Horseradish is traditionally grown in the Russian vegetable garden. It can be found in almost every site. For the needs of the family, it is not required to plant large areas with horseradish, three to five bushes are enough. Most often, he is not particularly looked after, but is remembered only during the summer harvesting period. But the cultivation of horseradish has its own subtleties, and they will be discussed in the article.
Horseradish - species and "relatives"
In our country, two types of this useful plant grow: horseradish (in the middle lane) and meadow horseradish (mainly in Siberia). Horseradish, or village, is a perennial from the cruciferous family, which in the modern classification has been renamed to the cabbage family. Plants belonging to this family contain vitamins and other substances useful for humans:
- essential oil,
- lysozyme (has antimicrobial activity),
- ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
- carotene (vitamin A),
- calcium, magnesium, iron.
Numerous "relatives" of horseradish:
- wild cabbage,
- shepherd's bag,
- mattiola (night violet).
Horseradish-related crops contain vitamins and other substances useful to humans
Horseradish varieties and their characteristics
There are not very many varieties of horseradish. The most famous among them are:
- Valkovsky (Wild) - variety for open ground, late ripening, white pulp, juicy;
- Atlant - frost-resistant, mid-season, with good keeping quality, milky-white pulp, grown in the open field; zoned in Siberia and the Far East;
- Suzdal - a variety of Vladimir selection, the leaves are dark green, does not have lateral processes, with even roots up to 30 cm long, with white, juicy, capacious pulp; only positive reviews;
- Latvian - cultivated for central Russia;
- Malinsky - bred in the Czech Republic.
There is a plant that looks like horseradish, but is not such - katran (it is also called Tatar horseradish). Nowadays, it is quite popular with gardeners due to its milder taste.
Photo gallery: horseradish varieties
Features of planting horseradish
Horseradish is a frost-resistant plant, it can grow in one place for up to ten years. It should be transplanted because the most succulent roots are obtained from young plants. No special preparations are required in order to plant horseradish. The plant is undemanding to growing conditions, and this is one of its advantages. As a place for planting, beds are suitable where early maturing crops grew, with loamy, sandy loam soil or chernozem. If the soil on the site is clayey, then it must be prepared before planting by adding a mixture of manure in the fall (10-12 kg / m2), peat and sand, and in the spring fill the soil with mineral fertilizers (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate) at the rate of 30 g / m2... With high acidity of the soil, ash is added: 40-500 g / m2... Horseradish likes to grow in a lighted or semi-shaded area. You can plant it by the fence, as it grows a lot.
Horseradish growing methods
Horseradish can be grown in different ways:
- on a raised bed,
- in a bucket,
- in a barrel,
- in a "sleeve" made of polymer film.
Method one: raised bed
Planting horseradish on a high bed has its advantages: it is easier to dig long roots in the fall, the plant does not flood with water in a rainy summer.
- First, the roots are prepared for planting. With the back of the knife blade, the lateral roots and buds are removed, leaving them only at the ends.
- The bed is lifted with a shovel above ground level, forming a ridge.
- Cuttings are planted at an angle of 30 ° at a distance of 30-40 cm so that there is 2-3 cm of soil above the cutting.
Video: planting horseradish in a raised bed
Method two: in a bucket
Horseradish tends to grow and is perceived by many gardeners as a weed. To limit its growth, gardeners have come up with a method of growing in buckets. The procedure is as follows.
- The old bucket is filled with a nutrient mixture (humus + earth).
- Bury a full bucket in the ground, leaving small sides raised.
Planting horseradish in a bucket prevents the plant from spreading too much in the garden
- Several horseradish rhizomes are planted in each bucket.
In summer, plantings should be watered and fed. And in the fall, you can pull out the bucket or turn it over to its side. In this case, the roots will remain intact. They only need to be shaken off the ground.
Method three: in a barrel
Similarly, you can grow horseradish in an old barrel. It will hold more plants than a bucket.
