Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse makes it possible to get early harvests. In regions with a harsh climate, such a structure, especially one made by hand, is simply necessary, because it is generally impossible for young shoots with a weak root system to survive without shelter.
If the frosts did not have time to pass, then a small greenhouse made from scrap materials can save the crop. The size depends on the number of seedlings, and the device can be small or look like a large greenhouse.
Is it possible to make a greenhouse for a cucumber with your own hands
You can provide your family with vitamins, while saving money on market purchases of cucumbers and tomatoes, by installing a greenhouse.
This will require little skill, minimum materials and labor costs... Anyone who knows how to hold a hammer can handle the installation.
Of course, it is easier to purchase a ready-made structure, but a do-it-yourself shelter will be more adapted to climatic conditions and the site. In addition, the owner always feels special pride when he demonstrates the result of his work.
You can choose the parameters, shape and type of construction by reading the information on the Internet.
Many gardeners are happy to demonstrate homemade constructions. As an option, develop an exclusive design, modernize it after seasonal operation, and then share the result with everyone.
A greenhouse differs from greenhouses in the following ways:
- greenhouse height does not exceed 1.5 m;
- no doors, ventilation is achieved due to the disclosure of the moving elements of the structure;
- heating is carried out thanks to the sun compost;
- most often the greenhouse is dismantled for the winter.
Advantages and disadvantages of a shelter made of scrap materials
To justify the need to install a greenhouse on a site, you need to highlight its main advantages.
- Shelter provides an opportunity control the humidity of air and soil... It is possible, through simple manipulations, to establish a microclimate favorable for the culture.
- The ecological background of most regions is not clean, and after precipitation, many summer residents note the appearance of yellow and brown spots on the greenery. The design protects against heavy metals and other chemical compounds that affect the vegetation from getting on the plants.
- Cucumbers love moisture, but its abundance can destroy the bushes. In the rainy season, it is extremely difficult to protect cucumber beds from death. A greenhouse facilitates this task. The shelter allows you to control the moisture content of the soil environment.
- The self-assembled structure is easy to dismantle for winter storage.
- Strong winds and spring frosts negatively affect the development of seedlings, and sometimes they even die. In a greenhouse, such an outcome is excluded.
- Simplicity of design: you will need to mount the frame and fix a covering material (film, polycarbonate) on its edges.
- You can start growing seedlings earlier by sowing seeds. Harvesting with such protection is real. 3-4 weeks earlier than usual.
Despite all the advantages of self-made greenhouse structures, their disadvantages should also be noted. It:
- simple construction not always easy to use, therefore, it is better to use lifting mechanisms and locks in the development;
- novice gardeners do not understand the density of the film, they use a thin canvas, which is damaged during the first winds or heavy precipitation;
- sometimes all the costs of materials are equal to the cost of a finished greenhouse.
Types of greenhouses for cucumbers
By type of construction, greenhouse structures are:
When planning, it is worth considering that it will be more convenient to navigate along it if you choose an arched or gable frame shape.
The following types are considered the most popular:
- "Butterfly" - the frame has the form of an arch with two rising side parts, providing maximum illumination and air access;
- "Snail" - the design principle resembles an ordinary bread bin;
- "Belgian" - a rectangular frame with a hinged lid (opening radius is selected individually);
- film greenhouse - the frame is made in the form of an arch or cocked hat, the sides of the film are fixed on the bar, with the help of which the cover is rolled up for ventilation.
Among the materials used, preference is given to polycarbonate... He adequately replaced the film, which was enough for a season at best.
Good light transmission, resistance to external factors and easy maintenance give the polymer coating advantageous qualities that outperform other materials.
For the manufacture of the frame are used wooden boards, metal rods, pipes, corners, profiles... To reduce the cost of construction, many owners find use for old wood and metal that are available on the farm.
In order for the greenhouse to be operated in winter, it is recommended that think over the heating system... Possible options include:
- biological heating;
- using the stove;
- electrical appliances.
