The monocotyledonous plant turmeric (Curcuma) is a member of the Ginger family. The rhizome contains yellow dyes, as well as essential oils, in this regard, it is grown as a medicinal and spicy plant. The most commonly cultivated type of turmeric is homemade, or turmeric long, or turmeric, or cultural turmeric, or yellow turmeric (Curcuma longa). A powder is made from the dried rhizome, which is used as a spice called "turmeric". Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found only in India, today it is the leader in the export of spices made from turmeric rhizomes. In gardens, this plant has been cultivated since the nineties of the 19th century.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... It starts in July and ends in October.
- Landing... Parts of the rhizome are planted in open soil from March to April.
- Illumination... Bright sunlight or shaded area.
- Priming... Rich sandy or clayey soil.
- Watering... It is necessary to water abundantly and often, while the water consumption directly depends on the composition of the soil.
- Fertilizer... During budding, at the beginning of flowering and half a month after the turmeric has faded, a complex mineral fertilizer is used for ornamental deciduous plants, while only ½ of the dosage indicated in the instructions should be applied.
- Reproduction... By seed method and parts of the rhizome.
- Harmful insects... Spider mites.
- Diseases... Leaf spot and root rot.
- Properties... This is a fairly popular medicinal and spice plant. It is distinguished by antiviral, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, tonic, warming, anthelmintic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, regenerating, sedative and blood-accelerating effect.
Features of turmeric
Turmeric long is a herbaceous perennial plant that has a height of about 0.9 m. Oval leaf plates alternate in two rows. The rounded tuberous rhizome reaches 40 mm in diameter, it is painted in a grayish-yellow color and has scars from the foliage of a ring shape. Many thin roots extend from the rhizome, while some of them develop small tubers at the tips. From the apical bud of the rhizome, the aerial part of the bush grows, which includes several sheath leaf plates with long petioles and a peduncle, the height of which is about 0.3 m, while it is densely seated with green stipules with paler tips. In those stipules that are in the middle part of the peduncle, tubular, three-lobed, fragrant flowers of yellow color grow in the axils, they have a wide lip and a slightly irregular limb. All tissues of this plant contain valuable essential oils.
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Growing turmeric outdoors
Turmeric is cultivated both in open soil and indoors, as a result you will get a healthy spice, and you can also admire the spectacular and fragrant flowers of this plant. But it should be borne in mind that from the moment the seedlings appear, about 9 months should pass before the harvest, in this regard, turmeric is grown in open soil only in the southern regions, where autumn comes late, and spring is warm and early. In mid-latitudes and in areas with colder climates, such a culture is grown in indoor conditions.
For growing this plant, areas in partial shade or well-lit by the sun are excellent, while the soil should be rich in clay. However, turmeric also grows well in sandy soil. Before proceeding with planting, the site must be prepared. To do this, they dig it to a depth of at least 20 centimeters, and then loosen the soil. The depth of the planting pits should be about 15 centimeters, and the distance between them is from 15 to 20 centimeters, 2 or 3 rhizome segments must be placed in them. On all parts of the rhizome, 1-2 buds should be present, while placing them in the holes during planting should be upward with these buds. Then the pits are filled in, while above each rhizome, the thickness of the soil layer should be at least 20 mm. The planted planting material needs watering. Planting this plant in open soil is carried out in March or April.
transplanting Turmeric into soil with zeolite
Turmeric Garden Care
Since turmeric is a moisture-loving plant, it is very important to provide it with proper and timely watering. The frequency and abundance of irrigation is influenced by weather conditions, climate, and also the composition of the soil in the area where this crop is grown. Water such a plant with warm water, which was previously heated in the sun.
For feeding, a complex mineral fertilizer for ornamental deciduous plants is used, which should contain a large amount of phosphorus, while it should be borne in mind that the nutrient solution should have a concentration half as much as indicated on the package. Bushes are fed during the formation of buds, as soon as they bloom, and half a month after the end of flowering.
Otherwise, caring for such a plant is quite simple. In order for the bushes to be neat and effective, it is necessary to cut off the flowers that have begun to fade in time. After the rain has passed or the bed is watered, it is imperative to loosen the soil surface between the plants, while pulling out all the weeds.
Turmeric rhizomes are removed from the soil before the cold sets in, or rather, in October or November, while the aboveground part of the bush should begin to wither. The upper part of the rhizome is cut off and the remnants of soil and small roots are removed from it. Then it is immersed in boiling water for 60 seconds, thanks to this, the release of the coloring matter from special cells will begin, it is this that gives the rhizome a yellow color. Then the raw materials are laid out to dry in a place with good ventilation, it will be ready after 7-15 days. When the rhizomes are ready, their shape will resemble a horn.
