Corn is the real "queen of the fields" - one of the most widespread cereals cultivated all over the world. Easily adapts to any climate, high yielding, but with good care after sowing.
A person takes literally everything from corn and uses it in various spheres of life - ears, corn silk, stems and leaves. It is not only a very useful food product, the basis for the production of medicines, but also a huge fodder base for animal husbandry (grains go to feed poultry and pigs, and the stems go to silage production).
The vegetable is planted both in Russia and in Ukraine, the main thing is to observe the sowing technology, and take care after the seedlings appear properly.
How to prepare corn kernels for planting
Corn - the most thermophilic cereal plant... In addition, it is so "cultivated" by humans that it does not occur in the wild (it is not able to shower seeds and germinate on its own). Therefore, in order to obtain high yields for corn, careful maintenance is needed, and it must start from the seed base.
The quality of the seed material, their productive properties have a great influence on the final result.
Corn seeds require certain preparatory measures before planting in the soil.
- Firstly, specialized farms are engaged in the cultivation of cereals for seeds. They are also working on the development of new hybrid varieties, striving for continuous improvement of the seed base.
- Secondly, other specialized farms are engaged in special preparation of seeds for sowing... To do this, the grains are separated from the cobs, cleaned and sorted strictly according to grades. Then the seeds are dried and etched - they are treated with special fungicidal preparations that protect the seeds from fungal and other bactericidal diseases. Dressing protects not only seeds, but also seedlings from pathogens in the soil, taking into account the timing of sowing.
- Thirdly, they carry out a mandatory calibration corn seeds, i.e. dividing them into fractions by size. This provides an accurate calculation of the seeding rate of seeds per hectare and uniformity of sowing.
- Fourthly, before sowing, air heating seed grains, which increases the germination rate of the culture, the survival of shoots in the early stages.
The best predecessors for corn
To increase the yield of any agricultural crop, an important role is played crop rotation, i.e. annual crop rotation on the same sowing area.
For maize, the most favorable predecessors are potatoes, legumes and winter wheat. Good yields are obtained by our cereal after alfalfa in fallow areas.
If the acidity of the soil does not exceed the norm - from 5.5 to 7 pH, the systematic introduction of correctly selected fertilizers, corn can be sown as a monoculture, i.e. several years in a row on the same sown areas.
Since corn is a heat-loving plant, it can be sown after warming up the soil by 8-12 degrees at a depth of about 10 cm.
Depending on the climatic conditions of the area, this occurs approximately from early to mid-May... The depth of planting seeds in the soil is 5-6 cm, in arid regions - up to 8 cm.
The most effective is sowing in furrows (in comparison with ridge sowing), since in this case it is possible to huddle the sprouts, which contributes to the development of the root system, strengthening the aerial roots, and, thereby, increasing the yield.
Sowing density depends on the natural conditions of the growing area, destination (grain or silage), corn variety (early maturing or late), maximum height of mature plants.
Taking into account all the parameters, the sowing density is calculated or selected individually so that each plant receives a sufficient amount of moisture, light, and nutrients. She may hesitate from 50,000 to 120,000 seeds / ha.
For example, the stand density of early maturing varieties in the steppe zone should be on average 60 thousand per hectare, approximately 40-45 plants per 10 meters with a row spacing of 0.7 m.
Sowing rate of seeds per 1 ha in kg
The seeding rate, as well as the density, depends on a number of indicators: the growing area, the direction of use of the crop, the method of sowing, the size of the planting grains, and the individual characteristics of the hybrids.
Seed consumption fluctuates from 15 to 25 kg per hectare.
The need for seedling thinning
Usually corn fields are sown with special pneumatic seeders. They provide a “dotted” way of planting seeds in the soil while maintaining the exact distance between seeds in a row and between rows.
Thus, the right amount of seeds is immediately sown at a given distance from each other. Thinning of seedlings not required and does not make sense.
The process of growing corn cereals is quite simple, it includes several main stages:
- tillage before sowing - autumn plowing the field to a depth of 25-30 cm, if necessary, it is possible to simultaneously apply herbicides against perennial weeds;
- autumn cultivation with fertilization;
- spring soil preparation method harrowing - early (when the soil is heavily contaminated with weeds) and pre-sowing cultivation (to the depth of sowing seeds - 6-8 cm), the introduction of complex fertilizers;
- preparation of seeds for sowing;
- sowing corn, taking into account the timing and compliance with the rate and seeding depth;
- pre- and post-emergence harrowing to destroy weeds and loosen the soil;
- harvesting (at an earlier date, corn is harvested for silage, and upon reaching the grain moisture content of 35-40%, grain is harvested).
If you follow the basic rules of agricultural technology, growing corn on farms can bring tangible income.
High yield and great demand make the culture attractive for cultivation. In the countries of the world, 20% of all grain is used in the food industry, the same amount is used in technical production, more than 60% is used for feed.
The ability to adapt to different weather conditions has enabled breeders to create many hybrid varieties. Any farmer can choose the hybrids that are most suitable for a given climate and grow an excellent harvest.
Maize cultivation technology.
Place in the crop rotation
Corn is not a strictly alternating crop. With good agricultural technology, it succeeds after various predecessors and even with monoculture. Better for her are those predecessors that contribute to debris cleaning and moisture accumulation. Maize gives high grain yields after winter breads, buckwheat, leguminous crops, mustard, rapeseed, coriander, and spring cereals. After row crops (potatoes, melons, etc.), it is ecologically impractical to place corn in the crop rotation, since this accelerates the loss of humus and soil spraying, but occasionally it is possible. After sunflowers and sugar beets, maize should not be placed also because they dry out the soil deeply and it greatly reduces yields, especially in arid regions. Avoid placing it after the millet (and in front of it) so as not to spread their common pest, the stem moth. Corn itself is a good predecessor of spring cereals, and in a number of regions also winter crops, annual grasses, etc.
Tillage (main and pre-sowing) for corn is in many ways similar to processing it for millet. After the early harvested precursors, semi-steam or improved fall treatment is applied using the herbicide Sangor, 27% bw. - 1.8-3.6 l / ha or amine salt 2,4-D, 40% w.c. - 2.5 l / ha in the post-harvest period for the destruction of perennial root weeds. After the late predecessors, the usual fall plowing is carried out with preliminary disco-vinyl (after corn and sunflower) or without it (potatoes, etc.).
Corn, requiring loose soils, responds well to deepening plowing. Under it, they usually plow 25-27 cm, and with repeated sowing - up to 30 cm, for better incorporation of post-harvest residues into the soil.
In dry steppe regions, the retention of snow and melt water should be mandatory.
Spring tillage is aimed at retaining moisture and killing weeds. In the spring, the combed plow is harrowed in a diagonal-cross way, the surface of the field is leveled with a VP-8 leveler, etc., 1-2, sometimes 3 cultivations are carried out as the weeds grow. On fields leveled in the fall (semi-fallow), the spring harrowing of the soil can be abandoned in order to ensure a more complete emergence of weeds and destroy them by subsequent cultivation. The latter (pre-sowing cultivation) is usually carried out (especially with a herbicide-free cultivation technology) with the mass appearance of small shoots of millet weeds to the depth of sowing seeds after or simultaneously with the introduction of the herbicide.
Corn is highly demanding and very responsive to the application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
To create 1 ton of grain with an appropriate amount of straw, 24-30 kg of nitrogen, 10-12 phosphorus, 25-30 kg of potassium are required. With a lack of nutrients, especially nitrogen, the yield of green mass and grain sharply decreases, and its excess delays ripening. Approximate rates of fertilization for corn to obtain 50-55 centners / ha of grain in the Central Black Earth Region is N60P60-90K40-60. A good effect is provided by the introduction of 30-40 t / ha of semi-rotted manure. Fertilizer rates are determined by the balance method, taking into account the characteristics of the zone and soil.
