With the popularization of healthy lifestyles, healthy, natural foods are increasingly included in the diet of many people. Overseas greens, which used to be a rare guest on our tables, are no exception. What is arugula, as well as what is its use, you will learn from our article.
A brief description of arugula
Arugula (Italian Rucola) belongs to the Cabbage family, known as caterpillar or eruka. Many people mistakenly assume Italy is the birthplace of the annual plant due to the prevalence of the ingredient in Italian cuisine. However, the plant came to the vastness of Europe from North Africa.
Arugula grows in small bushes up to 60 cm high, and looks like a salad. Straight stems are covered with long leaves with carved wavy edges, collected at the base into a rosette. From May to July, the plant is covered with small light yellow flowers with purple veins, which form cluster-like inflorescences. With the arrival of summer, eruka begins to bear fruit in elongated pods with brown seeds located inside.
Only young grass, which has a specific aroma and spicy-sour taste, is used in salads. But for the preparation of mustard or oil, seeds are used.
Video "Why is arugula useful and what is made from it"
In this video, you will learn how arugula is useful and what dishes can be prepared from it.
Thanks to breeders, many varieties of arugula have been bred. All of them are usually classified according to two criteria: the timing of maturation and the period of ontogenesis.
Eruka early ripening (25 days). Leaves are oval, elongated, collected in a lush rosette. Arugula has dietary properties, is rich in vitamins, and has a pronounced nutty flavor. The maximum height of the bush is 20 cm.
Mid-season variety, ripening 1 month after sowing. Dikovina grows no higher than 20 cm. Shoots are dark green, lyre-like. Young greens with spicy taste go well with meat or fish dishes.
The ripening time is only 3 weeks. The height of the Olivette ranges from 15 to 20 cm. The leaves are long, slightly rounded, bright green in color. The young herb is distinguished by its nut-mustard aroma and mild bitterness, which is why it is highly valued in cooking.
Arugula of medium ripening (35–40 days). Shoots are thin, long, carved. Growing up, they form a rosette up to 18 cm high. Solitaire has a rich taste and aroma, contains many vitamins, minerals, and also carotene.
Refers to early maturing varieties that ripen 20 days after sowing the seeds. Poker is distinguished by large elongated shoots of rich green color with carved edges. The plant grows up to 20 cm. The young grass tastes bittersweet with nutty notes.
Eruka early ripening (23 days). Straight stems up to 20 cm long are covered with thin long dark green leaves with carved edges. A low-calorie herb with a mustard flavor will complement meat, fish or seafood dishes.
The first greens from the bushes of arugula Spartak are cut off as early as 19 days after sowing the seeds. Elongated shoots with rounded carved edges form lush rosettes with a height of 18 to 20 cm. It has a soft, piquant taste, used for preparing salads.
Arrows of Cupid
The most popular medium-ripening variety. You can eat young greens only 35-40 days after sowing. The maximum plant grows up to 30 cm. Shoots are thin, long, with carved edges.
Chemical composition and nutritional value
Arugula is a low-calorie food. 100 g of grass contains only 25 kcal. The nutritional value of eruka is:
- 2.6 g of proteins;
- 0.7 g fat;
- 2 g carbohydrates;
- 91.7 g of water.
The plant is a rich source of essential oils, including mustard and fatty oils. It also has a useful chemical composition:
- vitamins (B, A, C, E, K);
- micro-, macroelements (Na, P, Ka, Mg, C, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Se);
- organic acids.
Useful and medicinal properties of the plant
Due to the high content of nutrients, eruka has a positive effect on the human body. A large list of benefits includes:
- prevention of oncological diseases;
- antiseptic properties;
- help in the fight against dermatological problems;
- increased immunity;
- antiviral action;
- rejuvenation of the body;
- maintaining tone;
- normalization of the digestive tract;
- strengthening the central nervous system;
- lowering cholesterol levels;
- increased hemoglobin;
- beneficial effect on the organs of the reproductive system;
- restoration of water-salt balance.
The essential oils in arugula make it a powerful aphrodisiac.
Application in home cosmetology
In addition to being used in cooking, eruka is often used in home cosmetology. The products made from this plant are rich in nutrients necessary to maintain the health of the skin of the face and scalp. For example, with their help you can get rid of dandruff, strengthen hair follicles, revive curls, give them a natural shine. Often masks are prepared from arugula that help:
- whiten the skin, make it firm and elastic;
- eliminate rosacea;
- get rid of puffiness;
- prevent the occurrence of neoplasms;
- moisturize the skin of the face;
- heal damage;
- slow down the aging process and the appearance of wrinkles.
Before applying the mask, you need to cleanse the skin well so that the eruka will give all its beneficial properties. The procedure should be carried out no more than 3 times a week.
To prepare the anti-wrinkle remedy, cut half a banana, the same amount of cucumber and 40 g of arugula with a blender. A homogeneous mass is evenly applied to the face. The mask is kept for half an hour, and then washed off with water at a comfortable temperature.
From the vascular network
The recipe for a cosmetic product for rosacea includes 60 g of eruka, 3 tbsp. l. potato juice, 1 tbsp. milk cream. The crushed herb is mixed with the rest of the ingredients and applied to the skin of the face, excluding the area around the eyes. The procedure takes 25-30 minutes. To achieve a greater effect, it is recommended to first rinse the mask with warm water, and then rinse your face with cold water.
For skin elasticity
To prepare the mask, you will need 1 egg, 1 teaspoon of olive oil, 60 g of arugula. The protein separated from the yolk is combined with the rest of the components and mixed well. The mass is applied in two layers, waiting until the previous one dries. The product is kept for half an hour and then washed off.
For moisturizing and whitening skin
A cucumber mask will help get rid of age spots, lighten the skin tone, and moisturize it. Grate cucumber and zucchini on a fine grater, mix 3 tbsp each. each vegetable mass with 60 g of chopped eruka, then applied to the face. The procedure takes 25 minutes.
If the skin is prone to dryness and flaking, use an aloe-based product. 1 teaspoon of pulp is mixed with 1 teaspoon of lemon juice and 60 g of arugula. Leave the evenly applied mass for 30 minutes. After a while, wash off with cool water.
The mask will help not only get rid of dandruff, but also stop hair loss. For its preparation, you will need 20 g of warmed honey, 60 g of eruki oil, 10 g of hot red pepper. The ingredients are mixed until smooth and rubbed into the hair roots. The product is left on for 30 minutes and then washed off with shampoo.
To strengthen hair follicles
To prepare a mask to strengthen hair follicles, mix 2 tbsp. two oils - arugula and almonds. Massage the product into the scalp and leave for 60 minutes. After the time has elapsed, the hair is thoroughly washed with shampoo under warm water.
For a healthy shine to dry and loose curls
You can revive dull curls with a simple nourishing mask consisting of 4 components: 20 g of sesame oil, 40 g of eruka oil, 1 teaspoon of warm honey, 1 yolk. The ingredients are whipped until smooth and distributed through the hair from roots to ends. The mask is kept for an hour.
Arugula is indispensable in Italian and Mediterranean cuisine. They like to serve it on its own or as a side dish. Young greens are an excellent addition to meat, fish, seafood and beans. It enhances the flavor of some cheeses and is often combined with spinach or salad. Culinary experts love to cook various sauces from eruka, add it to vegetables. Sometimes the herb is even used to make desserts.
It is customary to tear arugula with your hands or put it whole in a dish. In contact with the knife, an oxidation process takes place, which kills most of the beneficial properties of the plant.
How to choose the right one
Greens suitable for food should be bright green, rich in color, without yellow spots. It is better to choose young leaves of small or medium size, as they have less bitterness and astringency. The fresher the eruka, the more nutrients it contains. Dishes made with arugula should be eaten immediately after serving, until the herb has lost its spicy aroma.
Healthy and delicious recipes
Spicy eruka can make any dish unique and original. Below we will look at simple recipes for salads made from this herb:
Arugula vegetable salad with shrimps
For cooking you will need:
- 75 g of hard cheese;
- 120 g of boiled and frozen shrimp;
- 225 g of young greens;
- 1 tbsp. olive oil;
- 1 tbsp. soy sauce;
- 3 tsp lemon juice;
- 1 tsp liquid honey;
- 150 g cherry tomatoes;
- 1 clove of garlic;
- salt to taste.
The shrimp are scalded with boiling water and the shell is carefully removed. Chopped garlic cloves are fried in olive oil until golden brown. Then it is taken out, and peeled shrimps are laid in its place. Fry them on both sides for 1 minute. For dressing, mix lemon juice, honey, soy sauce, add some salt to taste. Eruki leaves are spread on a dish, shrimps and cut tomatoes are poured on top. Season the salad with sauce, sprinkle with cheese, mix.
Arugula salad with mozzarella
- 4 cherry tomatoes;
- 225 g mozzarella;
- 5 g of young greens;
- 3 tsp apple cider vinegar;
- 3 tbsp. olive oil;
- salt and pepper to taste.
Cherry tomatoes and mozzarella are cut into slices of the same thickness. Spread alternately in layers on a dish, alternating with eruki leaves. The salad is dressed with a sauce of olive oil, apple cider vinegar, salt and pepper.
Arugula and beans salad
The recipe provides for:
- 400 g canned red beans;
- 300 g of young greens;
- 2 bell peppers;
- 300 g feta cheese;
- 2 cloves of garlic;
- 100 g sour cream (you can take homemade mayonnaise or natural yogurt);
- salt and pepper to taste.
Cut the pepper and feta cheese into small cubes. Mix in a salad bowl with washed beans, chopped eruka, garlic. Salt and pepper to taste. Before serving, season the dish with one of the selected sauces.
Storage rules and secrets
Arugula is stored in the refrigerator, avoiding the proximity to products that release ethylene. If you put grass next to such fruits or vegetables, it will wither quickly. Plucked young greens retain their properties for 4 days. To extend this period, you can place the bundle in water. For longer storage, you can use the freezer.
Possible harm and contraindications
In moderation, eruku can be eaten by almost everyone. People with individual intolerance should be careful. It is also not recommended to use arugula for patients with pathologies of the liver, kidneys, urinary tract. During pregnancy and lactation, it is better to remove young herbs from the diet or consult a doctor.