This option for using a greenhouse involves the use of polycarbonate as a coating with an air gap created between the main surface and a film stretched inside the structure.
In winter greenhouses, there must be a foundation part to reduce heat losses.
The correct device for a homemade greenhouse
Adhering to the recommendations of experts, you can build a greenhouse on your personal plot with your own hands. In order not to miss important details, you need to adhere to this sequence when carrying out work.
Choosing the right place
The place is chosen sunnyso that there is enough light for the plants. In addition, the sun's rays will additionally warm up the structure in cold weather. It is worth taking into account the distance to the house and the water source in advance so that the supply of electricity and the irrigation hose does not create additional problems.
If there are large plantings near the structure, it is better to choose another site. Welcomed flat areas with free access and space for service.
You should not install a greenhouse in a lowland, because with heavy rains, the groundwater level rises, which means that the root system can rot.
Selecting the type of coverage
When choosing a coating, you can show your imagination, the modern assortment is amazing in its breadth. If preference is given to the film, then it is better to purchase a product with reinforcing layer... The material is more resistant to tearing, withstands the load during heavy rainfall, and resists winds.
Classic type of coverage - glass does not lose its relevance in our time. The only disadvantage of glass surfaces is fragility. Large hail can easily deal with even reliable glazing.
A good alternative is polycarbonate, which is not inferior in properties to glass, but is devoid of fragility. The main thing is to choose the right sheet thickness.
The advantage of the material is considered to be flexibility, which allows you to give curved shapes to the coating.
This material is preferred by most gardeners.
Greenhouses, as a rule, are compact, unlike greenhouses, they do not have doors, so it makes no sense to build large structures. The parameters are determined taking into account the selected material. When using polycarbonate, the fold line is taken into account, it should be transverse (along the width of the sheet).
The optimal width of the structure is considered to be 140-150 cm... In a narrow structure, it will be more difficult to care for plants, and it will be more difficult to heat a large area.
Height within 1.3-1.7 m provides a convertible top (like a Belgian greenhouse or butterfly). The gable roof at its highest point reaches 1.7-2.2 m.
To assemble a Belgian polycarbonate greenhouse you will need:
- coniferous wooden boards (at least 25 cm wide, 20 mm thick);
- polycarbonate sheets;
- bars (40x40);
- fasteners (hardware and hinges).
Since the Belgian greenhouse belongs to lightweight mobile structures, no need for a foundation... As a base for the frame, you can lay out a brick or cinder block along the perimeter of the frame.
Greenhouse installation includes the following steps.
Clearing the space for the installation of the structure
The area for the greenhouse must be examined for the level of occurrence of groundwater.
If necessary, a pit is dug out with a depth 50 cm, and a bed of crushed stone and sand is made with a layer of 15 cm... After compaction of the pillow, fertile soil is poured with a rammer.
Layout according to the drawn drawing
An improvised or solid foundation should be wider in width than the wooden beam used. This will protect the tree from rotting.
Assembling the frame
Going first box... The elements are connected with self-tapping screws, the corners are fixed with special corner fasteners. Hinges are installed along the junction line of the roof frame and the box.
Polycarbonate needed cut according to the drawing... To prevent water from getting into the honeycomb along the cuts, you need to close them with a U-shaped profile or seal them with foil tape.
Leaving the edges unprocessed is not recommended. During the operation of the greenhouse, damage is quickly formed on them, which contributes to the rapid wear of the coating.
Installing a retractable roof on hinges
Polycarbonate sheathed roof frame fixed to the box with hinges... This will provide its mobility for ventilation and maintenance of plants.
A greenhouse made with your own hands will become a real protection for cucumbers from the vagaries of the weather. This is evidenced by the generous harvests that are removed by gardeners of the northern regions, where previously there was no talk about growing greenery.
Do-it-yourself greenhouse for cucumbers: materials, construction
Elastic and crispy cucumbers are the pride of any summer resident and gardener. Agree, it's nice to open a jar with summer fruits grown in your own garden in winter. However, for our climatic conditions, cucumbers are too thermophilic; it is almost impossible to grow a rich harvest outdoors, especially in the northern regions of the country. But there is nothing wrong with that, agricultural technicians took care of the needs of summer residents by inventing a greenhouse.