In the main method, under plowing plowing, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and organic fertilizers are introduced, as well as half the norm of nitrogen fertilizers (in ammonia form). The second half of nitrogen (ammonia water, UAN, etc.) is applied under the first cultivation or in top dressing during the first or second processing of the row spacing. Top dressing is effective if the soil is moist. In the rows during sowing, 5-10 kg / ha are applied. granular superphosphate 3-5 cm deeper and 2-3 cm to the side of the seeds. Micronutrient fertilizers of boron, manganese and zinc are often highly effective at high yields. Boron fertilizers (boric acid, etc.) are especially effective on limed zinc soils (sulfuric acid zinc, etc.) - on chernozem, carbonate, especially sandy soils. Manganese is effective on leached chernozems, gray forest soils, copper fertilizers - on peat soils.
To increase the protein content in green mass and corn grain, foliar nitrogen fertilization can be applied 10-15 days after flowering with a 30% urea solution (30-45 kg / ha a.i.).
Maize is sown with sorted, calibrated and treated conditioned seeds with a germination rate of at least 95%. To increase the germination energy, the seeds after calibration are subjected to solar or air-thermal (in a warm room) heating for 5-6 days, the seeds are etched with vitatiuram, tigam or TMTD - 2 kg / t each with the inclusion of microelements (missing in the soil) and covering them film-forming composition (inlay). Seeds are prepared for sowing at seed factories or farms.
The maize sowing time is chosen taking into account weather conditions, field debris, early maturity, etc. Sowing is usually started with a stable warming up of the sowing layer of soil to 10-12 ° C (cold-resistant varieties on clean fields - at 8-10 ° C). With herbicide-free technology, corn is sown after the destruction of mass shoots of millet and other weeds by pre-sowing cultivation.
The main method of sowing corn is dotted with row spacing of 70 cm using seeders SUPN-8, SPCH-6M, SKKP-12. The row spacing in wet areas for low-stemming early-ripening hybrids is reduced to 60 cm, and in dry conditions and for tall late-maturing maize it is increased to 90-140 cm.
Sowing corn in the ridges (which are cut in the fall) with a ridge seeder is used in waterlogged northern regions of corn planting on heavy soils. The soil in the ridges dries up and warms up faster, is better aerated, which allows you to sow and get seedlings earlier.
The seeding rate of seeds varies greatly depending on conditions, stem height, fertility, soil moisture, etc. The optimal planting density of maize in crops depends on the zone and early maturity of the hybrids. In the forest-steppe zone of the Central Black Earth Region, the optimal stand density of early-maturing hybrids of grain corn for harvesting should be 65-80 thousand plants per 1 ha (45-56 plants per 10 m row with row spacing of 70 cm), and in the steppe zone - 60-65 thousand / ha ( 42-45 plants per 10 m) when using early maturing and 45-50 thousand / ha (32-35 plants per 10 m) - when sowing mid-early hybrids.
The quantitative seeding rate of seeds should exceed the final density of the stalk by 20-25 (up to 30)%. It is in the forest-steppe 80-100 thousand pieces of grains per 1 ha (56-70 grains per 10 m row), and in the steppe zone - 55-60 thousand / ha (38-42 grains per 10 m row) for mid-early and 75 -80 thousand / ha (52-56 grains per 10 m row) for early maturing hybrids. Consumption of corn seeds per 1 hectare of sowing ranges from 10 to 25 kg.
The normal sowing depth at the optimal time is 6-8 cm.However, in the first days of sowing in a shallow, moist, especially clayey soil, a depth of 4-5 will be better, when sowing in dried soil, it is advisable to deepen the seeds in order to put the seeds sowing up to 10-12 cm. Sometimes in such cases, furrow sowing is used. Then the total depth (furrow depth + sowing depth) of the location of seeds in the soil can reach 14-15 cm or more.
Corn, forming epicotyl and coleoptile, the total length of which is 12-15 cm, can emerge from such a depth, although field germination is sharply reduced, seedlings are depleted and the emergence of seedlings is greatly delayed.
In dry windy weather, immediately after sowing the corn, rolling is carried out. It evens out the surface, reduces soil drainage and increases the sprouting of weeds (which will be destroyed by subsequent treatments) and maize. In wet weather, rolling is unnecessary and even harmful.
4-5 days after sowing, the field is harrowed across the sowing rows to destroy the soil crust and destroy filamentous weed shoots. The depth of soil loosening with the BZSS-1 harrows should be 1-2 cm shallower than the depth of sowing seeds.
Harrowing on seedlings is carried out in the phase of 3-4 (up to 5-6) corn leaves across the rows in the daytime, when the turgor weakens. It is especially effective in the presence of filamentous weed seedlings and soil crust. Excessively early harrowing of seedlings more eases sowing. Harrowing before and after germination destroys 70-85% of weed seedlings.
To combat weeds and loosening the soil, 2-3 (when using herbicides - 1-2) inter-row treatments are carried out. The first - in the phase of 3-5 leaves with a cultivator equipped with paired needle discs or weeding harrows, destroying small weeds in the protective zone, the second - when weeds or soil crust appear, about two weeks after the first, and the third - at a plant height of 60 -70 cm.
The first cultivation of row spacings is carried out to a depth of 12 cm, leaving narrow protective stripes (10-15 cm). During subsequent cultivation, the depth as the roots grow in the row spacing is reduced to 7-4 cm, the width of the protective strips is increased to 20-25 cm. During the last treatment, cultivators equipped with paws with plowshares sprinkle and destroy weed shoots in the rows.
Pre-sowing cutting of slots up to 35 cm deep (Astrakhan technology) allows you to accelerate sowing and cultivation of row spacings, exclude trimming of plants in a row and reduce protective stripes, since the copier knives attached to the seeder and cultivator, moving along the guide slots, keep the seeder or cultivator from displacement ... Slitting can be combined with tape application of the herbicide to the row area.
Application of herbicides
Distinguish between soil herbicides (basic), they are introduced under pre-sowing cultivation or pre-emergence harrowing, and auxiliary (insurance), used for seedlings. They are introduced by continuous spraying of the soil or corn seedlings, consuming 300-400 l / ha of working solution. More promising in economic and environmental terms is the band intrasoil or surface application of the herbicide. A necessary condition for the effectiveness of the herbicide is the coincidence of the spectrum of its action with the species composition of weeds.
Soil herbicides are broad-spectrum. They are detrimental to annual mono- and dicotyledonous weeds. They are used before sowing for pre-sowing cultivation. The main ones are as follows: alizor, 72% ae. - at a dose of 4.5-9 l / ha (with immediate incorporation), lasso, 48% ae. - at a dose of 5-7 l / ha, primextra, 50% c.w. - 4-6 l / ha, eradikan 6E, 72% ae. - 5-6.3 l / ha. Simazin, 50% s.p. - 3-4 kg / ha and protrazine (mixture of atrazine 33.3% and prometrine, 16.7%), 50% d.p. - 4-6 kg / ha - long acting (persistent) herbicides. They are used for corn, after which corn, sorghum, Sudanese grass and other crops resistant to them will be grown again. Most of the field plants are inhibited by their aftereffect.
Auxiliary herbicides - selective action. They are used for seedlings against weeds that have not died from the action of a soil herbicide. In the phase of 3-5 leaves of corn, the following herbicides are used: amine salt 2,4-D, 40% bw. - 1.5-2.5 l / ha (against dicotyledonous annual weeds), bazagran, 48% b.c. -2-4 l / ha (against dicotyledonous, resistant to 2,4-D), lontrel-300, 30% i.c. - 1 l / ha (against sow thistles, chamomile). Weed seedlings in the phase of 1-2 leaves are most sensitive to herbicides.
Working solutions of herbicides are prepared by machines APZh-12, APR "Temp" and others and applied by sprayers POU, OP-1600-2, etc., observing the instructions and necessary safety measures.
