Rutabaga: biological features, growing conditions

Rutabaga: biological features, growing conditions

  • The meaning of the swede
  • Biological features of swede
  • The relationship of the swede to growing conditions
    • Heat requirements of swede
    • Light requirements for swede
    • Requirements of swede for soil moisture
    • Soil and nutrient requirements for swede

Swede is a culture of northern European origin. Rutabaga as a vegetable plant is widely cultivated in Europe, America (Canada, USA), less in Asia (India, Japan, China).

The rutabaga was brought to Russia from the countries of Western Europe. It is not excluded the possibility of obtaining peculiar forms of rutabagas by old Russian gardeners who grew cabbage and turnips on common plots not only for food, but also for seeds. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, rutabaga was a widespread vegetable plant. Then its areas were reduced.

The reduction in table crops was caused by an increase in potato production, as well as an expansion of the range of vegetable crops. At present, rutabaga is most widespread in Russia in the Non-Black Earth Zone, in the Urals and in Siberia.


The meaning of the swede

Rutabaga is superior in nutritional value to turnips. In its root crops, which have reached harvest ripeness, the dry matter content reaches 11-16.8%. The swede contains carbohydrates (5-10%), including quite a lot of fiber (up to 1.7%), pectin substances, protein (1.0-1.6%). There is vitamin C in rutabagas (24-50 mg per 100 g), and under favorable growing conditions in young rutabagas, its amount reaches 63-100 mg per 100 g. It should be noted that vitamin C in rutabagas is well preserved both during storage, and during cooking. There are vitamins in small quantities: B1 (0.05 mg per 100 g), B2 (0.05 mg per 100 g), B6 ​​(0.2 mg per 100 g), PP (1.05 mg per 100 g), R. Varieties with yellow flesh also have carotene.

Its content, depending on the color, is 0.05-0.2 mg per 100 g. In terms of the presence of vitamin B1, rutabaga is not inferior to tomatoes and surpasses beets, in terms of vitamin C it significantly exceeds carrots, beets, tomatoes, onions and is close to fresh cabbage, but richer in minerals and sugar. Ash accumulates in rutabaga 0.7-1.6%.

It should be noted that swede accumulates quite a lot of potassium - 238 mg per 100 g, calcium and phosphorus - 40 mg per 100 g, iron - 1.5 mg per 100 g, there are sulfur and some other elements. It contains a small amount of organic acids, mustard oil, rutin.

From the foregoing, it follows that rutabagas, in terms of their nutritional qualities, are among the most valuable vegetable crops. Its value is especially great for the northern regions, where heat-demanding plants do not always yield a harvest and, therefore, there are few vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins.

The specific "rutabagin" taste and smell inherent in root crops depend on the content of mustard oil in plants, which is characteristic of all plants of the cabbage family.

Leaves are also good animal feed. For those owners of summer cottages and individual gardens who do not have farm animals, turnip leaves should be placed in composts for the preparation of organic fertilizer.

Rutabaga roots are a valuable medicinal raw material. It is recommended as a vitamin, antimicrobial, analgesic, thinning phlegm and, therefore, an expectorant for severe cold coughs, bronchial asthma. Rutabaga has a wound-healing, anti-sclerotic, anti-cancer effect. These properties are used for a variety of diseases. It is sometimes used as a diuretic for cardiac and renal edema, pyelonephritis, laryngitis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, insomnia, obesity. Due to its low calorie content and low amount of sugars, it is useful for diabetes and obesity. For the treatment of chronic diseases, a dietary food is recommended with the inclusion of fresh, boiled or stewed rutabagas in the menu. Rutabed juice, taken instead of root vegetables, is very effective in preventing many diseases.

Biological features of rutabagas

Swede (Brassica napobrassica Mill.) Belongs to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae). It is a biennial cross-pollinated plant.

In the first year, a rosette of leaves and a root crop grow. From root crops dug up in the fall, preserved until the spring of next year and planted in the soil, branched stems are formed, on which seeds ripen after flowering.

Seedlings of rutabagas, when sown with conditioned seeds in moist, heated soil, appear on the 5-6th day after sowing; with a lack of moisture and heat, as well as if the seeds are sown too deep and a soil crust has formed, - on the 10th day or later.