What is the difference between a greenhouse and a greenhouse for growing cucumbers
First of all, it is useful for an inexperienced gardener to know how greenhouses for cucumbers differ from a greenhouse.
- higher, not less than 2 meters. Such a device allows the gardener to freely enter the greenhouse and conduct watering, weeding
- structures can be heated, with power supply
- often greenhouses are installed on a foundation
- the device assumes ventilation, for which windows are made.
The place for the greenhouse is chosen so that there is free access to it both for watering and loosening the soil, and for the delivery of fertilizers on a wheelbarrow
It is easier to figure out in what sequence to build a greenhouse if the work is guided not only by photos, but also by video.
It is much easier for a beginner to build a greenhouse for cucumbers with his own hands. Elementary structures are a box covered with a transparent film or a mini-pit with arcs covered with a covering material.
Greenhouse installation rules
When making a greenhouse, certain rules must be taken into account. First, it is necessary to determine the place where the structure will be installed, as well as its size.
- The greenhouse is installed "facing" to the south, and the end to the north. Due to this, most of the lateral surface in the morning will be heated from the east side, and in the evening - from the west.
- Typically, the structure is mounted from plastic pipes to a height of 1.2 meters. To install a greenhouse of this size, three-meter PVC pipes will be required.
- The length of the greenhouse is chosen arbitrarily, but you should take into account the small height of the shelter and do not make the structure longer than 4 meters
- The distance between the arcs is traditionally observed about 0.5 m, but an increase up to 0.8 m and even up to 1 m is allowed. It is impossible to make a gap between the arcs of more than 1 meter.
Step one: making the base
A box with certain dimensions is made as a base. They are fixed at the corners of boards or beams using self-tapping screws or corners. The resulting frame, after manufacturing, is treated with an antiseptic solution and left to dry completely. Installation is carried out on a pre-leveled bed.
Step two: setting arcs
The armature must be cut into pieces no more than 50 cm in size. Three-meter PVC pipes are also cut into 3 equal parts. Inside the resulting base, on the two longest sides, parts of the reinforcement are firmly buried in the ground. Previously, marks should be made on the walls of the box in order to maintain an equal distance between the arcs.
The reinforcement is buried in the soil with a hammer, after which a nozzle from a polypropylene pipe is put on it and fixed with a perforated tape to the base.
PVC pipes must be fixed very firmly so that the structure remains stable even in strong gusts of wind.
Step three: screed
So that the arcs do not deform under the influence of different temperatures or over time, it is necessary to make a screed.
To create a screed, it is necessary to screw the pipes to the center of the arcs (to the ridge of the greenhouse) with a wire. It is recommended to perform a tie along the entire length, but it is possible partially by connecting several pipes.
Step four: cover
Covering material or film must be measured in length and width with a margin. The surplus will be required in order to fix the material on the sides and close the ends, if they are not provided for their production from glass or other material. The best way to secure the film is with a garden hose that is out of order. It is necessary to cut off pieces of no more than 15 cm from the hose, cut them lengthwise, and then put these parts on a pipe wrapped in foil.
Recommendation! The covering material is best fixed along the ridge, in this case it will be easier to open or close one or another side, so that the plants evenly receive enough sunlight and heat.
In order to make the airing process easy - the ends are also made of foil. Excess material is secured at the base with elastic bands or tied in a knot.
You can make a greenhouse without a base, using arcs.
Arcs made of rods or PVC pipes are driven into the ground, having previously made markings on the site in order to place the pegs evenly.
The rods or PVC tubes are tied in the center with a cord, and the extreme parts of the material are sprinkled with earth. First of all, a cord is tied to the pegs, after which the film.
The resulting structure is secured with a cord that connects subsequent arcs and tied to pegs at the ends of the greenhouse. Then the film is stretched and sprinkled with earth on the sides.