Protection against pests and diseases should be integrated, including a set of agrotechnical, chemical and biological control measures. The main pests of corn: stem moth, wireworm, false wireworm, etc. In the fight against the stem moth, the correct alternation of crops is used in crop rotation, harvesting on a low cut, deep plowing, trichogramma is released (100-300 thousand individuals at the beginning of the flight of butterflies and again after 6 7 days), and with the massive appearance of caterpillars, corn is sprayed with karate, 5% ae. - 0.2 l / ha or nurell, 20% ae. 0.4 l / ha.
Against wireworm and false wireworm during sowing, diazinon is introduced into the soil together with seeds, 5% g - 40-50 kg / ha or counter, 10% g - 15 kg / ha with the number of larvae 3-10 pcs / m.
To protect plants from blister smut, root rot and fusarium, along with seed dressing, spraying of the crop with an azocene, 25% s.p. is also used. - 0.5 kg / ha or bayleton, 25% d.p. - 0.5 kg / ha in the phase of flowering ears.
The harvesting of corn cobs without threshing (with cleaning or additional cleaning at the hospital) begins at a grain moisture content of 40-35% with a self-propelled six-row harvester KSKU-5 "Khersonets-200" or a trailed three-row harvester KKP-3 "Khersonets-9". The leafy mass is crushed and collected. The cobs are cleaned from the wrappers in the hospital with the cob cleaner OP-15, dried with an air heater VK-1 or others, threshed on the MPK-30. Dry grain is stored in a warehouse. This harvesting method is preferred for seed corn.
When grain moisture content is less than 30%, feed corn is harvested by threshing the cobs with a Niva combine with a PPK-4 attachment.
Wet grain is stored in lined trenches in a crushed form (cornage). The grain is crushed by crushers. The trench should be filled in 5-6 days, the mass in it is well tamped and sealed with a film. To protect it from rodents, it is sprinkled with lime, covered with shields and a layer of earth.
Wet grain can also be stored in a trench if it is quickly and evenly treated with preservatives on PS-10, Mobitox machines, etc., which were not used for seed dressing. The consumption of preservatives is proportional to the moisture content of the grain (Table 20). The grain also needs to be tamped, the trench should be sealed.
It is important to sow corn in compliance with the rules of crop rotation. It should be planted after winter wheat, potatoes, legumes. Busy couples are also great. Satisfactory predecessors of corn are spring cereals, sugar beets. Silage maize is a good choice.
With the right choice of fertilizers and soil treatment, the plant can be planted as a monoculture. In this case, the soil must be neutral. The ideal pH is 5.5-7.
Potato post-harvest processing line performance
Fig. 3. Nomogram for determining the parameters of the line and device for post-harvest processing of potatoes
where tcm is the duration of the work shift, h.
The throughput of the separating-sorting device is found from the condition
where bu is the productivity of the device, kg / s.
The procedure for using the nomogram is shown in Fig. 3 arrows.
1. Kolchin, N.N. Complexes of machines and equipment for post-harvest processing of potatoes and vegetables. - M .: Mashinostroenie, 1982 .-- 267 p.
2. Petrov, G.D. Potato harvesters. - M .: Mashinostroenie, 1984 .-- 320 p.
V.A. Shevchenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences sciences,
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Moscow State Agroengineering University named after V.P. Goryachkina "
FEATURES OF CORN CULTIVATION IN THE NON-BLACK EARTH ZONE OF RUSSIA
None of the crops has been as widespread as maize for fodder purposes. In the USSR, it began to attract its attention as a fodder crop, starting from the 50s of the last century. The story is short, but corn has become an integral part of the diet of farm animals in the Non-Black Earth Zone. She was called the queen of the fields.
It should be noted that in the history of mankind, corn for silage began to be used in non-distant times. The first silo was built in the United States in 1875, and by 1880 there were 2,500 of them in Wisconsin alone. Since that time, corn silage has become the main winter feed for ruminants .
The rapid and widespread distribution of maize hybrids with a heterozygous effect
sa (increased yield) was promoted by breeders of the USA. In 1930, they put the first corn hybrids into production. American hybrids were introduced to Europe in 1948. The introduction of American hybrids and breeding material stimulated the research of maize in Europe .
In 1988, in the USSR, the sowing area of maize cultivated for silage and green fodder (milk grain and before milk-wax ripeness) was 16.4 million hectares . It should be noted the high feed value of corn: its grain is used to feed all types of animals, 1 kg of dry grain contains 1.34 c.u. (wheat - 1.2 c.u.). When ensiling the whole mass with cobs in milk-wax ripeness, it contains 0.20. CU 0.25 in 1 kg of feed. In the conditions of the Non-Black Earth Zone at
intensive technology of corn cultivation, you can get up to 80 c.u. from 1 hectare.
The corn yield in the northern regions of the country also depends on the weather. There may be years when the harvest is small, but due to the harvest years, carryover stocks of silage can be created, which ultimately will determine the stability of the cultivation of this crop.
It should be noted the amazing success of domestic selection of early maturity corn.
If in 1959 maize, harvested in milk-wax and full ripeness, was cultivated not north of Kursk, Lipetsk, Tambov, Penza and Ulyanovsk, then in the 70s they began to sow in the Central region (Bryansk, Vladimir, Ivanovskaya, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tula regions) mid-early hybrids Dneprovsky 247, Bukovinsky 3T, mid-late variety Sterling and late-ripening variety Odesskaya 10 . In those years, early ripening hybrids were not cultivated, from which it is possible to obtain cobs of milk-wax and even wax ripeness . By 1977, 453 hybrids and 11 varieties of maize were zoned , while the total number of zoned varieties of winter and spring wheat and barley - the most common grain crops - was 460 varieties, that is, almost the same number.
In recent years, breeders have made significant progress in breeding precisely early maturing corn hybrids. Many early-maturing hybrids were bred with a growing season (from germination to maturation) of 80.90 days, which indicates the advancement of the culture from the main centers of production to areas with less climatic conditions. So, for the North-West region of the country (Vologda, Kaliningrad, Kostroma, Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, Tver, Yaroslavl regions), 9 early-maturing hybrids were bred: Nemo 216 MV, Obsky 150 SV, Odessa silo 190 MV, Porumbel 171 SV, Porumbel 253 MV, Ross 142 MV, Ross 147 AMV, Ross 199 MV, STK 189 MV.
For the period 2004-07 in Russia, 173 hybrids were zoned, of which only in 2007 - 66. The leaders in the creation of new early- and mid-ripening hybrids that are zoned in Russia and used in the northern regions of the country are the Krasnodar Research Institute of Agriculture im. P.P. Lukyanenko, State Scientific Research Institute of Maize of the Stavropol Territory, Voronezh Experimental Station of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Research and Development, State Scientific Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture (Volgograd). The hybrids of the Research Institute of Selection of Corn and Sorghum of the Republic of Moldova (7 hybrids) enjoy deserved fame from the near abroad. The leaders among foreign countries, whose hybrids are zoned in the northern regions of Russia, are
There are Germany (12 hybrids), Yugoslavia (4 hybrids), Hungary (4 hybrids).
When cultivating corn in the Non-Black Earth Zone, the following circumstances must be taken into account: corn is a heat-loving plant, seeds germinate at 8.10 ° C, and seedlings at a temperature of 10.12 ° C, corn seedlings tolerate slight frosts of 2.3 ° C at an average daily temperature below 15 ° C, corn growth slows down, leaves turn yellow. The most favorable temperature for the growth and development of corn is 20 ° C. Corn has a remarkable feature - before the formation of 6-7 leaves, the apical point (growth cone) is in the soil, which protects it well from frost. In the event of frost and death of the aboveground mass in the next 7 days, plants usually recover. This must be taken into account when plowing frost-damaged corn crops.
Against the background of the successful work of breeders in the creation of early maturing and high-yielding hybrids, it should be noted that new technologies of corn cultivation are also needed.