The roots of a turnip grow very quickly. They go to a depth of more than 1 m, spreading in width from 7 to 70 cm. Moreover, the bulk of the suction roots are concentrated in the arable layer. The leaf blades are dissected, less often whole, covered with a waxy coating. Approximately on the 20-30th day after germination, the thickening of the root crop begins in the turnip. On the 80-90th day, the weight of root crops reaches 800-1000 g and more. In the future, the growth of the mass of the root crop continues, however, the pulp becomes coarser, although it still remains juicy. Root crops are flat-rounded, rounded or oval. In the lower part, they have the same color as the pulp. In the aboveground part, depending on the variety, it is gray-green, bronze or purple. The bark of root crops is mesh or smooth, thick. The pulp is white or yellow, firm, juicy. Seeds are dark brown, almost black, viable for four to six years.

The relationship of the swede to growing conditions

Heat requirements of swede

Rutabaga is the least heat-demanding and the most cold-resistant vegetable plant. Seeds in moist soil start to grow at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 ° C, but before the average daily air temperature above + 5 ... + 6 ° C, seedlings develop slowly. The optimum temperature for swede is considered to be + 15 ... + 18 ° C (subject to sufficient moisture supply). Temperatures above + 20 ° С inhibit the growth of root crops, and under the influence of low temperatures (0 ... + 10 ° С), flowers can form within one or two months.

In autumn, when the average daily temperature reaches + 5 ... + 6 ° C, the growth of root crops decreases. After freezing, the taste of root crops deteriorates, they lose their ability to be stored for a long time in winter. It is noticed that a sudden sharp drop in temperature to minus zero is more painful for plants than a gradual one.

Light requirements for swede

Different varieties of rutabagas differ in the length of the day and night. Our domestic and some Western European varieties are adapted for cultivation in the northern regions. Varieties of southern origin on a long day in the northern regions in the first year of life form a flower. Sunny weather promotes better growth, development and increased vitamin content in rutabagas.

Requirements of swede for soil moisture

Rutabaga is a moisture-loving plant. To obtain a high yield of good quality, it is necessary that it grows during the entire growing season in moderately moist soil and at a sufficiently high air humidity. The best areas for her are low, but not waterlogged. Rutabaga does not tolerate soil drought well.

The critical periods in her life in relation to soil moisture are the first month until the roots penetrate deep into the soil, and also the last one before harvesting. She has a decline in growth with the onset of dry weather, as a rule, it is observed after some time.

With excessively abundant watering and in a rainy summer, the rutabaga becomes watery. With a lot of moisture, when the water stagnates in the upper layers of the soil, and the horses of the plants have no access to air, the normal growth of the turnip stops, root crops suffer from bacteriosis.

Soil and nutrient requirements for swede

Rutabaga can give a good harvest on soils of different texture, but loamy, rich in humus and calcium, especially those occurring in the floodplains of small rivers, are more suitable for it. It grows well in heavy clay soils and is able to thrive in well-cultivated peatlands. Unsuitable for it uncultivated, very acidic, poor dry sandy and crushed stone soils.

In the peasant farms near St. Petersburg at the end of the 19th century, Krasnoselskaya rutabaga worked best on clay soils located in the valley of the Ligovka river floodplain, which is annually flooded with spring waters. Permanent cultivation of rutabagas was widely used on these soils. At the same time, she almost did not get sick with keel here, while on sandy loam soils she was often affected by this disease even in the first year of cultivation.

Rutabaga for good growth requires the presence of all basic nutrients in the soil. It absorbs a lot of calcium from the soil, which is necessary for building root cells and is one of the main nutrients. In addition, liming increases the resistance of plants to keel.

Nitrogen is a part of organic compounds that are especially important for plants - proteins, chlorophyll and others, it is necessary for the turnip from the beginning of its life, as it contributes to the formation of leaves and obtaining a good harvest of root crops. It provides a high yield in a shorter period of time, increases the protein content. However, when it is introduced in excessive quantities in root crops, the content of dry matter, sugars, vitamin C decreases, the keeping quality of root crops worsens, the growth of the head increases, resistance to rot decreases, and more hollow root crops are formed.

Phosphorus is part of the proteins of the cell nucleus, regulates metabolism and increases the sugar content of root crops. It begins to be absorbed by the roots of the swede from the very beginning of seed germination. Therefore, it is necessary to provide rutabagas with this nutritional element in abundance already during the main filling of the soil with fertilizer.

Potassium is of great importance in the photosynthesis of plants, it affects the outflow of carbohydrates from leaves into roots, therefore, just like phosphorus, it promotes the accumulation of sugar in root crops, which increases resistance to many diseases.

Rutabaga is able to actively accumulate potassium from its reserves in the soil. However, it has been noticed that the increased filling of the soil with potash fertilizers can contribute to the greater development of the keel.