Site selection and preparation
In order for daylight to enter the room in sufficient quantity, it is necessary to locate the greenhouse from the east side to the west or from the north side to the south. With this arrangement, the rays of the sun in the morning and in the evening will get inside without obstacles, and the side walls will protect from the midday heat.
The site for establishing the structure is chosen flat, with a slight slope to the south. The soil is pre-dug up and fertilized.A mixture of humus, peat and rotted sawdust is popular. In order for the soil to warm up well enough, a mixture of straw and manure is applied under the fertilizer layer. It is recommended to apply an insulating layer 20 days before planting the cucumbers.
Greenhouse made of arches with a film coating
The simplest and most quickly erected structure is an arched greenhouse made of pipes, covered with a film. You can collect it in the spring in a few hours, and in the fall it can be disassembled and transferred to another place, observing the crop rotation.
- boards 15 cm wide and 3-4 cm thick
- wood preservative
- corners and nails or screws
- trims of steel reinforcement with a length of 40-60 cm
- PVC pipe Ø20-Ø25 mm
- tie wire, better insulated
- film or covering material.
The amount of material depends on the length of the greenhouse. Pipes are better to take three-meter or six-meter - this way there will be less scraps. Arcs are placed every 0.5-1.0 m, in addition, you will need three longitudinal ties equal to the length of the greenhouse.
It is better to choose a film or covering material for three-meter pipes with a width of 3.5-4 meters in order to ensure its fixation from below. The length of the foam should exceed the length of the greenhouse by 3 meters. For convenience, you can create a sketch of a greenhouse, indicating all dimensions on it.
Step 1. Making the base. The greenhouse box performs a double function: it fixes the frame and holds the fertile soil. The easiest way to make a box is from a wooden beam with a section of 10x10 cm or from boards. The lumber is sawn to size according to a previously drawn up sketch and connected into a rectangle using corners and self-tapping screws. To extend the service life, the base of the greenhouse must be covered with an antiseptic. For temporary shelters, it is not necessary to make a base.
Step 2. Preparation of pipes and fittings. The armature is cut into pieces of 40-60 cm using a grinder. Pipes, if necessary, are cut into segments of 2.9-3 m. With such an arc length, the height of the greenhouse will be 0.9-1.0 m, which is sufficient for successful vegetation and fruit bearing of cucumbers.
Step 3. Installing fittings. Mark the location of the arcs on the ground or on the base and drive the trims of the reinforcement with a hammer into the ground by 20-25 cm. Make sure that the reinforcement is at the same level on both sides of the greenhouse.
Step 4. Installing arcs. The pipes are bent into an arch and put on the fittings sticking out of the ground. To secure the pipes, they can be tied to the frame with a perforated tape. If the pipes are very distorted, you can temporarily tighten them with wire or twine, giving them the same shape.
Step 5. Connecting the arcs with ties. Ties are made from one long pipe or several short ones. The tie is placed on the ridge of the greenhouse and tied to the arcs with a wire. To strengthen the structure, you can make two more ties on both sides. In addition to strengthening the greenhouse, these elements will prevent severe sagging of the film.
Step 6. Finishing the ends... The ends can be closed in different ways: sew them up with reinforced film, polycarbonate, or simply hang the free edges of the film and pull them off with an elastic band.
Step 7. Attaching the film... The film is cut with a margin of 3 meters in length, the sleeve is cut and straightened. Lay on top of the greenhouse. There are different ways to fix the film on the arcs. Convenient fasteners can be made from an old garden hose by cutting it into 10-15 cm pieces and cutting it lengthwise. The hose is put on the arcs over the film, fixing it.
Note! If you fix the film on the ridge of the greenhouse, you can only open one side. This is convenient on days with variable cloudiness, when it can be cool in an open greenhouse, and in a completely closed greenhouse, plants can burn out.
Greenhouse arc prices
Video - Making an arched greenhouse in an hour
We plant tomato seedlings
The quality of the seedlings is the key to success in obtaining a good harvest of tomatoes.