In the 80s of the last century, the technology of early sowing, simultaneously with the sowing of spring crops, was successfully developed and implemented in large areas of our country by employees of the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy under the leadership of
S.V. Krylov. This technology, called hydrophobization of seeds, protected them from decay. At the same time, 0.1 kg of fentiuram, 0.25 kg of poly-sterol with hydrophobic properties (ability to pass water), and 0.55 l of chloroform were used per hectare sowing rate of corn. Chloroform served as a solvent for the poly-listerol. The seeds were sown with vegetable seeders with simultaneous sowing of early spring crops to a depth of 2.3 cm. A sufficient accumulation of heat served as a signal for seed germination. However, this technology had to be brought to an industrial scale at factories, where the following issues would have been resolved: trapping chloroform, and not its evaporation (this does not meet environmental protection requirements), uniform application of a film on the grain surface. To date, this technology has not become widespread.
Opportunities for obtaining corn with cobs of milky-wax and waxy ripeness in the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia open up early crops on the ridges [1, 2]. Cultivation of corn on the ridges is possible on soils that are well drained and warmed up quickly enough in spring days.
Experimental studies on the cultivation of corn on the ridges were carried out at the experimental station of the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural
Noah Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev. The soil of the experimental site was sod-podzolic, medium loamy, the thickness of the arable layer was 20.22 cm, the humus content was 2.0. 2.2% (according to Tyurin), mobile phosphorus 20.25 mg / 100 g of soil, exchangeable potassium 25.30 mg / 100 g of soil (according to Kirsanov), pH (salt) 220.127.116.11 (according to Alyamovsky).
In the experiment, we used the seeds of a mid-early hybrid Krasnodar-194MV, zoned in the Central region of the Russian Federation, which includes the Moscow region. In the course of the research, the following were studied: the technology of cultivation of corn on the ridges, compared with sowing on a smooth surface, different seeding rates and the timing of sowing corn seeds. The ridges were formed with a KGV-4.2 cultivator-bed former. The height of the ridges reached 15.20 cm.
Sowing was carried out manually to a depth of 4.5 cm at two times: 1) as the soil matured (April 25 - May 5) 2) when the upper soil layer (10 cm) warmed up to 10.12 ° C. The experiment was repeated four times; the plot area (accounting) was 40 m2. The sowing rate was calculated at 70% field germination. After the emergence of seedlings, the following planting density was formed manually: 80, 120, 160 thousand plants per 1 ha.
When performing the work, the dynamics of the temperature regime of the soil was determined. Soil temperature was measured with special mercury thermometers at a depth of 10 cm in crops on ridges and on a smooth surface. The measurements were taken 3 times a day, starting at 8 a.m. and ending at 5 p.m.
After sowing, there was a difference in soil temperature in favor of the ridge method by 0.5-2.0 ° C. The most favorable conditions developed in 2006, when the difference in soil temperature reached 2 ° С in the second decade of May and the second decade of June, i.e., during critical periods when the green mass of corn was actively accumulating.
It was found that corn plants cultivated on the ridge surface outpaced the development of crops obtained on a smooth surface (traditional sowing) in the cob flowering phase by 5-10 days, which leads to a reduction in the growing season by 6-11 days.
According to the studies carried out, the change in the biological processes taking place in the soil during the growing season largely depends on the density of the corn plantings and the cultivation techniques. On average, over the years of research, the highest biological activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms (Table 1) was noted in the variant with the ridge sowing method and the density of standing of 80 thousand plants per 1 ha, where linseed in a layer of 0.20 cm decomposed by 72.8% in 2005 And by 85.6% in 2006, and the smallest - with the traditional method of sowing (37.9 and 32.9%, respectively).
The degradation of cellulose is mainly carried out by aerobic microorganisms. The decrease in the microbiological activity of the soil with the traditional method of sowing is explained by the difficulty in accessing oxygen to the linen tissue, since the soil in the ridges is in a looser state, and also due to a change in the temperature regime of the soil.
Increasing the plant density reduces the percentage of decomposition of the linen fabric. On sowing along the ridges with a plant density of 80 thousand plants per 1 ha, it was 79.2%, with 120 thousand plants per 1 ha - 59.5%, with 160 thousand plants per 1 ha - 46.6%, while with the traditional method of sowing, respectively, 35.4, 29.0 and 24.8% (see table. 1).
Thus, the use of the ridge technology on a soddy-podzolic medium loamy soil leads to an increase in the cellulolytic activity of the arable layer, as evidenced by an increase in the rate of decomposition of flax tissue in all variants of the experiment, where the ridges were formed.
The productivity of agricultural crops is largely determined by the biometric and physiological characteristics of the root system and is complexly dependent on environmental factors and soil conditions.In the studies carried out, the change in the agrophysical indicators of the fertility of the sod-podzolic medium loamy soil during the cultivation of corn on the ridges influenced the nature of the formation of the root system of plants.
Activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms (% decomposition of linseed tissue) in the soil layer 0-20 cm with different technologies of corn cultivation
Cultivation technology Standing density, thousand plants per 1 ha 2005 2006 On average for 2005-06
Sowing on ridges 80 72.8 85.6 79.2
Sowing on smooth 80 37.9 32.9 35.4
surfaces 120 31.3 26.7 29.0
Note. The exposure period of the fabric is 60 days.
Root volume (cm3) maize (2007)
Cultivation technology Standing density, thousand plants per 1 ha Development phase
9th leaf Washed-out Milk ripeness Beginning of wax ripeness
on ridges 7.5 25.4 105.1 71.2
Traditional 80 28 27.3 90.4 84.8
Note. The numerator indicates the volume of roots at an early sowing date (April 25 - May 5), in the denominator - at a soil temperature of 10.12 ° C (May 10-20).
The increase in the fertile soil layer due to the ridges, the change in the thermal regime and other agrophysical indicators contributed to the accumulation of a greater mass of roots during the cultivation of corn on the ridges (Table 2).
From table. 2, it can be seen that when sowing on ridges and standing density of 80, 120 and 160 thousand plants per 1 hectare, the volume of roots in the phase of the 9th leaf is 3.4, 3.3 and 2.6 times higher compared to the traditional technology, and in the sweeping phase - 1.4, 1.4 and 1.5 times, respectively.
Consequently, the technological methods of sowing corn affect the formation of the root system of plants. When sowing on ridges, plants develop a more powerful root system than when sowing on a smooth surface.
The yield of agricultural crops is the final and most essential criteria for assessing one or another studied agricultural technique. Analysis of productivity allows us to conclude that cultivation technologies have different effects on the productivity of corn (Table 3). On average, over the years of research, the yield is higher on crops on the ridge surface. So, with an early sowing period (April 25 - May 5) and a plant density of 80 thousand plants per 1 ha, the yield is higher by 6.9 t / ha, with 120 thousand plants per 1 ha -
5.1 t / ha, with 160 thousand plants per 1 ha - 2.5 t / ha, compared to sowing on a smooth surface.
When sowing corn on the ridge surface of the soil warmed up to 10.12 ° C (May 10-20), the yield is higher by 6.1, 6.3 and 5.7 t / ha, respectively, than when sowing on a smooth surface.
The yield of corn cobs in the phase of waxy ripeness is also higher in variants with sowing on ridges compared to sowing on a smooth surface (Table 4): in 2005 - by 0.9.2.8 t / ha, in 2006 - by 3 , 1_4.8 t / ha.
Thus, sowing corn on the ridges when cultivating it in the Central Region of the Non-Chernozem Zone is an effective
tive agrotechnical method, providing a stable and reliable increase in the yield of the total mass and ears of corn in comparison with traditional technology.
1. The formation of ridges in the spring provides a higher temperature regime of the soil (by 0.5.2 ° С) in comparison with the smooth soil.