Video: how to grow horseradish in a barrel
Method four: "sleeve" made of polymer film
Methods for limiting horseradish overgrowth can be even more modern. So, another way is to use a polymer film with a thickness of 100 microns. The diameter of the "sleeve" is 4–5 times larger than the diameter of the seedling. The planting stalk is placed in it so that the upper part protrudes by 1 cm, and the lower one by 2 cm, the sleeve is placed in the soil at a slight slope. The upper part gives a rosette of leaves, and the lower one - roots, lateral branches are not formed, since the film isolates the plant from the soil. With this method of planting, the plant does not branch at all, and in the fall it is easy to extract it from the ground.
The polyethylene film for the sleeve must be dense, at least 100 microns thick
Horseradish cultivars rarely produce seeds. For this reason, it is propagated in other ways, most often vegetatively - by dividing the rhizomes.
As a planting material, cuttings of overwintered plants are harvested immediately after the soil thaws. Better if they come from annual roots. They are cut to a length of 25 to 30 cm. Be sure to mark the top (cut straight) and bottom (obliquely) so as not to plant the cuttings upside down. Cutting thickness - at least 1 cm.For one m2 4-6 such cuttings are required. Before planting, all lateral buds are removed from the cutting, leaving only the lower ones, from which the roots and leaves will develop... To do this, wipe the middle part of the cutting with a thick cloth (burlap) or the blunt side of a knife. This process is called "blinding."
Cuttings are planted with a peg obliquely: the upper (straight) part - to a depth of 3-4 cm, and the lower (beveled) - to a depth of 10-12 cm. The planting scheme is 30 × 70 cm. Cuttings can be planted both in spring and in summer , and even in early autumn.
When horseradish propagates by rhizomes, cuttings are planted at an angle
Cut off the hatched apical buds (these are the buds at the ends of the main or lateral shoot) with pieces of rhizome, place them in a fertile substrate, and after rooting, they are seated in individual containers. And in order to develop "not tops, but roots" in the future, the extra rosettes of leaves should be removed, leaving no more than two. Planted in the spring to a permanent place.
Pieces of horseradish rhizome together with apical buds are planted as seedlings in fertile soil
Growing horseradish from seeds can be considered a curiosity. In stores, there is a katran, which is called a horseradish substitute. It is a very similar perennial plant from the cabbage family. If, nevertheless, you have the opportunity to grow horseradish with seeds, then you can try to do it in the same way as sowing seeds of other cold-resistant crops... Seeds are planted before winter or early spring. No stratification is required, nor is it necessary to grow through seedlings.
Horseradish seeds are propagated very rarely.
How to care for horseradish
Horseradish care is reduced to weeding, regular loosening. The first time is loosened a week after planting to a depth of 3-4 cm, after the emergence of seedlings, the depth of loosening is increased to 6–8 cm, at the third stage it is brought to 10–12 cm. A total of 5–7 loosening is carried out per season. Watering is necessary in dry weather with a water flow rate of 3-4 l / m2.
Loosening horseradish is done carefully, at a short distance from the plant, so as not to damage the roots.
Top dressing and loosening
Horseradish is not picky about fertilizers, it grows well without them. You can feed the plantings once a month: 50 g of complex fertilizers per 10 liters of water. At the same time, loose soil is very important for horseradish, as for all root crops. Loosening the ground should be done carefully, taking care not to damage the roots.
Pest and disease control
Horseradish is used in salads and preparations. Unfortunately, not only people love it, but also insects, despite the sharp and even bitter taste, which greatly harm the plant. How can you help him?
