Calamondin is an ornamental tree that anyone can grow at home. A pleasant citrus aroma, a beautiful and bright appearance - this is just a small list of reasons why many people fell in love with it. Among other things, it can be noted that it is easy to look after him, so he will not cause problems even for beginners in this business.
This tree was obtained by crossing a kumquat (another name is fortunella) and an ordinary tangerine. Such a hybrid plant received the well-known name - home tangerine, but scientifically it is called citrofortunella, from the name of its progenitors.
As for the appearance, it differs in a relatively small growth - up to a meter. Glossy dark leaves are combined with white flowers that will delight their owner with an interesting pleasant aroma. When the flowering period ends, small bright orange or close to yellow fruits ripen on the tangerine tree. They taste sour and have a lot of seeds.
The light and heat-loving calamondin came to us from the southeast of Asia. For the appearance of tasty fruits, it is necessary to create a climate suitable for the plant, that is, to provide both light and warmth in abundance. Calamondin bears fruit all year round if done correctly.
Caring for calamondin at home
Thanks to its exoticism, aroma and presence of fruits, homemade tangerine can be a very pleasant gift. If someone suddenly decided to please you with such an unusual gift, or you just never started such plants, then you don't have to worry about having to watch him 24 hours a day. He is quite unpretentious, and, perhaps, it will be difficult to call him capricious.
As soon as you get this plant in your hands, you need to immediately pay attention to the soil in the pot. It must be constantly hydrated. Within 14 days after purchasing citrofortunella, you need to spray it daily with a spray bottle and provide the greatest lighting. Also, at this time, it should not be transplanted - this is not required. After two weeks, you can already transplant it, but in a large pot.
There are also several nuances about the content of citrofortunella. Firstly, when transplanting, try not to touch the delicate roots of a young plant, otherwise it may die without producing fruit. Secondly, the roots can overheat. To avoid this, you can rearrange the pot in a white planter and cover with a sheet of paper on the sunny side. It is worth noting that it is not necessary to change the soil during transplanting.
Moving from the store to your apartment, Calamondin may face new conditions of detention and a new atmosphere. Getting used to a new environment - adaptation - can manifest itself in the form of leaf falling in the first days of being in a new place. If this was noticed, it is necessary to create additional air humidity by putting on an ordinary plastic bag on the tree. After that, it will need to be aired daily.
Imported plants are popular in flower shops, and homemade tangerines are no exception. Such exotic is grown in conditions specially created for them. It happens that the plants are injected with capsules with hormones that are incompatible with the conditions in the apartment. For this reason, the plant may begin to fade before our eyes, which means that it is worth taking action quickly: transplant it into a different soil and pot and pay special attention to the roots. In case they are rotten, you need to cut off these areas.
Location and lighting
It is very important to properly plan the place where the citrofortunella will stand. The room should be well lit with natural, but slightly diffused light, so it is better to place the pot on the sunny side of the apartment (west or east), but cover it with a transparent curtain from direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
In winter, the tangerine will be sorely lacking in light, so you should put a lamp next to it to create artificial lighting, while moving the pot to the north side of the apartment is the best option for placing a tree. Only in the presence of light will the plant bear fruit.
When starting citrofortunella for yourself, you need to remember that she loves moderate heat and moisture, as described above. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a constant temperature and humidity. In summer, a tangerine can live in a room where the temperature does not exceed +25 degrees Celsius, and in winter - up to +18 degrees. The lower temperature in winter corresponds to the real temperature in natural conditions, moreover, this decrease provokes a greater number of flowers and, as a result, fruits.
Watering and humidity
Calamondin foliage needs to be sprayed regularly and not allowed to dry out, and the soil needs to be watered frequently. As soon as the soil becomes dry at least half a centimeter, you need to repeat the watering. Tap water is not suitable for sensitive calamondin, because it contains a high concentration of various impurities, including alkalis, which are very harmful to the plant. You need to water it with either boiled warm water or water from a filter.
With the onset of winter, the number and frequency of watering is reduced, while increasing the number of sprays, because at a time of the year such as winter, which is particularly dry in the air, the drying of the crown must be carefully controlled.
If you want to form a beautiful rounded crown shape for your new green friend, then you need to remember to turn the pot clockwise a few millimeters once a day. But do not roughly unfold it immediately with a completely different side to the light - this is very harmful to the tangerine.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Calamondin, like any other flowering plant, needs additional minerals and nutrients during flowering, therefore, from March to September, you need to additionally fertilize the earth once a week and a half. At any other time, this should not be done so often, once a month is enough.
Specialty gardening stores provide their customers with feed mixes for your tree. It can also be bought on the Internet for free access. The most effective and popular fertilizer for Calamondin is Citrus Humus. It contains many useful trace elements, humic substances in high dosage. On the other hand, you can simply purchase formulations for flowering houseplants.