Productivity (t / ha) of the total mass of corn, depending on the cultivation technology and planting density
Sowing period Standing density, thousand plants per 1 ha Year of research On average for 2005-2007
Sowing on a smooth surface
Sowing in heated soil 80 34.2 23.8 29.8 29.3
up to 10.12 ° C 120 41.0 23.1 31.7 31.9
(May 10.20) 160 39.8 27.0 35.3 34.0
Early sowing 80 29.7 31.3 21.6 27.5
(April 25 - May 5) 120 38.6 31.9 25.1 31.9
Sowing into heated soil 80 31.7 36.7 37.7 35.4
up to 10.12 ° С 120 36.6 35.9 42.0 38.2
(May 10-20) 160 40.4 37.4 41.3 39.7
Early sowing 80 39.2 40.9 23.0 34.4
(April 25 - May 5) 120 43.4 45.0 22.6 37.0
Productivity (t / ha) of corn cobs at the beginning of waxy ripeness with early sowing (April 25 - May 5)
that standing - Sow Sow Sow Sow
plants per hectare on a ridge surface on a smooth surface H ^ 5 on a ridge surface on a smooth surface H ^ 5
120 17,7 15,6 0,9 20,3 16,0 3,2
160 18,1 17,2 4,5 19,9 16,8 2,7
surface, which contributes to the amicable emergence of corn seedlings.
2. On the ridges, the cellulolytic activity of the soil increases, as evidenced by the increase in the rate of decomposition of linen tissue. Increasing the seeding rate for corn reduces the biological activity of the soil.
3. Different cultivation techniques and the density of maize sowing affect the formation of the root system of plants. When cultivating corn on the ridges, both in the early sowing period (April 25 - May 5) and when the soil warms up to 10.12 ° C (May 10-20), plants form a more powerful root system compared to sowing on a smooth surface. The accumulation of root mass also depends on the density of the crops. The lower the planting rate, the larger the root volume of the corn.
4. Ridge corn plants outperform smooth surface plants (conventional sowing). In the flowering phase, the ear is ahead of
vitia is 5-10 days, the growing season is reduced by 6-11 days.
5. The increase in the yield of the total mass of corn when sowing on ridges is naturally greater than when sowing on a smooth surface. With an early sowing period (April 25 - May 5) and a plant density of 80 thousand plants per 1 ha, the yield is higher by 6.9 t / ha, with 120 thousand plants per 1 ha - by 5.1 t / ha, with 160 thousand plants per 1 ha - by 2.5 t / ha. In variants with sowing maize in soil heated to 10.12 ° C (May 10-20) at a seeding rate of 80, 120 and 160 thousand plants per hectare, the increase was 6.1, 6.3 and 5.7 t / ha, respectively. ...
1. Sokht, K.A. Research of new technologies of corn cultivation / K.A. Sokht, P.A. Shcherbina // Corn and sorghum. 1999. - No. 6. - S. 11-15.
2. Sotchenko, V.S. State and prospects of corn grain production in the Russian Federation / V.S. Sotchenko. - 2002 .-- 48 p.
3. Corn for feed. Production and use. - M .: Kolos, 1983 .-- 17 p.
4. The national economy of the USSR in 1989 - M .: Finance and statistics, 1989. - 452 p.
5. Catalog of zoned varieties of agricultural crops. - M .: Kolos, 1974 .-- 479 p.
6. State register of breeding achievements approved for use. T. 1. - M .: Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, 2007. - S. 24-32.
7. Atlas of agriculture of the USSR. - M .: Main Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography of the Ministry of Geology and Subsoil Protection of the USSR, 1960. - 125 p.
I.A. Spitsyn, Doctor of Technical Sciences Sciences, Professor A.A. Orekhov, Cand. tech. Sciences, Associate Professor M.V. Chushkin, postgraduate student
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "Penza State Agricultural Academy"
phase change heat accumulator
Currently, in our country and abroad, the production of phase transition heat accumulators (TAPP) has been launched, designed for pre-heating of engines and heating the interior (cabin) of a vehicle when the engine is not running at low ambient temperatures. Such TAPP, called "a device for facilitating the start of an automobile engine", is not
large batches are produced by the Russian company "AutoPlusMadi" (Moscow) for gasoline and diesel engines with a working volume of up to 4 liters. Also known TAPP volumes of 4.6, 5, 7.5 and 9 liters, produced under license from the Canadian company "CENNAUR Thermal Systems Ine".
Analysis of TAPP designs showed that they are used only for heating the liquid in the system.
Soil for growing winter wheat
Proper soil preparation for sowing a crop is an important condition for high yields. At this stage, it is important to consider:
- soil property
- percentage clogging
- crop rotation
- features for previous crops.
In regions where the soil moisture indicator is sufficient, protection and optimization of nutrition is carried out, namely the destruction of weeds and pests, the prevention of possible diseases, the use of micronutrients in order to optimize the nutritional process. In turn, in arid areas, much attention is focused on moisture conservation.
It is especially worth carrying out surface soil improvement before sowing after heavy rain. The soil must be loosened so that large lumps do not form on the surface. And if available, you can get rid of them thanks to several passes of the unit. However, repeated cultivation of the soil changes the structure and disturbs the mass of the volume, which, as a result, affects the amount of the crop.
Features of nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat
If in the fall, during the main soil cultivation, we apply the minimum norms of nitrogen, then by the beginning of the formation of grains the plants will feel its deficiency. Since at the expense of a significant amount, the vegetative mass will be formed, and the rest will be washed out by winter and early spring. On the other hand, a high volume of nitrogen fertilization also negatively affects the state of the crop, since there is a possible risk of low winter hardiness, overgrowth in accordance with the growth phase and changes in phytosanitary growing conditions. In addition, in the autumn-spring period, a significant amount of nitrogen due to precipitation enters the lower layers of the soil, so the effectiveness of its action decreases.
In the forest-steppe and Polesie, in order to provide plants with nitrogen fertilization during the growing season, a slowly dissolving concentrate should be applied or applied several times to certain areas. Since a large number of such microfertilizers dissolve easily, as a rule, a small part of them is used during the autumn feeding, and the rest - in the spring-summer period with a high demand for plant development.
For the southern part of Ukraine, the recommendations are different. In the structure of heavy clay and loamy soils, in conditions of low precipitation, nitrogen remains within the rhizome of the plant. However, it can move to the lower layer, but for a certain period. Together with the rising water, nitrogen rises to the upper layers of the soil and is absorbed by the plant.
Experts believe that the conditions for growing wheat in the Steppe provide for the use of nitrogen fertilizers in autumn rather than in spring or late spring. But if no nitrogen was introduced during sowing, the use in early spring increases the density of the stem, especially in rare or undeveloped crops.
Maize cultivation technology
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1. Brief information on the Lipetsk region
1.1 General information on the Lipetsk region
1.2 Soils and their agrochemical characteristics
1.3 Weather and climatic conditions
1.4 Brief analysis of crop production
2. Biological features of culture
3. Cultivation technology
3.1 Characteristics of varieties (hybrids) of culture
3.2 Placement of crops in the crop rotation
3.3 Tillage system
3.4 Works carried out in winter
3.6 Preparing seeds for sowing
4. Post-harvest handling of the crop
5. Technological scheme of crop cultivation
List of used literature
Corn (species Zea maus L.)? one of the main cultures of modern world agriculture. This is a crop of versatile use and high yield. The average corn yield ranges from 3.15 to 4.05 t / ha, sometimes reaching 6-8 t / ha. About 20% of corn grain is used for food in the countries of the world, for technical purposes? 15-20% and about two thirds? for feed. Grain is used to produce: flour, cereals, flakes, canned food (sweet corn), starch, ethyl alcohol, dextrin, beer, glucose, sugar, molasses, syrups, honey, oil, vitamin E, ascorbic and glutamic acids. Pistillate columns are used in medicine. Paper, linoleum, viscose, activated carbon, artificial cork, plastic, anesthetics, etc. are produced from stems, leaves and ears.
Corn grain is an excellent food. 1 kg of grain contains 1.34 feed units and 78 g of digestible protein. It is a valuable component of compound feed. However, corn protein is poor in essential amino acids: lysine and tryptophan? and rich in protein of little value in terms of feed? zein.