Rutabaga, like turnip, responds positively to fertilization sodium, and gives a higher yield when potassium and sodium are added together. According to experiments with rutabagas in England, when potassium was applied in a large dose, large root crops were formed, but with bitter and tough pulp, and with the simultaneous enrichment of the soil with potassium and sodium in large quantities, the rutabaga was large with soft, sweet pulp.

Rutabaga belongs to the number of crops especially in need of bore... It is a part of cell membranes, participates in various biochemical and physiological processes of plant life. Together with calcium, in certain doses, it suppresses the development of the keel. Boron contributes to better preservation of vitamin C in root crops during storage. With a lack of digestible boron in the soil, root crops, like turnips, lose their commercial qualities. Their flesh first becomes glassy, ​​as if slightly frozen, then brown, unpleasant taste, poorly nutritious, during storage the roots rot.

Often, the first signs of disturbances in plant development go unnoticed, and damage to the pulp is detected when the roots are cut. The use of high doses of basic mineral fertilizers increases the need of plants for boron.

Copper and magnesium are also of great importance in plant life. They are involved in the metabolism of plant cells, contribute to an increase in the content of chlorophyll, magnesium is part of it, copper delays the aging of plants. Rutabaga reacts painfully to the lack of nutrition of these microelements. However, high rates of boron and copper fertilization inhibit plants and negatively affect their growth.

Read the second part of the article: Growing swede: soil preparation, fertilization, sowing seeds →

Valentina Perezhogina,
candidate of agricultural sciences


Working program of the elective course "Garden and vegetable garden"

The "Garden and Vegetable Garden" program is a component of the social direction of the extracurricular activities of the school curriculum and is intended for students in grade 6. A feature of the "Garden and Vegetable Garden" program is the development of research skills. This work can be carried out in the classroom and on the school site.

View document content "Working program of the elective course" Garden and Vegetable Garden "

Municipal government educational institution

Timoshinskaya basic secondary school

Deputy Director for OIA

Director of the Timoshinskaya school

By elective course "Garden and vegetable garden"

(specify subject, course, module)

Degree of study (class) _____6______________________________________

(primary general, basic general education, indicating grades)

Number of hours: ____34________________________________________

Level____________base_________________________________________

Teacher___Guryeva Natalia Vladimirovna __________________________

(surname, name, patronymic, qualification category)

(indicate the approximate or author's program / programs, publisher, year of publication, if any)

(indicate title, publisher, year of publication)

In accordance with the approved Federal State Educational Standard of Primary General Education, extracurricular activities are considered as an important and integral part of the process.

education of school children. Extracurricular activity is the activity of children, manifested outside the classroom, mainly due to their interests and needs, aimed at cognizing and transforming themselves and the surrounding reality, which, if properly organized, plays an important role in the development of students and the formation of the student body.

The "Garden and Vegetable Garden" program is a component of the social direction of extracurricular activities of the school curriculum and is intended for 6th grade students.

What makes this direction relevant is that socially useful work fosters industriousness in children, a desire for creativity, the development of research skills and abilities. Correctly organized work of students outside school hours helps to strengthen the health of schoolchildren, leads to an improvement in the functional state of the nervous system, increases their activity, and helps to maintain a hygienic regime of the day. Together with sightseeing, walking, playing and sports activities, work should be part of outdoor activities. At the same time, the work of students should be meaningful, feasible and as diverse as possible. If the child understands the goals and meaning of his work, he will work willingly and with interest. The conviction in the usefulness of the work performed causes a feeling of moral satisfaction, on the basis of which a positive attitude towards work is formed.

Children are born gardeners, because they are interested, they like to learn by doing. Working in the garden or in the garden, the child feels pleasure and joy because he can look after something, as well as observe the life cycle of plants directly in nature.Working in the garden gives children the opportunity to gain practical life experience and acquire the necessary skills that are not taught in a modern school, gardening will help children to clearly understand the need to protect the environment. Another important aspect: if children's efforts bring results, then simultaneously with the growth of plants, children's self-esteem grows.

The need to introduce the course is dictated by the requirements of modern society, which are reflected in the main directions of the reform of the general education school. According to these requirements, special importance is attached to preparing students for work, mastering work skills and skills, and expanding self-service. Using the wide possibilities of socially useful labor, it is necessary to instill in younger students the skills of self-service necessary in life, techniques of manual work with various materials, the ability to repair various household items, teaching aids, participate in the improvement of school yards, recreation areas and other socially useful affairs.