How to store turmeric
For storage, raw materials are placed in containers or boxes filled with moistened sand, while the air temperature should be from 10 to 12 degrees. The crushed raw materials are placed in a glass jar for storage, which is tightly closed with a lid and placed in a cool and dark place, where it will be stored for no longer than three years. It must be remembered that such a spice is capable of absorbing foreign odors.
Types and varieties of turmeric with photos and names
Only a few types of turmeric are cultivated. Each of these types has its own purpose.
Aromatic turmeric (Curcuma aromatica), or Indian saffron
This perennial plant can sometimes be found in South Asia, but it is most widespread in the warm massifs of the eastern regions of the Himalayas and in India. The height of the bush is about 100 centimeters. Fragrant fleshy rhizomes can be elliptical or narrow, from the inside they have a yellow color, fusiform tubers are formed on their thin roots. The length of the oblong leaf plates is about 0.6 m, and their width is up to 0.2 m, they have petioles, the shape of which is similar to the leaves. Funnel-shaped flowers hide in spike-shaped inflorescences, which are 15 centimeters long and 8 centimeters wide. The length of the ovate bracts is about 50 mm, they have a light green color, but at the top it becomes reddish-red. This type is very popular as a spicy plant, and in the confectionery industry it is valued higher than long turmeric.
Turmeric long (Curcuma longa), or turmeric, or yellow ginger
This species is a valuable spice, and it is also used as a medicinal plant and as a dye. This view is described in detail at the beginning of the article. It is good to know that long turmeric is definitely added to Indian curry during its preparation.
Round turmeric (Curcuma leucorrhiza)
In nature, this species can be found only in India. Elongated roots have an oblong shape. Narrow-lanceolate leaf plates have petioles. This species was named so because the shape of its flowers is round. In India, starch is made from the roots of such a plant. To do this, the roots extracted from the soil are ground with stone millstones or pounded in a mortar. After that, all the liquid is manually squeezed out of the resulting mass, which is filtered through the fabric. The mass itself is well dried and used as starch.
Turmeric zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria)
In the wild, this species can be found in Indonesia and India. This turmeric is cultivated on the island of Java, India, South China and Thailand. The height of the bush can be up to 150 centimeters, but there are also higher specimens. The length of the leaf plates is about 0.8 m; on their surface, streaks of a brownish-purple color are clearly visible, which extend from the median vein. The color of the bracts is deep pink. Even before the foliage grows, inflorescences are formed, consisting of fragrant flowers, while they move away from the rhizome. The shape of the root is pear-shaped, and in size it is similar to a pigeon's egg. It has a camphor smell and a bitter pungent taste; it is used in confectionery and in the preparation of liqueur.
Small turmeric (Curcuma exigua)
The height of the bush is about 0.8 m. The multi-branched root rhizomes are yellow from the inside and fleshy. Tubers are formed at the ends of the roots. Lanceolate leaf plates of green-purple color along the median vein have a pale red stripe, and they also have petioles reaching 50–80 mm in length. The leaves are about 20 centimeters long and up to 7 centimeters wide. The yellow flowers are elliptical. The tops of the oval-elliptical bracts are violet-white. Corolla color is light purple. The plant blooms in August – October. This type is cultivated only as an ornamental plant.
Sumatran turmeric (Curcuma sumatrana)
This plant is endemic to the island of Sumatra. It was first described more than a century and a half ago. A very spectacular bush outwardly similar to homemade turmeric. This species is endangered as a result of a sharp reduction in the area of its range. This plant is cultivated only as an ornamental one.
Turmeric properties: benefits and harms
The beneficial properties of turmeric
Turmeric is rich in essential oils and starch, and the polyphenol curcumin gives it its characteristic yellow color. This plant also contains lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, carbohydrates, B vitamins (choline, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine), vitamins E, PP, C, K, betaine, mineral salts of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese , iron, zinc, sulfur and copper, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and monoterpenes. As a result, turmeric has antiviral, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, tonic, warming, anthelmintic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, regenerating, sedative and blood-warming effect.
This plant is used for cuts and burns because it is a natural antiseptic. Turmeric helps to stop the development of melanoma and the destruction of the formed cells of this formation. It also helps slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease and dissolve the deposits of amyloid plaques in the brain. Turmeric helps prevent the formation of metastases of various forms of cancer. With the combined use of turmeric and cauliflower, you can delay the development of a malignant tumor of the prostate. The use of this plant during chemotherapy helps to enhance the healing effect and reduce unwanted side effects from toxic medications. For the liver, turmeric is a natural detoxifier, it participates in the metabolism of fats, and even helps to get rid of extra pounds faster.