In Ukraine, corn ranks first as a silage crop. Silage has good digestibility and dietary properties. 100 kg of silage made from maize in the phase of milky-wax ripeness contains about 21 feed units and up to 1800 g of digestible protein.
Corn is used for green fodder, which is rich in carotene. Dry leaves, stalks and cobs of corn that remain after harvesting for grain are also fed into the fodder. 100 kg of corn straw contains 37 feed units, and 100 kg of ground sticks? 35.
Is corn grown all over the world? from tropical latitudes to Scandinavian countries. In world agriculture, the area of its cultivation for grain is 129.3 million hectares. About 23% of the world's corn sown area is in the United States, here it provides 60% of the gross grain harvest, in Brazil? 12.4 million hectares in India? 5.8, in Argentina? 3.2 million hectares. On the territory of the Russian Federation, the main areas of corn cultivation? North Caucasus, Lower and Middle Volga region, TsCHR. In the northern regions - Siberia and the Far East - it is cultivated for silage .
1. Brief information about the Lipetsk region
1.1 General information about the Lipetsk region
Favorable climatic conditions, the presence of chernozems in the Lipetsk region, contribute to the development of crop production. The area of farmland is over 1.8 million hectares, of which arable land? more than 80%. In the Lipetsk region, there are about 300 agricultural enterprises, the main directions of which are: the production of cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, cattle breeding, pig breeding, poultry farming .
Lipetsk region is located in the temperate climatic zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Its territory is dominated by continental air masses of temperate latitudes.
1.2 Soils and their agrochemical characteristics
The soil cover is the result of a long and complex development of natural conditions. In the Lipetsk region, the zonal soil type is gray forest soils. The most widespread are powerful chernozems. They occupy about 40 percent of the region's territory. Are they common in the southeast of the region? in the Dobrinsky and Gryazinsky districts and in the southwest? in the Volovoy district. Powerful chernozems are highly fertile and have a thickness of up to 120-130 cm. The soils are porous and retain air and moisture well. They are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium.
Leached and podzolized chernozems in the region are the most widespread. They account for 79.4% of the arable land area. They were formed where there are favorable conditions for leaching. Leaching? this is the leaching of soluble substances from the soil. Leached chernozems mainly occupy the western and northern parts of the region.
Podzolized chernozems are found in separate areas among leached chernozems. They are available in Khlevensky and in the southern part of the Zadonsky district.
Gray forest soils were formed under the cover of deciduous forests. They are common in Yelets, Zadonsky, Krasninsky districts. They are found in separate spots among podzolized and leached chernozems. These soils are poor in humus in comparison with chernozem soils.
Podzolic soils are common in a strip of coniferous forests on the left bank of the Voronezh River. The valleys of Voronezh, Don, Krasivaya Swords and other rivers have alluvial-floodplain sod soils.
In the southeast of the region, solonetzes and malts occur in separate spots. They are usually located on the slopes and in the upper reaches of ravines, along hollows, sometimes in river valleys and depressions of flat watersheds.
1.3 Weather and climatic conditions
Lipetsk region is located in the temperate climatic zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Its territory is dominated by continental air masses of temperate latitudes.Moderate continental air often penetrates from the southeast. In winter, it brings a sharp cold snap, but in summer? dry, hot weather.
The coldest month of the year is January. The change in average January temperatures is traced from the southwest to the northeast. In the south-west of the region, the average January temperature is -9.7 ° C, in the northeast, -10.9 ° C. At the same time, sometimes in January the air temperature can drop significantly, which is associated with the invasion of Arctic air masses. The warmest month of the year is July. Its average temperature ranges from + 18.5 ° C in the northwest to + 20.2 ° C in the southeast, which is associated with an increase in the continentality of the climate in this direction. The annual range of average temperatures in the region is 30 ° and more.
The remoteness from the Atlantic Ocean, atmospheric circulation, temperature conditions, and relief affect the moisture content of the region's territory. The average annual rainfall here ranges from 550 mm in the northwest to 450 mm in the southeast. They also change naturally in accordance with the continental climate. Precipitation over the seasons of the year falls unevenly - the least amount of them falls during the cold period of the year. The lowest rainfall occurs in February? 20-25 mm. From April to July, the amount of precipitation increases markedly, reaching a maximum in July. In July, they fall out 60-85 mm.
The highest evaporation rate is observed in the southeast of the region, where the temperature is higher than in the rest of the territory. In general, the humidification coefficient for the region is positive - more than 1. Thus, the climate of the Lipetsk region is moderately continental, with warm summers and moderately cold winters. All seasons of the year are clearly defined .
Table 1. Agrometeorological conditions of the area.
Average monthly air temperatures,? С
Brief analysis of field cultivation
Table 2. Sown area of agricultural crops in the Lipetsk region (thousand hectares)
cereals and legumes
sugar beet (factory)
Based on Table 2, the sown area of grain corn has increased over the past few years.
Table 3. Yield of agricultural crops in the Lipetsk region (kg / ha)
sugar beet (factory)
According to table 3, the yield of corn for grain in the region has been at a high level over the past two years.
2.Biological features of culture
Corn? an annual plant of the Bluegrass family. Monoecious, dioecious, cross-pollinated. Not found in the wild.
The root system is powerful, fibrous, multi-tiered, highly branched, capable of penetrating to a depth of 3 m on soils with loose subsoil horizons. It spreads over a radius of more than 1 m.
The corn stalk is 2 to 7 cm thick, well leafy, erect, round, smooth. Plant height ranges from 60 cm to 6 m. The stem is capable of branching, developing lateral stepchild shoots. The photosynthetic activity of the stem is of great importance in the formation of the grain yield.
The leaves of corn are large, linear, whole-edged, parallel-nervous, pubescent from above, in an alternating order located on two opposite sides of the stem. The leaf sheaths fit tightly around the stem. Their number is from 8 to 45.
The total leaf surface of a plant, depending on the variety and agricultural technology, is 0.3-1.5 m2. The leaf area reaches its maximum value at the end of flowering. Do corn leaves contain more nutrients than the stalk, when used for silage and green fodder, higher plant foliage? positive sign.
Each corn plant has two types of inflorescences: male? panicle and feminine? cobs.
The panicle consists of a central axis (continuation of the upper internode) and lateral axes. Panicle spikelets are two-flowered, with three anthers in each flower. A developed panicle has 1000-1200 spikelets, that is, 2-2.5 thousand flowers. Each anther yields up to 2500 pollen grains, but the whole panicle? up to 15-20 million
The cobs (modified lateral shoots) are located in the leaf axils at the apex of the lateral shoots with shortened internodes and modified leaves that form a wrapper. The number of full-fledged ears per plant may vary.
The ear consists of an inflorescence axis (core), on which spikelets with female flowers are placed in pairs in rows. In each spikelet, two flowers are laid, of which only the upper one develops, the lower one atrophies. The number of longitudinal rows of flowers (grains) per cob is from 8 to 16. In some varieties, the number of rows of grains reaches 30. Pistil with a large ovary and a very long column. During flowering, the pistils extend outside the wrapper.
The corn is pollinated by the wind. The flowering period of the panicle and ears on the same plant does not coincide (the panicle blooms 3-8 days earlier, which ensures cross-pollination). Warm, humid weather, with a light wind, is favorable for pollination. In rainy weather, pollen is washed off, and excessive dryness kills it.
The fruit is a weevil, usually glabrous, large. The mass of 1000 seeds in small-seeded varieties is 100-150 g, in large-seeded varieties? 300-400 g. In the total dry above-ground mass of a corn plant, the share of leaves, stem, panicle, stem with stem and wrapper on average accounts for 55-60%, the share of grain? 40-45%, and in the total mass of grain and core, the share of the core? 15-18%. Does the male inflorescence occupy a very small place in the total aboveground mass? 1-1.5%. These ratios change in different varieties under the influence of environmental factors and agricultural techniques. Under the influence of centuries-old and multifaceted human influence (selection, agricultural technology, resettlement), a huge variety of forms of corn has arisen.