Table: horseradish pest control measures
|Pests||Manifestation of harm||Control measures|
|Wavy flea||Females lay eggs on the soil surface, feed on leaves, gnawing holes in them||Loosening will help. Vegetable insecticides containing tobacco can be used. Spraying with preparations "Foksim" and "Actellik" is carried out. During spraying it is necessary to observe safety precautions!|
|Cabbage fire||Females lay eggs on the underside of the leaf. Gluttonous larvae gnaw leaves||Planting early before the appearance of butterflies. Insecticide treatment|
|Cabbage bug||Leaves turn yellow and later die off||Means with a deterrent effect (treatment of leaves with soapy water). Dry processing with wood ash with the addition of tobacco. Treatment with decoctions of chamomile or onion husks helps|
|Babanukha (horseradish leaf beetle)||They gnaw the leaves of horseradish, like other cabbage||With minor lesions, mechanical treatment is possible (shaking off beetles on the litter, glue traps). Possible processing with decoctions of yarrow, wormwood, chamomile|
Photo gallery: horseradish pests
Horseradish is a useful and unpretentious plant, it is used not only for food, but also in the treatment of many diseases, but sometimes it can itself be affected by diseases.
Table: horseradish diseases
|Name of the disease||Cause and manifestation||Control methods and prevention|
|White rot||Appears at high soil moisture, excess nitrogen in the soil. White bloom on roots||Fungicides with copper content Ordan, Previkur, Acrobat MC. Liming, deep digging|
|Belle||Occurs upon contact with diseased plants in the garden. The leaves look like they are covered with white oil paint. Then they dry up||Spraying with copper-containing preparations, timely removal of diseased plants from the garden, compliance with the rules of crop rotation|
|Ascochitosis||The reason is high soil moisture. Brown spots with a yellow tint||Bordeaux liquid treatment. Compliance with crop rotation, deep digging|
In order for horseradish to delight you with a harvest of juicy and vigorous roots, you need to take care of it. If you plant it and forget it, you may end up with a problem of how to get rid of the horseradish. Let you get the first option!
For thermal insulation of the ceiling of a private house or summer cottage, a large number of different heaters are used. These include traditional materials that have proven themselves, or new ones, right up to innovative ones. The most widespread are:
- Expanded clay.
Sawdust are considered morally obsolete raw materials, but they are still widely used. The main advantage is a democratic price. But this insulation is fire hazardous, shrinks over time, requires pouring.
Advice. Using sawdust as insulation, it is recommended to check the wiring, it is better to place it in special boxes. Chimney insulation required.
Expanded clay suitable for outdoor insulation. The material is made of lightweight fire-resistant clay. Rodents do not start in the layer of this insulation. Expanded clay has good heat and sound insulation, resistant to moisture. However, it is recommended to use a vapor barrier. But the stuff is pretty heavy. Often, expanded clay is poured on top with a screed.
Minvata is an environmentally friendly material. It has gained great popularity due to its non-combustible properties, high level of heat and sound insulation, vapor permeability. It is subdivided into various types, such as:
- glass wool
- ceramic, etc.
Mineral wool should not be compacted. When laying a layer of insulation, it is necessary to ensure that no gaps are formed. Work should be done in goggles, clothes made of very dense fabric, and a respirator.
Important. It is necessary to unpack the mineral wool just before the installation process.
Styrofoam has a very low thermal conductivity. Microorganisms do not grow in it. The price of the material is not very high. Having chosen such a heater, it is necessary to take care of ventilation or regular ventilation, since it practically does not allow air to pass through. Refractory characteristics do not meet modern requirements.
Ecowool - new material based on cellulose, contains antiseptics. Non-toxic, completely safe. Differs in elasticity, elasticity, vapor permeability. When ignited, it slowly smolders, fireproof.
Advantages and disadvantages, reviews of gardeners
- Increased productivity.
- Tomatoes tolerate transportation well, dense skin does not wrinkle.
- A decorative appearance, in the brush amicable ripening of fruits similar in size and shape.
- Resistant to most diseases, especially late blight. This is due to the short development period.
- Drought does not affect the ovary and taste of tomatoes.
- Easy maintenance.
- Absolute seed germination.
- The seeds cannot be prepared on their own, because hybrid tomato. However, the need to purchase is offset by the good response of the seeds.
- With a lack of moisture, tomatoes burst.