A feature of the Grade 6 Garden and Vegetable Garden program is the development of research skills. In the 6th grade, this work can be carried out in the classroom and on the school site. In the classroom, students study educational literature, get acquainted with concepts, learn to analyze, keep records. Field work is carried out at the school site. The program is implemented throughout the year, at the rate of 1 hour per week.

purpose of the "Garden and Vegetable Garden" program is to create social and psychological conditions for the development of research skills of students in the process of organizing work on the subject content of the program.

- to give the concepts of "Field cultivation" and "Vegetable cultivation"

- to study the variety of agricultural plants and their importance in human life

- to form certain skills and abilities on the basics of "field cultivation" and "vegetable growing"

- to teach the ability to work individually and in a group, to lead a discussion, to defend their point of view.

- develop cognitive interest and love for work

-to teach the ability to plan your work

-to develop the ability to represent the final result of work and the conditions necessary for its implementation

- to develop attention, logical thinking, students' speech, observation.

- to form a sustainable interest in work

- develop skills for rational organization of work and economical use of time

- to educate moral qualities: a sense of duty and responsibility, mutual assistance, collectivism, discipline

As a result of passing the program material, the following results will be achieved:

Personal: the ability to express their own vision of the world, to make a personal contribution to the common work.

Metasubject: the ability to apply the knowledge gained in various activities, to conduct relationships in different areas and situations. And also the following UUD will be formed:

Cognitive: the ability to organize their activities, find, memorize information and reproduce it if necessary.

Regulatory: the ability to choose different paths for self-realization, use different ways of working, choosing the best ones, use the techniques of self-control, self-esteem.

Communicative: the ability to work in pairs, in groups, in a team.

By the end of the year of study, students should have an understanding of:

- optimal conditions for plant development

- the possibility of artificially creating optimal conditions for plant development.

Students need to know:

- about the influence of light, heat, moisture, soil on the development of a plant

- which plants are generally photophilous for planting, and which are not

- which plants are generally hygrophilous for planting, and which are not

- methods of planting different vegetable crops

Students should be able to:

- take into account light-requiring, moisture-loving, or their absence in the vegetable crops selected for planting

- plant the seeds of some plants yourself

- take care of plants in the school area

At the end of the course, students fill out a reflection map of the results achieved.

3 points - I can do well, 2 points - I am at a loss, 1 point - I do not know how

Subject results

I know about the influence of light, heat, moisture, soil on the development of a plant

I know light-loving and shade-loving plants

I know moisture-loving plants

I know how to plant different plants

I know how to plant tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, dill

I know how and how to fertilize the soil

I know how to plant plants, taking into account their characteristics

Educational research skills.

I can ask questions and formulate a research problem

I can find the information you need

I know how to plan my work

I am able to keep records of observation

I know how to present my work

I am able to assess my work.

Subject results

If a student scored 15 points or more, he has a high level of formation of subject results.

If a student scored 14 - 11 points, he has an average level of formation of subject results.

If a student scored less than 11 points, he has a low level of formation of subject results.

Metasubject results

If a student scored 13 points or more, he has a high level of formation of metasubject results

If a student scored 12-9 points, he has an average level of formation of metasubject results.

If a student scored less than 9 points, he has a low level of formation of metasubject results.

Main activities:
- introductory
- experimental - research
- practical

Estimated results:
- have an idea of ​​the methods and techniques of caring for cultivated plants
- apply the acquired knowledge and skills when working on the school site
- learn to value your own work and the work of other people.

Forms of organizing classes: group, individual and collective.

The form summing up the results of the program: defense of the project.

Participants educational program: 6th grade students.

Timing implementation of the educational program: one academic year.

The program is designed for 34 hours in 6th grade, most of which are extracurricular. Classes involve theoretical and practical work on the school site.

Assessment of activity is positive, aimed at the development of positive social experience by children. The harvested crop will be donated to the school cafeteria, adding value to the students' work. In addition, students contribute to the participation of MCOU Timoshinskaya OOSh "in the regional competition for the best educational and experimental site, in which the municipal educational institutions of the region participate annually.


Biological features of grapes

Grapes - a perennial shrub with long vines (lianas), with falling leaves, a light-loving plant: only in well-lit places develops shoots, leaves, inflorescences and clusters. Growing for many millennia in the forest community and remaining a light-loving plant, a wild grape bush in the process of evolution acquired the ability for strong growth of shoots, large branching of the stem, for the formation of tendrils, with the help of which the stems climbed to the tops of tree crowns to the sun, where they laid fruit buds.

To obtain planting material, vegetative propagation is used: cuttings, layering, grafting, annual and vegetative seedlings.

Seed propagation is used only in breeding - for breeding new varieties.