This culture is considered a powerful antidepressant and is widely used in Chinese alternative medicine. It is successfully used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, including rheumatoid. Turmeric helps to quickly restore the epidermis in inflammatory diseases of the skin, eczema, boils and psoriasis. To quickly get rid of the burn, it is recommended to use a paste that contains aloe vera juice and turmeric. Experts advise using such a plant for colds, sore throat and severe cough, migraine, atherosclerosis, chronic diarrhea, ulcerative colitis and gallstone disease.
Also very popular is the ability of turmeric to get rid of extra pounds. How to take it correctly in this case? Combine 1 tbsp. bio-kefir and ½ tsp. turmeric, the mixture should be infused for 15-30 minutes, it is drunk just before bedtime. The duration of the course is from 1 to 2 months.
Since this plant has a powerful effect on the body, before you start taking it, you should definitely consult with your doctor, especially if you are already using any medicine. Turmeric is definitely contraindicated for a person with individual intolerance, and even if the bile ducts are clogged or there are stones larger than 0.5 cm in the gallbladder.Often, experts do not advise children under 5 years of age and women during pregnancy to use this plant. No other contraindications have been established to date.
Useful properties of turmeric: for colds, cancer and for the restoration of hormones. Best turmeric recipes
Used worldwide as a staple kitchen spice, an ingredient in traditional medicine, an ingredient in religious ceremonies, and even a colorant in cosmetics, the turmeric plant has represented countless uses and tremendous health benefits for thousands of years.
The plant's scientific name is Curcuma longa, a well-known perennial family of ginger Zingiberaceae.
The beautiful bright yellow root of turmeric is called the "golden spice" or "Indian saffron". It decorates countless dishes around the world with great color, unique aroma and unmistakable taste. Used raw, in powdered, compressed, extractive forms, turmeric has countless prophylactic and healing properties.
Growing rosemary in the garden is preceded by planting. It is important to choose the right place and soil.
Optimal position in the garden
Rosemary is an extremely light-loving plant. To maintain optimal growing conditions close to those of his family, he needs to be provided with a warm place in the sun. Even hot sun rays at noon will not harm the plant.
The shrub should not be planted in partial shade.
Compatibility with other plants
Rosemary in the garden can be part of a Mediterranean-style arrangement or part of a herbal garden. You shouldn't be limited to one type.
Sage, belonging to the same plant family, will make a good neighborhood to the shrub. However, the shrub does not tolerate horseradish and mustard growing nearby.
The ideal soil for the plant is a permeable, sandy soil rich in nutrients. Rosemary does not like acidic substrates, preferring well-drained soil with a pH of 6-7. The permeable structure is very important for this shrub, the plant reacts negatively to excess water.
It is better to refuse to buy land for flowers - it is too fertile.It is better to compose the soil by mixing 2 parts of compost, 1 part of lime sand, 1 part of very small stones. Alternatively, you can use other sand, but then you need to add dolomite in the amount of 1-2 tablespoons to 5 liters of the resulting mixture.
A cactus substrate is also suitable, but due to the lack of minerals, a little compost will be required. Add 2-3 tablespoons of dolomite to this mixture.
If the shrub is to be transplanted into a pot, the flower soil should be mixed in half with sand. Such soil is more permeable. Be sure to cover the bottom of the container with pieces of ceramic to allow excess water to flow out.
Before planting, you can fertilize the soil with slow-release fertilizer and repeat fertilizing every spring. The soil should be relatively moist.
When planting rosemary, it is helpful to prepare a small mound and cover the surface with stones. The stones heated in the sun give the plants extra warmth and protect the soil from being washed out by heavy rains.
Transplanting or planting rosemary should be carried out in the spring, in autumn only in regions with a warm climate. The plant grows slowly, but already in the second year, the growth rate noticeably increases.
The shrub is very sensitive to root damage and takes a long time to restore the root system, so it is best to avoid replanting.
Care in the autumn-winter period
In autumn, after harvesting, trees are abundantly watered and fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for better ripening of fruit buds and shoots. When late autumn comes and frosts begin, the trees are untied from the poles, the branches are tied with twine in a bundle, and then the spoons are treated with nitrophene on a bucket of water).
To preserve fruit buds from freezing in winter, trees need to be pressed to the ground, which is convenient to do with an inclined form of growing plants, and sprinkled with earth with a layer of
In the spring, the seedlings are opened, moving along the trunk, and again tied to a structure of rails, and then treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid (15 minutes is spent on powdering one tree and 10 minutes for opening).