- Seeds germinate quickly, seedlings grow just as rapidly. Tomato Vostok is not afraid of temperature changes. Cold summer nights do not affect the development of the seedlings. The fruits are very juicy. Suitable for juice or soup, looks beautiful in cans (Anna, Udmurtia).
- Neat tomatoes look very attractive. Can be stored for at least 30 days, unlike many other hybrids. Not sick, but sometimes picky about the soil, you may have to add lime (Nikolay, Volgograd region).
The nuances of growing kolkvitsiya
The plant can boast of drought resistance, but it is still better that the near-stem circle does not dry out, especially in the heat. Water the shrub regularly with settled, slightly warmed water. Do this in the evening. Mulch will help keep moisture.
When growing colquitsia, you need to show moderation in the matter of feeding. If too many trace elements are added, the plant may lose its frost resistance. The bush is fertilized from spring until the end of flowering. Normal development will be ensured by:
- nitroammofoska or, as an option, ammonium nitrate - for the first feeding
- mullein infusion, diluted in a ratio of 1:10
- superphosphate solution (30-50 g per bucket of water).
After flowering, colquitia is no longer fertilized. The shrub is pruned and prepared for winter. To do this, the shoots on which there were flowers are shortened by a third, and those that did not have time to ripen are removed. The rest of the branches are bent to the ground and covered with spruce branches. In winter, you can pour a layer of snow on top. With age, the culture's resistance to cold increases.
Advice. Also, non-woven material is used to protect the colquitium from frost.
The hideout can be removed around mid-spring. At the same time, it is worth carrying out sanitary pruning, removing old, dried shoots and branches that are frozen in the cold. It is undesirable to cut the bush too actively. Each time, just slightly touch up the crown, gradually giving it the desired shape. If a transplant is required, carry it out calmly: colquition will tolerate a change of habitat well.
Harvesting Snapdragon seedlings
When growing snapdragons in Central and Northern Russia, the seedling method should be preferred. Then the flowers will release buds from June. And when to plant this plant for seedlings? Sowing seedlings is done in March or early April.
The soil should be composed of turf, sand, perlite and vermiculite. If you don't want to make it yourself, you can just buy land for violets. Before sowing seeds, for the prevention of insects and diseases, it is necessary to water the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then put it in boxes for sowing seeds.
Sowing snapdragon seeds into peat tablets
The seeds of this culture are very small. For easy sowing, it is best to mix them with sand in a 1: 3 ratio and then simply sprinkle them on the ground in a crate. There is no need to fill up the seeds, as they are already mixed with the sand. Now you need to spray the ground with water from a spray bottle and cover the boxes with glass. In a warm place at a temperature of +24 degrees, the seeds will germinate in 12-15 weeks. Every day, up to this point, they need to be ventilated for 15-30 minutes and sprayed with water, if necessary.
When the sprouts appear, you can remove the glass. But it is best to do this gradually, over 5-7 days, accustoming the plants to fresh air. The box with young sprouts is rearranged on the windowsill, but darkened from direct sunlight.
Top dressing of snapdragon seedlings
How to properly trim and shape currants (with video)
Bushes of black, red and white currants can live and bear fruit in favorable conditions for up to 20 years or more. These favorable conditions are created by good plant care, as mentioned above, including correct and regular pruning, timely replacement of obsolete branches with young, more productive ones. For this purpose, from the moment of planting and within 4-5 years, with the help of pruning, a bush with branches of different ages is formed.
In subsequent years, by cutting currant bushes, this formed ratio of branches of different ages is maintained, removing outdated and unproductive and leaving the young, the strongest and well-placed in the bush, the so-called replacement shoots (zero shoots). Pruning contributes not only to a more enhanced growth of basal shoots from the underground part of the bush (zero shoots), but also enhances the formation of powerful lateral branches, which means it increases the fruiting surface. Pruning also prevents thickening of the bush, improves lighting conditions for all its parts, which has a positive effect on the size and quality of the berries and on the productivity of the bush as a whole.