To transplant a tangerine tree, you need a large pot, because it can have a very developed large root system. In addition, citrofortunella from a small tree can grow into a tree large enough for its type. It is necessary to pay attention to the position of the root collar relative to the ground in the old pot and ensure exactly the same, only in the new one. During transplanting, do not particularly touch the clod of earth with roots so as not to damage anything. Drainage must be of exceptional quality.
Within a month and a half, the tangerine does not need to be fertilized, as new fresh soil, enriched with nutrients and minerals, will do it for you.
To lay the soil in the pot, you need to start with drainage. Lay it around the perimeter of the bottom in a layer up to three centimeters. Next is a mixture of different soil. Sod land, manure and sand are well suited for citrofortunella; their proportion is approximately 2: 1: 1.
If the plant is still young, then it needs to be replanted quite often: every spring. An adult tree does not require such frequent transplants, only once every 2-3 years is enough.
All plants require timely and regular pruning. To form a beautiful spherical foliage, you need a quarter-meter tall stem. At the top are skeletal branches, then branches are formed an order of magnitude higher. It is necessary to reach the branches of the 4th order, then the crown can be considered complete. The time for pruning begins in February, until the summer is leveled, and in the summer the excess protruding branches are cut off.
Reproduction of calamodin
There are 3 types of citrofortunella breeding:
- Let's grab.
- The seeds from the fruit are planted in the ground.
- Slice cuttings with multiple buds.
It is necessary to immediately clarify that the reproduction of a homemade tangerine is difficult and you will have to give it a lot of energy.
As far as grafting is concerned, a drought-free orange seedling with strong roots is well suited for this case.
People consider planting seeds in a pot the easiest way of all, however, it takes a lot of time. In order for your new tree to hatch into the light, you need to regularly fertilize the ground with special compounds for plant growth.
In the latter case, several small details must be taken into account when propagating tangerine by cuttings:
- First you need to determine the cutting from the top of the crown with developed leaves and large internodes.
- Next, you need to prepare a growth stimulator, which can be perfectly suited for root or zircon. You need to dip the cutting into it for a couple of seconds.
- Prepare the ground and insert a stalk into it at the level of the petiole of the lowest leaf.
- This design requires maximum humidity. It can be provided by a can on top or a plastic bag.
- The resulting greenhouse needs to be aired daily for half an hour, but no more.
Roots will sprout in less than a month with proper care.
Diseases and pests. Caring for the sick calamondin
Your house tree is susceptible to various diseases such as black fungus, anthracnose and gommosis. The sooty fungus appears as a blackening of the main part of the leaves and shoots, which spoils the overall attractive appearance of the mandarin. To defeat this disease, you need to regularly wipe the leaves and shoots from black plaque. A solution of Fitosporin in a spray bottle can also effectively cope with the misfortune.
Anthracnose also affects the leaves, but ultimately they are not covered with a film, but with yellow spots, causing necrosis of some parts of the calamondine. Untimely assistance can lead to the loss of part of the crown. A solution of copper sulfate or, popularly, copper sulfate can save mandarin from anthracnose.
Hommosis can cause complete yellowing of the entire tree. The disease goes from bottom to top: from the bottom of the trunk to branches, leaves and even fruits. First, you need to cut out all the affected areas of the mandarin, then begin to heal the wounds with copper sulfate.
Excessive wind, lack of natural light, and high ambient temperatures can cause calamondin to shed its leaves. In this case, the owner should pay attention to what turned out to be wrong and fix it.
Summing up, we can answer the most common question among "apartment" gardeners, whether the tangerines growing on Calamondin are edible. They are more than edible, but taste more like lemon than mandarin. Their main advantage is their bright appearance.
Decorative mandarin Calamondin. Garden World site
Along with orange, mandarin is one of the most ancient citrus crops grown by mankind. Its history goes back to the times of Ancient China, where tangerine trees remain the most popular representatives of the Rute family of the citrus genus today. In addition to the Indochina countries, tangerines are successfully cultivated in Japan and Korea, throughout the Mediterranean, in the southern United States (Florida), in Argentina and Brazil. The northernmost regions for the cultivation of this crop are Abkhazia and the Black Sea coast of Russia (region of Sochi).
The main breeding method for kumquats is grafting. But it, like all citrus fruits, can also be propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. But it should be borne in mind that plants grown from seeds do not retain varietal characteristics, in addition, they enter fruiting very late. Therefore, the seed method of reproduction of kumquat is used only for breeding purposes and for growing rootstocks. When kept indoors, kumquats are propagated mainly by cuttings and grafting, thanks to such vegetative propagation, plants can be harvested already in the 2nd year. In Japan and China, Poncirus trifoliata is traditionally used as a rootstock. In the USA, in Florida, sour orange and grapefruit are commonly used as rootstock. At home, kumquat can also be grafted onto lemon seedlings.