ATTENTION! Sowing is carried out in the first decade of March. For sowing, prepare boxes, fill them with a steam-sterilized soil mixture
A special ready-made mixture for tomatoes is suitable
For sowing, prepare boxes, fill them with a steam-sterilized soil mixture. A special ready-made mixture for tomatoes will do.
Or a substrate of four parts of sod land and two parts of sand.
To increase the nutritional value, a little wood ash is added to the mixture (a 10 liter glass).
It is better to germinate the seeds in a moist tissue before sowing. After 4-5 days, they will swell and can be placed in the ground. The seeds should be arranged tightly enough, since there is no guarantee that all of them will sprout. Spread the seeds over the surface, sprinkle them with a 1.5-2 cm layer of soil, cover the box with foil. Germination should be carried out at a temperature of 22-25 degrees, in a bright place.
IMPORTANT! Make sure that the rays of the sun do not fall on the box, otherwise the seeds will simply cook, and you will not wait for germination. As soon as the first shoots appear, the film should be removed, and the temperature should be lowered to 18-20 degrees so that the plants do not stretch out.
When the tomatoes have several real leaves, the seedlings dive at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other
As soon as the first shoots appear, the film should be removed, and the temperature should be reduced to 18-20 degrees so that the plants do not stretch out. When the tomatoes have several real leaves, the seedlings dive at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other.
The predecessors of tomatoes on the site can be carrots, onions, cucumbers, zucchini.
IMPORTANT! You cannot plant them in the place where potatoes and peppers grew. It is also not recommended to plant tomatoes in the same place where they grew in the previous season.
The soil at this place is depleted, as the tomatoes that grew there have drawn out the necessary minerals
It is also not recommended to plant tomatoes in the same place where they grew in the previous season. The soil at this place is depleted, as the tomatoes growing there have drawn out the necessary minerals.
If your greenhouse is portable, consider this condition. In a stationary greenhouse, the soil must be replaced. The soil should be loose, with a sufficient amount of sand or peat. It is also necessary to add well-rotted humus. But don't add too much of it, it will lead to overgrowth of the leaves.
IMPORTANT! Do not fertilize tomato beds with fresh manure. The roots from this will burn, and the fruits will not be tied.
It is also necessary to observe the acidity of the soil; dolomite flour or slaked lime is used to reduce it.
It is also necessary to observe the acidity of the soil; dolomite flour or slaked lime is used to reduce it.
We plant seedlings
Before placing tomato seedlings in a permanent place in a greenhouse, they should be hardened, accustomed to the sun.
If you transplant unprepared plants into the ground, they will start to hurt, burn under the sun, and may even die.
The hardening process begins even in cold weather, with the help of open vents.
You can take out the boxes with seedlings to the balcony so that it gets used to the low temperature. In addition, before planting in the ground, it is necessary to reduce the frequency of watering the seedlings.
With the onset of warm days, take the boxes with seedlings outside and place them in a place protected from wind and sun. Keep the seedlings out of the sun, especially in the first week. Before planting, put the boxes in the greenhouse for two to three days so that the plants get used to its conditions. The film or frames need to be slightly opened during the day.
As soon as the threat of frost passes, the tomatoes are planted in the greenhouse. This usually happens in mid-May.
ATTENTION! If a sudden cold snap suddenly occurs, the greenhouse is additionally covered with a layer of non-woven material or any fabrics. Tomato bushes are planted at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other, row spacing - 50-60 cm
If the bushes are stretched out, you can plant them at an angle, with the crown on the north side. Having taken root, the bush will rise to the south, and form a powerful root system
Tomato bushes are planted at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other, the row spacing is 50-60 cm. If the bushes are stretched out, you can plant them at an angle, placing the crown on the north side. Having taken root, the bush will rise to the south and form a powerful root system.
After planting tomatoes in a greenhouse, they are watered and the ground is mulched so that a crust does not form. A week after planting, the plants are treated with a late blight drug.