During planting of black currant, each branch of the aerial part is shortened (cut off) at the seedling, leaving 2-4 strong buds. In strong two-year-old saplings, more buds can be left on the branches. The weaker the seedling, the less buds need to be left on the cut branch, that is, it should be shortened more. This is done in order to restore the disturbed balance between the root and aerial parts of the plant, to induce a larger number of shoots from the underground part of the bush to germinate and to enhance their growth. By the end of the first year of growth, the bush should have 5-6 annual shoots.
In the next 3-4 years in the fall, after the leaves fall off (October), or early next spring, 3-4 strong bullet shoots that have grown from the soil are left in the most convenient places of the bush. For correct pruning of currants, the remaining zero shoots are removed entirely. It is recommended to shorten annual branches (zero shoots), as well as annual growths on two-year skeletal branches, by about 1/3 of the annual growth in the fall of the first and second years of growth of the bush in black currant. If the bush grew poorly, then in a three-year-old bush, annual growths on all branches are shortened, since they are often poorly ripened. This operation is also needed for better branching of skeletal branches in the bush.
So, by the fifth year, the black currant bush is formed. It should contain 3-4 branches of different ages, and only 14-18 skeletal branches.
Pruning and shaping red and white currants is almost the same as shaping black currant bushes. Only in them it is recommended to leave no more than 2-3 replacement shoots annually. The formation of bushes in these crops usually takes 6-7 years, and by the end of this period there should be 15-20 skeletal branches in the bushes.
Skeletal branches and fruit buds of red and white currants are more durable, therefore, the replacement (cutting) of obsolete branches begins at a later age, that is, from the 7-8th year of their growth. Zero shoots in red and white currants are shortened much weaker than in black currants, and mainly in cases where the tops of the shoots have not ripened and weak buds or shoots on them are weakened by pests (aphids) or diseases (powdery mildew). Annual increments of two-year-old and older branches cannot be shortened, due to the fact that most of the fruit buds of these crops are formed near the top of the annual increments and in cases of pruning, the yield will be greatly reduced.
Otherwise, there are no significant differences in pruning of red and white currants in comparison with black currants. Therefore, starting from 5-6 years old skeletal branches are removed from black, red and white currants as they have lost their productivity. The terminal growths of the branches of such branches are usually less than 10-15 cm. They are thin, frail, with weak buds. New fruit twigs cease to form on them and the old buds, in most cases, die off. Thus, the fruiting of obsolete branches is significantly reduced, they simply dry out. Older branches usually have a darker bark color. Instead of cut out 2-3 obsolete branches, these crops leave the same number of the strongest and most conveniently located replacement shoots (zero shoots). All other zero shoots are removed.
When pruning a thickened bush, first of all, the diseased, broken ones are removed, then the branches lying on the ground and growing inside the bush. Then the weakest are cut out, having few branches. Tops that have grown in the lower parts of old branches are cut out to induce the bush to form zero strong shoots.
From the old branches left behind, dry twigs and dying tops are removed to the strongest lateral shoot in order to enhance its growth. If there are few skeletal branches left in the bush, and they have few branches, then the tops are not removed, but they are greatly shortened. The same is done with zero shoots from among the strong. If this or that branch in the bush is not yet outdated, but has a tendency to grow too obliquely, then the direction of growth of such a branch can be changed by cutting it to a strong lateral shoot that grows and is directed upwards.
After cutting, stumps should not be left, as they are a wintering and nesting place for some garden pests. On large stumps, tops can grow, which impede the growth of zero shoots from underground buds. Null shoots are more valuable for the formation of new branches from them than top shoots.
To trim the currants as gently as possible, you need to use a sharp and well-adjusted pruner. The removal of the thickest old branches sometimes has to be done with a garden saw-hacksaw.
Pruning of bushes is carried out annually in autumn (end of September) before the autumn digging and loosening of the soil or in the spring before bud break. With annual pruning, the bushes bear fruit more regularly and it is done faster and easier and the quality of the berries improves.
The video of currant trimming shows how to properly form the bushes: