosen. These flowers are placed on a windowsill in a fairly cool room. With the onset of spring, the bushes should be planted in open soil.