Arugula is a real storehouse of nutrients. It is not for nothing that nutritionists and people who promote a healthy lifestyle love her so much. To make the herb available at any time of the year, you can grow it on your windowsill.
Black mustard (see photo) is an annual plant and belongs to the Cabbage family. Also, mustard belongs to the green manure type of plants, which are excellent for planting as a soil fertilizer.
For the first time, the inhabitants of the Mediterranean began to grow black mustard. She soon gained popularity in Europe, Asia, Africa, India and China. In Russia, black mustard is almost never produced; it grows on the ground as a weed. Grows near rivers and in littered places.
Black mustard begins to bloom in June and ends in September. Fruits appear only in the month of August. Compared to white mustard, black mustard has a slightly smaller seed size and is brown in color.
Black mustard like green manure has a beneficial effect on the soil, helping to saturate the soil with nitrogen, prevent the occurrence of diseases of the main crops (late blight, scab of tubers, rot). But such a green manure plant is not often planted and left for the winter, since it can die at low subzero temperatures. But, unlike other types of mustard, it can germinate even in wetlands.
Most often, black mustard is planted as an excellent melliferous plant, as it can produce more honey than English and Sarepta mustard.
Black mustard oil is used for both culinary and industrial purposes. Also, the oil obtained from the grains of this plant is used to make soap. For medical purposes, mustard is used to make mustard plasters.
The original balsamic vinegar has a bright and rich taste... It is made from the Italian Trebiano grape variety, which grows in the provinces of Reggio Emilia and Modena.
Juice is squeezed out of the berries, which is then heated to a thick, syrupy consistency. The thickened grape juice is mixed with wine vinegar and kept in oak barrels for a long time. The minimum exposure of balsamic vinegar is 3-5 years, but the optimal period is 45-50 years.
Original Italian balsamic vinegar has a spicy sweet and sour taste and a rich ruby color, which is given by grape berries. This product was first invented in Italy, but quickly spread to many European cuisines.
What part of the leek is eaten
The edible part of the leek used in winter is represented by a light green stem and a small white bulb.... The head and green portion are cut off and discarded.
The white part has a surprisingly delicate and unusual taste, reminiscent of green onions and garlic at the same time. Fragrant leek gives a special flavor to vegetables, meat and fish dishes.
The edible part is thoroughly washed under running water, especially if the onions were grown on sandy soil, otherwise the grains will crunch on the teeth. Another way to rinse onions is to soak the white shoots in clean water for 30 minutes and then rinse again under the tap.
How to use the green part
Leeks are too tough to be used for cooking. Even if the feathers are thinly cut and added to the soup at the beginning of cooking, they will still not soften.
Professional chefs simply throw away the green part, but thrifty housewives have found use for feathers with a coarse structure. They are added to the garni bouquet - a bundle of herbs tied with a culinary thread. The composition includes parsley, laurel, basil, tarragon, celery, rosemary. The bunch is placed in broth or soup at the beginning of cooking and removed 10 minutes before the end of cooking.The bouquet saturates the dish with a unique taste and aroma.
Reference. The ancient Romans considered leeks to be a delicacy and food for aristocrats. The product was added to meat and vegetable dishes.
Despite the very low calorie content, the vegetable contains a relatively high amount of protein and fiber. It is one of the best sources of vitamin K, as well as vitamins B, C, A, E, manganese, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium, copper and calcium. By the way, this green contains the same amount of calcium as spinach. But unlike spinach, caterpillars do not contain oxalates, which interfere with the absorption of minerals. Thus, it makes sense to consider arugula a more beneficial source of calcium than spinach, which is popular among many.
|Calorie content||25 kcal|
|Vitamin A||115 mg|
|Vitamin C||15 mg|
|Vitamin E||0,4 mg|
|Vitamin K||109 mg|
|Vitamin B1||0.04 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.1 mg|
|Vitamin B3||0.3 mg|
|Vitamin B5||0,4 mg|
|Vitamin B6||0.07 mg|
|Vitamin B9||97 mcg|
What sweet fruit looks like and how it tastes
The valuable fruit "borrowed" the low calorie content and low bitterness from the grapefruit, and the sweetness from the pomelo. The pulp of "white gold" is soft and very juicy, therefore citrus is often used in the production of juices.
Outwardly, the sweet fruit looks like a large, slightly flattened ball. Its size is equal to or slightly larger than that of a grapefruit. The sweet flesh is covered with a thick green rind, the volume of which can be half the weight of peeled oroblanco. The peeled fruit is light.
In Russia and Europe, pomegranate is not widespread, since an outwardly large and expensive fruit after peeling loses up to half of its volume.
How to plant turnips
Even inexperienced gardeners grow a useful vegetable. This is an unpretentious, cold-resistant culture.
You can plant three times per season:
- in early spring with seeds for the use of root crops and greens for food
- in June - July to obtain vegetables suitable for winter storage
- before winter for an early harvest.
The culture loves bright lighting, a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil. Grows best on light soil next to legumes.
Care consists in regular watering, weeding, thinning plantings.