Currently, there are both natural and artificially obtained interspecific and even intergeneric hybrids of various citrus species with representatives of the genus Fortunella. So calamondin is a hybrid of tangerine with kumquat, limequat - lime with kumquat, oranjequat - orange with kumquat, citrumquat - three-leaf ponzirus with Japanese kumquat, lemonquat - lemon with kumquat, citranquat - and ponzumquat, others orange and ponzumquat, others. At the same time, the obtained fruits of the hybrids differ both in appearance and in the taste of the fruits.
The kumquat tree grown in the house differs from other citrus fruits in its miniature and compact growth. Due to the fact that it actively bushes, the kumquat tree forms a beautiful dense crown with small leaves. Fragrant flowers are white with a pink tint. Kumquat bears fruit abundantly. All this contributed to the fact that kumquat has become very popular in many countries of the world in recent decades. Florists love to grow it in the house, in addition, it is often used to create bonsai. At the same time, in order for the kumquat tree to remain compact and decorative, its root system is limited by the size of the pot. And although almost all varieties and hybrids of kumquat are quite suitable for indoor culture, but for home conditions, kumquats of the varieties "Marumi", "Nagami", "Fukushi" are more often used.
At home, a kumquat tree usually does not exceed 1.5 meters. The trees start to grow in late April-early May, and depending on the conditions of detention, it lasts 30-50 days. Adult kumquat trees, unlike the main citrus fruits, have one growth period, and only young plants have two. The average growth length is from 6 to 10 cm. The kumquat blooms in summer: in July-August. The flowering period lasts about a week. 2-3 weeks after the first flowering, the kumquat tree can bloom again. Kumquat has bisexual flowers; they are characterized by cross-pollination, although self-pollination is not excluded. The flowering intensity of the kumquat, like that of other indoor citrus fruits, can and should be regulated. The fruits ripen in December-January.
The kumquat plant is light and moisture-loving, therefore, at home, a well-lit location is selected for it. At the same time, in the summer, the tree must be kept in diffused sunlight, and in winter, on the contrary, the plant must be provided with the maximum possible natural light and access to direct sunlight. To do this, in winter, a pot of kumquat is placed on the window of the southern exposure.
In general, the kumquat plant loves hot summers with an air temperature of 25-28 degrees and a cool winter with a temperature of 15-18 degrees. In winter, it is better for this plant to provide wintering by reducing the temperature to + 4-8 degrees, but if this is not possible, then for the normal development of the kumquat tree it is necessary to provide additional artificial lighting, increasing the total daylight time to 12 hours.
The tree reacts very positively to constant fresh air throughout the summer months. In this case, the kumquat should be protected both from excessive overheating at midday and from hypothermia at night. During the breeding season: budding, flowering and fruit setting - the optimum air and soil temperature for kumquat is 15-18 degrees.
Kumquat loves humid air, so when the air is very dry (especially during the winter months), the kumquat often sheds its leaves, and its foliage and young shoots are affected by pests such as scale insects and spider mites. Therefore, the kumquat plant must be regularly sprayed, both in dry air in the heat, and during winter heating, as well as often wipe the leaves with a damp sponge and arrange a warm shower. Watering the kumquat should be sufficient and regular, but one should not allow both waterlogging of the soil and drying out of the substrate. Watering is best done with soft water and always warm. This is due to the fact that when watering with cold water, the kumquat, like other citrus fruits, yellows and leaves the leaves.
For successful fruiting, the plant needs regular feeding, and the temperature should be about 200C. Correct crown formation is also important. for this purpose, all lateral shoots are pruned in spring, leaving no more than 3-4 young secondary shoots on each main lateral branch.
Kumquat fruits have a wonderful taste, they are very fragrant and healthy, as they contain a large amount of essential oils, vitamins and other useful substances. Therefore, the dessert-tasting and very spicy fresh fruits of kumquat are eaten whole, without peeling from a very thin peel - a little tart, tightly adhering to the sweetish or sour pulp. It is the sour fruits of the kumquat that are used as a snack for strong drinks. The fruits of kumquat are also used in cooking to decorate the table, add them to fruit salads, make delicious sauces from them, bake with meat and fish. Delicious jams are prepared from the pods of kumquat, and candied fruits are made from whole fruits by sugaring.
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gave herself for her birthday
made myself a present calamondin! chose as few fruits and a lot of foliage as possible! the fruits were immediately removed, because. Pirud of adaptation after shop conditions is free! passed into a pot with a larger diameter with its own composition of earth for citrus! put it on the balcony! in the end it is the most unpretentious and grateful plant! needs a cold wintering, the temperature regime in winter is at least + 5, in summer at +40 it stands and blooms and drives the growths! Advice before buying a plant, read about it! there are a lot of videos from experienced citrus growers and with simple but proper care, they will not be capricious. I have tangerines, calamondin, lemons, limes, oranges, psidium guava all on the insulated balcony all year long bloom and smell. don't blame the plants! blame yourself for not knowing about them! only lemons, limes do not need a cold wintering, and then only from their root! a humidifier is necessary if you grow in square meters, well, or frequent spraying!
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Disadvantages: & nbspno
I bought citrufunella all in tangerines, brought it home and immediately put it under a phytolamp without a lamp, it will disappear already checked 20 tangerines have ripened all have eaten now, there are no problems with it back, but I still need to repeat the phytolamp without it, 100 percent will die I wish you all good luck
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Heavy to care for, overfed
It is extremely difficult to grow in the house after the store. When bought, it was strewn with small fruits, which very quickly dried up at home and fell off. Although I used top dressing, the leaves quickly fell off and the plant stood almost bald for some time, closer to spring it came to life and even one fruit ripened. But Calamondin did not survive the next winter. The result is thrown out, but it's a pity. Cute.
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Calamondin after purchase
In the first fourteen days that the tree lives with you, you need to spray it every day, while there should be good lighting and constant soil moisture. After two weeks, the tree needs replanting.
In many flower shops, plants are injected with special capsules for their rapid growth, which also affect the growing season and flowering. After purchase, such trees may begin to wilt, so they need an urgent transplant.
The first plant transplant should take place two weeks after purchase, for this you need to take a new large pot and potting soil. When transplanting, it is worth examining the root system for rotten roots, if any, then they must be removed immediately. To prevent the tree from dying, handle the roots more carefully and do not injure them; for this, the plant should be transplanted in a transshipment way, without disturbing the clod of earth.
Overheating of the roots must not be allowed, therefore, it is not advisable to put the tree after transplanting in the sun. With further transplants, the earthen lump should remain intact, you can slightly remove the old soil and add new layers.
In March of this year, I bought a small calamondin, on which one and a half dozen fruits at different stages of ripening and several new peduncles flaunted at once. Twice a week I fed on a leaf, and soon the tree turned into a small bouquet.
But, probably, the flowering was unnatural, since at this time the citruses are just beginning to come to life after winter, and my new settler bloomed profusely throughout March and half of April. However, later almost all the new buds fell off.
Citrus growers recommend removing the excess number of buds and part of the ovaries on small trees in order to save the plant's strength, but I reasoned this way: let him decide how many fruits to leave and how much to discard. At the same time, he supported him with top dressing at the root and on the leaf. 2 months after the acquisition and adaptation, I transferred calamondin into a slightly larger pot. After transplanting, the seedling slowly began to grow. New branches and leaves appeared. Now I'm waiting for "home" flowering.
CALAMONDIN: CONDITIONS AND CARE
In the autumn-winter period, the main problem for citrus fruits is the short daylight hours, which the phytolamp helps to extend to 12-14 hours.
I water calamondin with settled water (we have unchlorinated water, it comes from the well and passes through a filter) at room temperature after drying the top layer of the earth, avoiding flooding and waterlogging. I often spray the crown from a spray bottle. The plant responds well to weekly hot (hand-friendly) showers. Moreover, some experts advise covering the soil during this procedure, but I also spill it - my exotics like it. After a while I feed them with vermicompost or mulch with sapropel.
In the spring-summer period, I pamper calamondin with special fertilizers for citrus fruits every 10 days, in the autumn-winter period - once a month. I try to alternate organic compounds with mineral ones. Sometimes I spray iron chelate on the sheet, especially if chlorosis appears.
From the end of February, when new leaves begin to grow, I increase the nitrogen content in fertilizers.
For example, I replace one of the monthly dressings with mullein infusion (a handful of mullein per 5 liters of water, I insist from 3-4 hours to two days). Since the end of August, I have been increasing the dose of phosphorus and potassium and gradually reducing the amount of dressings to 2 times a month. In one of them I give phosphorus-potassium fertilizer according to the instructions (for example, monopotassium phosphate or separately - potassium sulfate and superphosphate). In November-December, I reduce the dose of fertilizers to 1/2.
If calamondin has bloomed and ovaries have appeared, I try to switch to natural compounds: biohumus, potassium humate, blue clay (1 tsp for 1 tbsp of water). When I see that the fruits are poorly tied, fall off, the leaves turn pale, and their tips turn yellow, I feed the plant with a complex fertilizer with trace elements for citrus fruits and at least once with potassium monophosphate.
2-3 WEEKS before harvest I stop feeding.