Corn is a heat-loving plant. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 8-10 ° C, shoots appear at 10-12 ° C. The most favorable temperature for plant growth is 25 - 30 ° C. The maximum temperature at which the growth stops is 45 - 47 ° С.
Frosts at 2 - 3 ° C damage the seedlings, and in the fall - the leaves. Corn tolerates spring frosts better than autumn ones. Damaged seedlings are capable of growing back within a week. Freezing at 3 ° C leads to the loss of germination of unripe wet grain.
The sum of active temperatures required for the maturation of early ripening varieties and hybrids is 2100 ... 2400 ° C, mid-ripening and late-ripening? 2600 ... 3000 ° C .
Table 4. Requirements of maize to temperature at different stages of development
Critical temperature, ° С
Formation and growth of vegetative organs
Generative organs formation, intensive growth and flowering
-1 ... -2 (generative organs) -2 ... -5 (leaves)
-2. -3 (leaves) -4. -5 (ears in the phase of milky-wax ripeness)
The moisture requirement of corn is low. At the beginning of the growing season, before the formation of the 7.8th leaf, little water is consumed, and there is enough moisture stored from autumn-winter precipitation. With a minimum of precipitation, but in warm weather, the culture develops a powerful root system in search of moisture.
Corn tolerates drought relatively well prior to the stemming phase. Lack of moisture 10 days before sprouting and 20 days after sprouting (critical period) sharply reduces the yield. During this period, well-developed plants provide themselves with moisture from deep soil layers. In the main areas of grain corn cultivation, the danger is posed by air drought, which causes wilting of plants, a decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis and the viability of pollen.
Maize plants tolerate a temporary lack of water in the soil and low relative humidity. However, prolonged sticking of leaves inhibits growth processes and disrupts the formation of reproductive organs. Corn does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, drastically reducing the grain yield. Due to the lack of oxygen in the waterlogged soil, the intake of phosphorus into the roots slows down and the processes of phosphorylation, energy processes in the roots and protein metabolism are disrupted .
Corn belongs to light-loving, short-day plants. It blooms most quickly at 8. 9 hours a day. With a day length of more than 12.14 hours, the growing season is lengthened. Corn requires intense sunlight. Shading by weeds in the first growing season leads to a decrease in yield, as well as excessive thickening of crops.
Attitude to soils and nutrients.
Corn gives high yields on clean, loose, breathable soils with a deep humus layer, provided with nutrients and moisture, with a pH of 5.5 - 7. It grows and develops best on black earth, dark chestnut soils. The sowing of corn for grain is concentrated on these soils. In the northern regions of corn cultivation, with a lack of heat and high humidity, well-cultivated light loamy, sandy loam and sandy soils are more suitable, which warm up faster in spring. High yields of corn for silage can be obtained on gray forest, sod-podzolic, floodplain, drained peat-bog soils. Soils prone to waterlogging, highly saline, and also with high acidity (pH below 5) are unsuitable for the cultivation of this crop.
When germinating, corn seeds need good aeration, since their large embryos absorb a lot of oxygen. High yields are ensured when the oxygen content in the soil air is not less than 18 - 20%. At an oxygen content of about 10%, root growth slows down, and at 5% it stops. At the same time, the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil, the metabolism in the roots and in the aerial part of plants is disturbed.
Nitrogen is especially important in the early stages of plant growth. With its lack, the growth and development of plants are delayed. The maximum nitrogen intake is observed during 2-3 weeks before sweeping. Nitrogen consumption by plants stops after the beginning of milk ripeness of the grain.
Phosphorus is especially necessary at the beginning of plant growth, when future inflorescences are laid (4-6 leaves phase). Lack of it at this time leads to underdevelopment of the cobs, irregular rows of grains are formed. Adequate supply of phosphorus to plants stimulates the development of the root system, increases drought resistance, accelerates the formation of ears and ripening of the crop. Phosphorus is absorbed by plants in smaller quantities, it enters them more slowly and more evenly than potassium and nitrogen. Its maximum consumption in maize occurs during the period of grain formation and continues almost until its ripening.
With a lack of potassium, the movement of carbohydrates slows down, the synthetic activity of the leaves decreases, the root system is weakened and the resistance of maize to lodging decreases. Potassium begins to intensively enter the plant from the first days of germination. By the beginning of sprouting, the plants absorb up to 90% of potassium; soon after the end of flowering, its entry into the plant stops (more precisely, it stabilizes). From the time of milky ripeness of the grain, the content of potassium in plant tissues decreases as a result of the leaching of this element by precipitation through the root system into the soil.
With the beginning of grain formation, the accumulation of dry matter in the stems, and in the phase of milky-wax ripeness of the grain and in the leaves, stops and there is an increased transfer of nutrients from the vegetative organs to the reproductive organs. At the same time, up to 59% nitrogen, 36% phosphorus and 82% potassium are used for filling grain from other plant organs. The rest of the nitrogen, phosphorus, and, in some cases, potassium enters the grain due to the continued consumption of these elements from the soil .
The following phases of growth and development of corn are distinguished: the beginning and full emergence of seedlings, the beginning and full appearance of panicles, the beginning and full flowering of the ears (the appearance of threads), the milky, milky-waxy state of the grain, waxy ripeness, full ripeness. The duration of the interfacial periods is determined by the varietal characteristics, weather conditions and agricultural technology.
In the initial period, before the formation of the first aboveground stem node, corn grows very slowly. The growth rate then increases gradually, reaching a maximum before sweeping. At this time, the growth of plants under favorable conditions is 10-12 cm / day. After flowering, their growth in height stops. Critical periods in the formation of a high yield? phase of 2-3 leaves, when differentiation of the rudimentary stem occurs, and phase of 6-7 leaves, when the size of the ear is determined.
The most important phases in the development of maize are as follows:
1) panicle formation, which occurs in early ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties, respectively, in the phase of the 4-7th leaf, 5-8th and 7-11th leaves
2) the formation of the cob, which occurs in these varieties, respectively, in the phase of the 7-11th leaf, 8-12th and 11-16th leaves. 10 days before sprouting and 20 days after the end of flowering, plants accumulate up to 75% of organic matter. Drought, waterlogging of the soil, lack of mineral nutrition during the flowering and fertilization period worsen fertilization, reduce the graininess of the ears. The maximum amount of wet mass in plants is observed in the phase of the milky state of dry matter - at the end of waxy ripeness. To form a high grain yield, corn crops must form a leaf surface of about 40-50 thousand m / ha, for green mass? 60-70 thousand m / ha and more.
The length of the growing season in maize ranges from 75 to 180 days or more.
According to the length of the growing season in corn, the following groups of plants are distinguished: early ripening with a duration from germination to full ripening of grain 80-90 days (leaves on the main stem 10-12) mid-season? 90-100 days (12-14 leaves) mid-season? 100-115 days (14-16 leaves) mid-season? 115-130 days (16-18 leaves) late ripening? 130-150 days (18-20 leaves), very late ripening? more than 150 days (more than 20 leaves) .
3. Cultivation technology
3.1 Characteristics of varieties (hybrids) of culture
About 500 varieties and hybrids of corn are registered in Russia. Basically, these are double interline and varietal hybrids. The most common varieties of corn in the Russian Federation:
For the Central Black Earth, North Caucasian and Lower Volga regions: Balance, Balkan, Bogatyr, Veritis, Delitop, Djerba, Donskaya Tall, Zernogradsky 251 MV, Krasnodar 290 MV, Krasnodar 295 MV, Kubansky 247 MV, Leksik, Nexos, Newton, Ross 299 MV for grain and universal use
For the Central region: Accent MV, Belkorn 250 MV, Cascade 166 ASV, Povolzhsky 187 SV and others mainly for silage use .
Hybrid ACCENT MV. Included in the State Register for the Central Region for silage. Medium early. Panicle flowering time is early - medium. The main axis of the panicle is higher than the upper lateral branch of medium length. The primary lateral branches of the panicle are slightly curved, of medium length, the number of branches is medium. The plant is of medium height. The ear is long, slightly conical; the stem is colored in 70% of the plants. The grain is intermediate, closer to the dentate, yellow in the upper part, yellow-orange in the lower part. The average yield of normalized dry matter in the region is 70.2 c / ha, at the level of standards. Resistant to southern helminthosporiosis, very weakly affected by blister smut. Susceptible to Fusarium on the cobs, it was severely damaged by the corn stalk moth.
Hybrid BELCORN 250 MB. Included in the State Register for the Central Black Earth Region for grain and silage, for the Central and Middle Volga regions for silage. Medium early. Panicle flowering time is early - medium. The main axis of the panicle, above the upper lateral branch, is medium-long. Primary lateral branches of panicle slightly curved, of medium length, branches? lot. The plant is of medium height. Ear of ear? long, slightly conical, the shaft is weakly colored. The grain is intermediate, in the upper part it is yellow - yellow-orange.Average grain yield in the Central Black Earth Region? 61.8 centners / ha. Resistant to southern helminthosporiosis, moderately resistant to bacteriosis, fusarium on cobs and bladder smut, highly susceptible to corn stalk moth.
Cascade 166 ASV. Early maturing, simple modified hybrid. Created at the Voronezh Experimental Corn Station. The main advantage of a hybrid? high yield and low harvesting grain moisture. The maximum grain yield of 104.3 c / ha was obtained in the Tula PIISH in 2000. The moisture content of grain at the time of harvesting is on average 4.7% lower than that of the standard .
3.2 Placement of crops in the crop rotation
Corn is not very demanding to be placed in a crop rotation. It is only important to sow it at the optimum time for the area. This crop has no specific requirements for the predecessor, it is not a host for diseases (with the exception of Fusarium) and pests of other cultivated plants. Very good corn precursors? manure-fertilized row crops and legumes. In field crop rotations, corn is placed after winter crops, grain legumes, as well as after potatoes, sugar beets, melons and other row crops, in a pair? when harvesting it for silage. In areas of insufficient moisture, it is not recommended to sow a crop after sunflower and sugar beet, which greatly dry up the soil to a considerable depth.
Corn does not impair soil fertility. Its root system leaves a large amount of organic matter in the soil. If all integrated weed control measures are applied in maize crops, this wide-row crop leaves the soil unoccupied for the following crops .
3.3 Tillage system
For corn, a well-cultivated soil is needed, which ensures high-quality placement of seeds during sowing and obtaining friendly shoots, as well as guarantees unhindered development of the root system in the arable and subsoil layers. Only in such soil can corn form a powerful root system. Part of the roots creates a shallow ramified network, the other - deeply (up to 2 m and more) penetrates into the soil, making maize plants resistant to lodging .
The purpose of cultivating the soil for corn is to create favorable conditions for its growth and development and to ensure optimal water-air and nutritional regimes in the soil. Soil cultivation should ensure:
the necessary elimination of compaction in the arable layer on the plow bottom and in the subsoil and thereby provide conditions for unhindered penetration of roots in the arable and subsoil horizons
homogeneous soil structure for optimal aggregation
even distribution of organic residues of the predecessor (straw, stubble, etc.) and catch crops in the arable layer
provocation of weeds to germination and their destruction during soil cultivation
preservation of soil moisture, absorption and preservation of precipitation by the soil, prevention of water and wind erosion
a sufficiently flat surface of the field for high-quality sowing of cereals.
Basic tillage includes:
- stubble plowing (depending on the predecessor).
- deep winter plowing.
Peeling is carried out with light disk harrows, peeling with heavy disk harrows (after coarse-stemmed predecessors) to a depth of 8-12 cm. On heavily weedy fields, harvesting is repeated no later than 15 days before the start of autumn plowing.
Plowing is carried out to a depth of 25-27 cm.
In early spring, continuous cultivation is carried out to a depth of 10-12 cm, with cultivators. Then they carry out the leveling of the soil, planners. Next, cultivation is carried out to the depth of seeding. If necessary, carry out 3 continuous cultivation. The seeding of soil herbicides must be carried out without a break in time.
Spring (pre-sowing) tillage.
In the spring, with the onset of physical ripeness of the soil, the plowing is leveled with VP-8 levelers at an angle of 45 ° to the direction of plowing (with a heavy granulometric composition of the soil, work is carried out in two directions).
By leveling the soil? obligatory admission. It promotes better soil warming, accelerated germination of weed seeds, more even distribution of herbicides over the soil surface and better sowing performance. One of the methods of spring soil preparation is the introduction and incorporation of soil herbicides. For this, combined units are used, consisting of a sprayer. The seeding depth of the applied herbicides is 8-10 cm.
Presowing treatment is carried out to the depth of seeding of seeds (6-8 cm) following the incorporation of herbicides with combinators RVK-3.6, Kombi-8.8. Depending on the prevailing soil and climatic conditions, the system for caring for corn crops can include post-sowing packing, pre-emergence and post-emergence harrowing, as well as loosening of row spacings.
Table 5. System of basic tillage.
Stubble plowing (depending on the predecessor)
no later than 15 days before the start of autumn plowing.
Fertilization and irrigation of corn
The effectiveness of the introduction of micronutrient fertilizers and seed protection products depends on a set of conditions: weather characteristics, the level of fertility and biological characteristics of the crop. Natural and climatic conditions affect the availability of useful elements and water in the soil, and directly on the yield of corn. Cultivation and maintenance of crops at all stages involves the use of complex fertilizers.
A decrease in the stock of productive moisture in the soil layer during the growing season by 10 millimeters reduces the effectiveness of nutritional preparations by almost 0.01–0.02 t / ha. Therefore, given the climatic changes that have occurred in recent years, interest in how to grow corn on irrigation is growing.
Basic fertilizers for corn
Corn plants assimilate a large number of various elements useful for vegetation. The feeding system consists of the main fertilization, which is applied in autumn or spring before sowing, pre-sowing and feeding during the growth and formation of the cobs.
Providing plants with phosphorus and potassium, corn becomes more resistant to thermal stress and lack of water, the amino acid composition of protein improves. Phosphorus and magnesium help to better form full grains, provide quick and even ripening. Most of all, nitrogen affects the quality of the crop, in addition to increasing the yield, the content of trace elements in the grain also increases.
Top dressing of corn
The high demand of plants for basic nutrients occurs during the period of intensive growth of the vegetative mass and the formation of reproductive organs. Top dressing of corn with mineral fertilizers makes it possible to obtain an increase in yield at the level of 10-12% or more.
Plants require increased mineral nutrition, due to the long growing season and the ability to assimilate useful elements by the end of the grain ripening phase. To determine the doses of mineral fertilizers for the planned harvest, a balance method is used, taking into account the actual fertility and the established standards for the consumption of trace elements for 1 ton of grain: 25 kilograms of nitrogen, 12 kilograms of phosphorus, 25 kilograms of potassium.
Irrigation of corn
The limiting production factor is moisture. Therefore, in order to provide plants with water in the required amount, irrigation systems are installed. In recent years, drip irrigation has been in great demand. Such a system helps to efficiently use water and carry out fertigation during critical periods of plant development.
Drip irrigation in corn fields is proving cost effective in many countries. A special advantage of this technology is the saving of water resources, which is 30-50%, compared to sprinkling. To get a good harvest, plants consume 3500–8000 m³ of water per hectare, taking into account climatic features and ripeness. It is important to water at night, or watering for low sun activity, to reduce evaporation and improve digestibility.
Another significant advantage of drip irrigation, when growing corn grain, is the timely application of fertilizers during the critical feeding period, because plants need nitrogen and potassium during the growing season, and phosphorus - at the early phase of powerful root formation and grain formation.