Water, as a symbol of purity and change in life, has always attracted people. A small reservoir, near which it is pleasant to spend time, moving away from everyday worries, is a rather popular element of landscape design of suburban areas. Plants for a pond are a mandatory attribute of a pond design. Planting flowering and decorative leafy beauties allows not only transforming the pond, but also protecting it.
Plants in a pond are not only decor
Herbaceous plants and shrubs, decorated with delicate and variegated flowers, complement the picturesque composition of a natural cozy corner with bright touches and unique aromas.
A pond framed by green compositions always looks natural and elegant at the same time.
However, besides being decorative, aquatic plants for a pond also serve a practical purpose. Leaves of plants located above the surface of the water slightly shade the water space, thereby preventing the development and intensive growth of algae. Thanks to this, the water can remain clear and pure for a longer period.
In addition, on hot summer days, the natural shading of the foliage of the water surface allows the sun's rays to dissipate, which heats the water.
Shading is especially necessary for bodies of water that are home to fish, frogs, turtles and other amphibians
Factors Determining Plant Choice
When choosing plants for a pond in the country, you must adhere to a single decorative idea. This will create a composition that stands out against the background of other elements of the landscape, at the same time will be in harmony with them.
When planning the placement of green plantings, it is advisable to determine the main angle, relative to which the composition will look most impressive
Any decorative composition looks elegant and rich if it is created taking into account the planned elements, when the foreground is decorated with low or ground cover plants, taller plants are the second plan.
When planning to equip a recreation area along one of the sides of the reservoir, the plants for this area are selected low so that they do not block the picturesque landscape and access to the pond.
Plants for reservoirs are selected taking into account the zoning of the latter in depth. In the deepest part of the reservoir, which is mainly located in the center of the pond, there are deep-water plants, closer to the shores and swampy zone - shallow-water floating plants. On the coast of the pond, representatives of the flora are located, which grow comfortably on wet ground, and on the dry shore, there are less moisture-loving shrubs and flowers.
Which part of the pond is best to plant?
Deep sea varieties
The middle of the handsome man floating on the water surface is dotted with countless stamens. The lotus prefers to grow in sunny areas of the reservoir, the depth of which is not less than 40 cm. Its roots are submerged in the ground under water, and flowers and leaves float freely above the water surface.
Lotus is a delicate and amazingly beautiful flower, loved by many gardeners, and can rightfully be considered the king of the pond.
The middle of the handsome man floating on the water surface is dotted with countless stamens. The lotus prefers to grow in sunny areas of the reservoir, the depth of which is at least 40 cm. Its roots are submerged in the ground under water, and flowers and leaves float freely above the water surface.
Water lilies can also become an effective addition to the plant composition.
There are more than a dozen varieties of these nymphs, and each of them requires specific planting conditions and depth for growth. The water lily is also one of the sun-loving deep-sea flowers.
Brazenia with dark purple inflorescences and mulberry with delicate white miniature flowers can become a worthy decoration of the central part of the pond.
Floating on the surface
Plants of a fresh water body, freely floating on the surface, act not only as a natural screen shading the water surface. They perform an important function, since they absorb organic matter dissolved in water, and thereby regulate the ecological balance.
The most picky representatives of this variety of plants include: azole, wolfia, water walnut, zerushnik. They feel very comfortable both in sunny areas and in shaded areas.
A dense lace carpet woven from tiny azole leaves gives any body of water a special mystery. Carpet shades can vary from red-brown and deep green with pinkish to bluish-green
The water walnut, visually reminiscent of a spiny ball with curved horns, is decorated with a decorative rosette of serrated leaves
Among the beautifully flowering, picky floating plants, stand out: vodokras, hydrokleis, luronium, pemphigus.
An unassuming water color, also called a toad, stands out effectively against the background of other aquatic vegetation with heart-shaped leaves and three-petal flowers. Exotic hydrokleis, which has taken root in our latitudes, looks very similar to water paint
These plants should be planted in small quantities. Their leaves should cover no more than half the surface of the water.
Plants - oxygen generators
Outwardly unattractive plants, oxygen generators, are used primarily for cleaning the reservoir. By absorbing carbon dioxide and minerals from the water, they deprive algae of food and thereby prevent water pollution.
Among the ornamental varieties of oxygen-generating plants are hornwort, pond, elodea and urut
Fluffy hornwort with needle-like leaves prefers shady coastal areas. Spike-shaped inflorescences of pink shades of pondweed are excellent food for the inhabitants of the reservoir. Floating twigs with a metallic sheen of elodea grow so quickly that already in the first year of settling in a pond, the plant is able to create dense thickets. Elodeya is not picky about lighting and temperature conditions.
When choosing plants for decorating a pond in the coastal zone, the choice can be stopped on such moisture-loving plants as calamus, marigold, cattail, and reeds.
Among marsh plants, decorative forms are fern, daylily, volzhanka, gravilat
When forming a flower garden in the coastal area, you can play on the contrast of shapes and colors. For example, graceful elongated leaves and unusual iris flowers, contrasting with the golden inflorescences of the swimsuit, look spectacular against the background of an openwork fern. When creating compositions, the main thing is not to overdo it. A harmonious aesthetic composition of plants should decorate the landscape of the site, filling the soul with pleasant emotions from contemplation.
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Few things are so eye-catching as a body of water independently equipped with ornamental plants with skillfully thought-out landscape design and its own ecosystem can do it.