High vitality - is expressed in the ability to grow under conditions in which other fruit plants cannot grow, in resistance to various unfavorable conditions, strong growth, good root development, high rooting rate, high yield and longevity.

Regenerative ability - it is expressed in the fact that the grape plant quickly restores growth and fruiting after partial freezing of the aboveground part or its complete freezing, damage by spring frosts, severe pruning, hail damage - within one to two years.

Shoot polarity - it is expressed in the fact that the grape plant blooms and develops the highest located eyes, which suppress the development of those located below. This feature appeared in the struggle of wild grapes with trees for sunlight.

This property of polarity has been preserved in cultivars as well. If the vines are left upright after pruning, only the highest-set eyes will develop next year. Therefore, all vines must be tied up horizontally or obliquely, leaving space for shoots to grow on the trellis at least 1.5 m. In this case, the same conditions will be created for all eyes, most of them will start growing and grow well further.

Dormant period ... In the temperate zone, grapes have an obligatory period of physiological dormancy for 1.5 - 2 months (end of October - December), depending on the cultivation zone. During this period, under any artificial methods, the buds do not bloom.

In the tropical zone, grapes grow continuously throughout the year and the ripening of the crop can be confined to any time.

Does a grape plant grown from a cuttings change?

It is believed that during vegetative propagation, the varietal characteristics of the mother plant are preserved for many tens and hundreds of years.

Vineyard soil ... Grapes grow on a wide variety of soils. The normal yield and its quality as well as the quality of the juice depend on the nature of the soil. For table (amateur vineyard) grape varieties, the best are powerful, humus-rich alluvial soils with groundwater occurrence no higher than 2.5 - 3 m, including chernozems with a high humus content. Rich crops are grown on such soils.

It is believed that the greatest growth of the bush occurs on dark and rocky soils, which absorb the most solar energy. Light-colored sandy soils create volumetric lighting. The leaves are illuminated not only from above, but also from below by reflected light. In such places, grapes ripen much earlier than on black chernozem soils.

Soil fatigue.

To maintain soil fertility, in addition to crop rotations and sowing of grass mixtures, deep application of organic fertilizers, obligatory soil mulching, two-time loosening under bushes and aisles during the growing season are used in viticulture.

Grapes are a monoculture, during their life in one place they carry out a large number of nutrients from various layers of the soil, constantly mastering new areas by roots. On the site of a grubbed vineyard, planting new bushes earlier than three years is not recommended - the bushes will be oppressed and grow poorly.

Given the small area of ​​amateur vineyards and without the possibility of crop rotation, it is possible to re-plant grape bushes after stubbing, but for this it is necessary to completely replace the soil from the planting pits with fresh - fertile - and fill it well with fertilizers.

Vineyard location .

The yield and longevity of grape plantations depend on the correctly chosen planting site and location of the bushes.

The vineyard is best located on the south or southwest side of the site, well lit by the sun. If a garden is laid out, it is placed on the north side of the vineyard to protect the latter from cold winds.

For vine bushes, you can use the edges of plots near fences and paths. You can also use narrow strips of land near houses, country houses and garages. The overgrown crown of bushes, successfully located on arches, near walls and above yards, creates shade, beauty and comfort, and also, importantly, protects from dust.

One of the common mistakes beginner growers make is planting bushes in the aisles of the garden, near tall trees. Several years pass, the trees rise, shade the grapes, compete with the roots of the grapes. And then the problem arises: something needs to be removed. You cannot plant grapes from the north side of buildings, you must give preference to the west and south-west side.


The growing season for spring wheat is 70 to 120 days. It is not afraid of frost, germinates already at + 1 ... + 2 ° C, shoots appear at + 4 ... + 6 ° C. At the same time, the slow rates of germination allow it to easily tolerate low temperatures.

The transition to the tillering phase begins when the temperature reaches + 10… + 12 ° C. Ripening and milky ripeness require an increase in temperature up to + 20… + 25 ° C. Wheat does not tolerate too high temperatures (more than + 35 ° C).

Soils for culture are not suitable for all. Spring wheat grows well on sod-podzolic, sod-carbonate, loamy soils. In this case, the moisture content of the arable layer should be at least 70%.

Important! For full development, stemming and earing, wheat needs good lighting during the day. Spring culture refers to self-pollinated plants.


Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

The book describes in detail the features of growing root crops (carrots, beets, radishes, swede, celery, parsnips, etc.), means of protection against diseases and pests, as well as the timing and methods of harvesting, storage, harvesting. The biological characteristics, nutritional qualities and medicinal properties of root crops are also considered.

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