Even with a small pond, you can always enjoy the beauty of its water coolness on a hot day, and skillfully selected green spaces will delight your eye.
All pond plants are divided into several varieties:
- Coastal, who like high soil moisture near the pond, but do not touch the water
- Growing at the bottom of a pond, tied
- Freely floating on the surface of the water.
Different types of flowers need different natural soil, different content of nutrients in the water and in the soil of the reservoir. Any plants and flowers must be light and need constant aeration, that is, the water in the reservoir must circulate and be enriched with oxygen, since algae develop in the stagnant lake water of the pond, which can kill all vegetation.
The most popular freshwater plants are water lilies or water lilies. Their round leaves of large diameter lie freely on the water surface of the pond, and the roots do not touch the bottom, and therefore this decorative flower can move from one side of the pond to another. Such flowers can be grown in water bodies of any depth.
The most popular plants for a pond in the country, names:
- Duckweed is a perennial wintering plant with small light green leaves. Grows very quickly, filling the entire body of water
- Water hyacinth is an ornamental plant with large leaves and delicate flowers. Loves warmth and requires care, and therefore lands in the warm season
- Water lilies. In this family of plants, there are several hundred species, both wintering and thermophilic, both floating on the water surface of reservoirs, and deep-water ones, and therefore you can choose a beautiful option for a pond or lake reservoir in the country in any place and climate.
Ornamental plants are usually chosen to decorate the shore of the pond, which tolerate wet soil well and do not require much maintenance. As a rule, the roots of these flowers are either in places near the water of the pond, but do not touch it, or quite shallow, 5-10 cm submerged in water. Sometimes summer residents resort to tricks to decorate the pond: the plants are planted in containers, and the containers are placed underwater on a hill so that the water hides the roots of the plant and the container, but does not harm the stem.
Coastal plants include:
- Cattail, the name of which is often confused with reed. He looks very pretty when he lands on the shore of a pond.
- Reed, long thin stems and leaves of which create a dense curtain over the reservoir
- Marsh calamus is an undemanding ornamental plant with dull leaves, the flowers of which form a panicle
- Lotus, a type of deep-sea water lily whose roots need to be tied to the soil. Loves warmth and clean water without silt, germinates in the southern regions.
The least demanding of all aquatic plants are bog flowers. They normally live in stagnant water, are not afraid of mud, algae and shade, and therefore plant in places where other flowers cannot develop. Such plants are often confused with coastal plants, as they have approximately the same maintenance requirements, but marsh grasses require less maintenance than deep-sea or floating ones, and can be grown deeper in stagnant silted water of natural or artificial reservoirs.
Perennial wintering marsh plants include wild varieties of cattail and reeds, sedge, rump, sity and others.
The most useful plants for pond design are water oxygen generators. Deep sea plants that produce oxygen are essential for the fish and snails living in the pond, which need oxygen. Many of these algae displace mud and filter the pond water with their leaves.
Water oxygen generators include:
- Elodea, which is planted at a depth of up to 3 meters in soil or container, and does not require maintenance
- Hornwort, whose leaves look like underwater horsetail
- Water moss, small beautiful bushes of which will decorate the bottom of the pond.
Deep-sea and floating plants are often confused with each other, since both plant species have large leaves floating on the surface of the pond. The difference between deep sea and floating plant varieties is that deep sea plants must be tied to the soil from which they can get their nutrients.
Deep-sea plant varieties that need to gain a foothold in one place include some types of water lilies and water lilies, nymphaean, orontium.
Freshwater shallow plants
Common calamus (Acorus calamus)
Three-leaf watch (Menyanthes trifoliata)
Marsh iris (Iris pseudacorus)
Marsh marigold (Caltha pаlustris)
Marsh forget-me-not (Myosotis palustris)
Cattail (Typha latifolia)
Broad-leaved rush (Juncus effusus)
Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia)
Umbelliferae (Butomus umbrellatus)
Southern reed (Phragmites australis)
Common tail (Hippuris vulgaris)
Buttercup water (Ranunculus aquatilis)
Turcha marsh (Hottonia palustris)
Urut spicate (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Pond planting technology
Decorating the pond with plants is the final stage in the construction of the reservoir. After at least 10 days have passed since the pond is filled with water, you can start landscaping. The ideal time for this is the first month of summer.Making a pond out of a wheel
There are many ways to independently build a small artificial reservoir at a summer cottage, and one of the most ...
Depending on the type of plant, it is planted at the bottom of the reservoir or on the shore. If the culture is rooted in the ground, it is best to provide each individual with its own pot. In this way, unpleasant situations of exposure of the underwater root system can be avoided. A mandatory requirement for pots is the presence of special ventilation holes in the bottom and walls to prevent root rot. In addition, plants placed in separate containers will be much easier to transport indoors for the winter season.
In terms of soil, aquatic plants will thrive best in a mixture of clay soil and bone meal. It is strongly not recommended to fertilize the soil for such crops with manure, humus or peat - this will entail poisoning in fish and other inhabitants of the reservoir.
Where can I get plants if there is no way to purchase them? Everything is very simple - you can easily find the best specimens adapted to local climatic conditions in the nearest natural body of water. However, care should be taken not to visit the marshland alone.
Aquatic plants are an important part of designing a pond of any size and style. The main principles are to maintain the optimal number of crops on the surface of the reservoir and to ensure that they successfully survive the winter season in time.